This article possibly contains original research. (August 2019)
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politics and government of
Indian states and territories frequently use different local titles for the same level of subdivision (e.g., the mandals of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana correspond to tehsils of Uttar Pradesh and other Hindi-speaking states but to talukas of Gujarat, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu).
Tiers of India
The diagram below outlines the six tiers of government:
Zones and regions
The states of India have been grouped into six zones having an Advisory Council "to develop the habit of cooperative working" among these States. Zonal Councils were set up vide Part-III of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956. The North Eastern States' special problems are addressed by another statutory body - The North Eastern Council, created by the North Eastern Council Act, 1971. The present composition of each of these Zonal Councils is as under:
- Northern Zonal Council, comprising Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh, Punjab, and Rajasthan;
- North Eastern Council, comprising Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura; The State of Sikkim has also been included in the North Eastern Council vide North Eastern Council (Amendment) Act, 2002 notified on 23 December 2002.
- Central Zonal Council, comprising the States of Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh;
- Eastern Zonal Council, comprising Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, and West Bengal;
- Western Zonal Council, comprising Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Goa, Gujarat, and Maharashtra;
- Southern Zonal Council, comprising Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Puducherry, Tamil Nadu, and Telangana.
- Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep are not members of any of the Zonal Councils. However, they are presently special invitees to the Southern Zonal Council
Each zone has a zonal headquarters where a zonal cultural center has been established. Several states have membership in multiple zones, but no state subdivisions are utilized in the zonal divisions. In addition to promoting the culture of the zones they are responsible for, each zonal center also works to cross-promote and create exposure to other cultural zones of India by organizing functions and inviting artistes from other zones.
States and union territories
India is composed of 28 states and eight union territories (including a national capital territory). The union territories are governed by administrators, appointed by the President of India. Three of these territories (Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir, Puducherry) have been given partial statehood, with elected legislatures and executive councils of ministers, with reduced powers.
|8||Haryana||HR||Chandigarh (shared with Punjab, also a Union Territory)|
|9||Himachal Pradesh||HP||Shimla (summer), Dharamshala (winter)|
|14||Maharashtra||MH||Mumbai (summer), Nagpur (winter)|
|20||Punjab||PB||Chandigarh (shared with Haryana, also a Union Territory)|
|27||Uttarakhand||UT||Bhararisain (summer), Dehradun (winter)|
|Letter / number||Union territory||Code||Capital|
|A||Andaman and Nicobar Islands||AN||Port Blair|
|B||Chandigarh||CH||Chandigarh (also the capital of Haryana and Punjab)|
|C||Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu||DD||Daman|
|D||Jammu and Kashmir||JK||Srinagar (summer), Jammu (winter)|
|E||Ladakh||LA||Leh and Kargil|
|G||National Capital Territory of Delhi||DL||New Delhi|
Autonomous administrative divisions
The Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India allows for the formation of autonomous administrative divisions which have been given autonomy within their respective states. Most of these autonomous areas are located in North East India.
Autonomous district councils operating under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India are shown like this.[clarification needed]
Many of the Indian states are subdivided into divisions, which have official administrative governmental status, and each division is headed by a senior IAS officer called Divisional Commissioner. Currently, superdistrict administrative divisions exist in 18 of the 28 states and 3 of the 8 union territories. The states of Gujarat, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Sikkim, Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram and Goa, and the union territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Puducherry, Chandigarh, Lakshadweep and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands do not have divisions. Currently, there are a total of 102 divisions in India.
|State/Union Territory||Division||Headquarter District||Districts|
|Arunachal Pradesh||East||Namsai||Lohit, Anjaw, Tirap, Changlang, Lower Dibang Valley, Dibang Valley, East Siang, Upper Siang, Longding, Namsai, Siang|
|West||Lower Subansiri||Tawang, West Kameng, East Kameng, Papum Pare, Lower Subansiri, Kurung Kumey, Kra Daadi, Upper Subansiri, West Siang, Lower Siang and Itanagar Capital Complex|
|Assam||Upper Assam Division||Jorhat||Charaideo, Dhemaji, Dibrugarh, Golaghat, Jorhat, Lakhimpur, Majuli, Sivasagar, and Tinsukia|
|Lower Assam Division||Guwahati||Baksa, Barpeta, Bongaigaon, Chirang, Dhubri, Goalpara, Nalbari, Kamrup Metropolitan, Kamrup Rural, Kokrajhar, and South Salmara-Mankachar|
|North Assam Division||Tezpur||Biswanath, Darrang, Sonitpur, and Udalguri|
|Central Assam Division||Nagaon||Dima Hasao, Hojai, East Karbi Anglong, West Karbi Anglong, Morigaon, and Nagaon|
|Barak Valley||Silchar||Cachar, Hailakandi, and Karimganj|
|Bihar||Patna division||Patna||Patna, Nalanda, Bhojpur, Rohtas, Buxar and Kaimur|
|Tirhut division||Muzaffarpur||West Champaran, East Champaran, Muzaffarpur, Sitamarhi, Sheohar and Vaishali|
|Saran division||Chhapra||Saran, Siwan and Gopalganj|
|Darbhanga division||Darbhanga||Darbhanga, Madhubani and Samastipur|
|Kosi division||Saharsa||Saharsa, Madhepura and Supaul|
|Purnia division||Purnia||Purnia, Katihar, Araria and Kishanganj|
|Bhagalpur division||Bhagalpur||Bhagalpur and Banka|
|Munger division||Munger||Munger, Jamui, Khagaria, Lakhisarai, Begusarai and Sheikhpura|
|Magadh division||Gaya||Gaya, Nawada, Aurangabad, Jehanabad and Arwal|
|Chhattisgarh||Surguja||Surguja||Koriya, Balrampur-Ramanujganj, Surajpur, Jashpur, Surguja and Mahendragarh|
|Bilaspur||Bilaspur||Bilaspur, Mungeli, Korba, Janjgir-Champa, Raigarh, Gourella Pendra Marwahi, Sarangarh-Bilaigarh, Sakti|
|Durg||Durg||Kabirdham (Kawardha), Bemetara, Durg, Balod, Rajnandgaon, Mohla Manpur Chouki and Khairagarh|
|Raipur||Raipur||Mahasamund, Baloda Bazar, Gariaband, Raipur and Dhamtari|
|Bastar division||Bastar||Kanker (Uttar Bastar), Narayanpur, Kondagaon, Bastar, Dantewada (Dakshin Bastar), Bijapur and Sukma|
|Haryana||Hisar division||Hisar||Fatehabad, Jind, Hisar and Sirsa|
|Gurgaon division||Gurugram||Gurugram, Mahendragarh and Rewari|
|Ambala division||Ambala||Ambala, Kurukshetra, Panchkula and Yamuna Nagar|
|Faridabad division||Faridabad||Faridabad, Palwal and Nuh|
|Rohtak division||Rohtak||Jhajjar, Charkhi Dadri, Rohtak, Sonipat and Bhiwani|
|Karnal division||Karnal||Karnal, Panipat and Kaithal|
|Himachal Pradesh||Kangra||Kangra||Chamba, Kangra and Una|
|Mandi||Mandi||Bilaspur, Hamirpur, Kullu, Lahaul and Spiti and Mandi|
|Shimla||Shimla||Kinnaur, Shimla, Sirmaur and Solan|
|Jharkhand||Palamu division||Palamu||Garhwa, Latehar and Palamu|
|North Chotanagpur division||Hazaribagh||Bokaro, Chatra, Dhanbad, Giridih, Hazaribagh, Koderma and Ramgarh|
|South Chotanagpur division||Ranchi||Gumla, Khunti, Lohardaga, Ranchi and Simdega|
|Kolhan division||West Singhbhum||East Singhbhum, Seraikela Kharsawan district, and West Singhbhum|
|Santhal Pargana division||Dumka||Godda, Deoghar, Dumka, Jamtara, Sahibganj and Pakur|
|Karnataka||Bangalore division||Bangalore||Bangalore Urban, Bangalore Rural, Ramanagara, Chikkaballapur, Chitradurga, Davanagere, Kolar, Shivamogga and Tumakuru|
|Mysore division||Mysuru||Chamarajanagar, Chikkamagaluru, Udupi, Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Kodagu, Mandya and Mysuru|
|Belgaum division||Belagavi||Bagalkot, Belagavi, Vijayapura, Dharwad, Gadag, Haveri and Uttara Kannada|
Ballari, Bidar, Kalaburagi, Koppal, Raichur, Yadgir and Vijayanagara
|Madhya Pradesh||Bhopal division||Bhopal||
Bhopal, Raisen, Rajgarh, Sehore and Vidisha
Alirajpur district Barwani, Burhanpur, Indore, Dhar, Jhabua, Khandwa and Khargone
Gwalior, Ashoknagar, Shivpuri, Datia and Guna
|Jabalpur division||Jabalpur||Balaghat, Chhindwara, Jabalpur, Katni, Mandla, Narsinghpur, Seoni and Dindori|
Rewa, Satna, Sidhi and Singrauli
Chhatarpur, Damoh, Panna, Sagar, Tikamgarh and Niwari
Anuppur, Shahdol and Umaria
Agar Malwa, Dewas, Mandsaur, Neemuch, Ratlam, Ujjain and Shajapur
Morena, Sheopur and Bhind
Betul, Harda and Hoshangabad
Akola, Amravati, Buldana, Yavatmal and Washim
Aurangabad Beed, Jalna, Osmanabad, Nanded, Latur, Parbhani and Hingoli
Mumbai City, Mumbai Suburban, Thane, Palghar, Raigad, Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg
Bhandara, Chandrapur, Gadchiroli, Gondia, Nagpur and Wardha
Ahmednagar, Dhule, Jalgaon, Nandurbar and Nashik
Kolhapur, Pune, Sangli, Satara and Solapur
|Meghalaya||Tura||West Garo Hills||
South West Garo Hills, West Garo Hills, North Garo Hills, East Garo Hills and South Garo Hills
|Shillong||East Khasi Hills||
West Khasi Hills, South West Khasi Hills, Ri-Bhoi, East Khasi Hills, West Jaintia Hills, and East Jaintia Hills
Chümoukedima, Dimapur, Kiphire, Kohima, Longleng, Mokokchung, Mon, Niuland, Noklak, Peren, Phek, Shamator, Tseminyü, Tuensang, Wokha and Zünheboto
Balasore, Bhadrak, Cuttack, Jagatsinghpur, Jajpur, Kendrapada, Khordha, Mayurbhanj, Nayagarh, and Puri
Angul, Balangir, Bargarh, Deogarh, Dhenkanal, Jharsuguda, Kendujhar, Sambalpur, Subarnapur and Sundargarh
Boudh, Gajapati, Ganjam, Kalahandi, Kandhamal, Koraput, Malkangiri, Nabarangpur, Nuapada and Rayagada
Patiala, Sangrur, Malerkotla, Barnala, Fatehgarh Sahib and Ludhiana
Faridkot, Bathinda and Mansa
Firozepur, Moga, Shri Muktsar Sahib and Fazilka
Jalandhar, Gurdaspur, Pathankot, Amritsar, Tarn Taran, Kapurthala and Hoshiarpur
|Rup Nagar||Rup Nagar||
Rup Nagar, Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar and Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar
Jaipur, Alwar, Jhunjhunu, Sikar and Dausa
Barmer, Jaisalmer, Jalore, Jodhpur, Pali and Sirohi
Ajmer, Bhilwara, Nagaur and Tonk
Udaipur, Banswara, Chittorgarh, Pratapgarh, Dungarpur and Rajsamand
Bikaner, Churu, Sri Ganganagar and Hanumangarh
Baran, Bundi, Jhalawar and Kota
Bharatpur, Dholpur, Karauli, Sawai and Madhopur
|Uttar Pradesh||Agra division||Agra||
Agra, Firozabad, Mainpuri and Mathura
Aligarh, Etah, Hathras and Kasganj
Ambedkar Nagar, Barabanki, Ayodhya, Sultanpur and Amethi
Azamgarh, Ballia and Mau
Badaun, Bareilly, Pilibhit and Shahjahanpur
Basti, Sant Kabir Nagar and Siddharthnagar
Banda, Chitrakoot, Hamirpur and Mahoba
Bahraich, Balarampur, Gonda and Shravasti
Deoria, Gorakhpur, Kushinagar and Maharajganj
Jalaun, Jhansi and Lalitpur
|Kanpur division||Kanpur Nagar||
Auraiya, Etawah, Farrukhabad, Kannauj, Kanpur Dehat and Kanpur Nagar
Hardoi, Lakhimpur Kheri, Lucknow, Raebareli, Sitapur and Unnao
Baghpat, Bulandshahar, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Ghaziabad, Meerut and Hapur
Mirzapur, Sant Ravidas Nagar and Sonbhadra
Bijnor, Amroha, Moradabad, Rampur and Sambhal
Allahabad, Fatehpur, Kaushambi and Pratapgarh
Muzaffarnagar, Saharanpur and Shamli
Chandauli, Ghazipur, Jaunpur and Varanasi
Almora, Bageshwar, Champawat, Nainital, Pithoragarh and Udham Singh Nagar
Chamoli, Dehradun, Haridwar, Pauri Garhwal, Rudraprayag, Tehri Garhwal and Uttarkashi
|West Bengal||Presidency division||Kolkata||
Howrah, Kolkata, Nadia, North 24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas
|Medinipur division||Paschim Medinipur||
Bankura, Jhargram, Paschim Medinipur, Purba Medinipur and Purulia
Dakshin Dinajpur, Malda, Murshidabad and Uttar Dinajpur
Birbhum, Hooghly, Paschim Bardhaman and Purba Bardhaman
Alipurduar, Cooch Behar, Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri and Kalimpong
|Delhi||Delhi division||Central Delhi||
Central Delhi, East Delhi, New Delhi, North Delhi, North East Delhi, North West Delhi, Shahdara, South Delhi, South East Delhi, South West Delhi and West Delhi
|Jammu and Kashmir||Jammu Division||Jammu||Jammu, Doda, Kathua, Kishtwar, Poonch, Rajouri, Ramban, Reasi, Samba and Udhampur|
|Kashmir Division||Srinagar||Srinagar, Anantnag, Bandipora, Baramulla, Budgam, Ganderbal, Kulgam, Kupwara, Pulwama and Shopian|
|Ladakh||Ladakh Division||Leh||Kargil and Leh|
|Map key||Name of State or Union Territory (Italicized)||Number of Divisions||Population||Population/district|
|A||Andaman and Nicobar Islands||-||380,581||126,860|
|C||Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu||-||586,956||195,652|
|D||Jammu and Kashmir||2||12,258,433||612,922|
| valign="top" width="300px" |
Regions within states
Some states consist of regions, which have no official administrative governmental status. They are purely geographic regions; some correspond to historic countries, states or provinces. A region may comprise one or more divisions, averaging about three divisions per region. However, the boundaries of the regions and the boundaries of the divisions do not always coincide exactly. So far there has been no movement to give the regions official administrative status. If this was to be done, it would presumably require that the boundaries of the regions be slightly modified so that they correspond exactly with their constituent districts.
Tehsils, talukas, subdivisions, mandals, circles, headed by a Tehsildar or Talukdar or MRO, comprise several villages or village clusters. The governmental / elected bodies at the tehsil level are called the Panchayat samiti.
States use varying names for their subdistricts.
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Tehsil||7|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu||Taluka||3|
|Jammu and Kashmir||Tehsil||55|
The Community Development Block also known as CD Block or just block, is often the next level of administrative division (for development purposes, whereas tehsil is next to the district for revenue purposes).
|State||CD Block||Number of |
|West Bengal||CD Block||341|
Villages are often the lowest level of subdivisions in India. The governmental bodies at the village level are called Gram Panchayat, of which there were an estimated 256,000 in 2002. Each Gram Panchayat covers a large village or a cluster of smaller villages with a combined population exceeding 500 Gram Sabha. Clusters of villages are also sometimes called Hobli or Patti.
Certain governmental functions and activities - including clean water availability, rural development, and education - are tracked at a sub-village level. These hamlets are termed "habitations". India is composed of 1,714,556 habitations  In some states, most villages have a single habitation; in others (notably Kerala and Tripura) there is a high ratio of habitations to villages.
A metro area usually comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighbourhoods, townships, cities, exurbs, suburbs, counties, districts, states, and even nations like the eurodistricts. As social, economic, and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. Metropolitan areas include one or more urban areas, as well as satellite cities, towns, and intervening rural areas that are socio-economically tied to the urban core, typically measured by commuting patterns The metropolitan cities of India are: Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Pune.
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- Autonomous administrative divisions of India
- Cultural Zones of India
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