Cinema of India
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Cinema of India|
|No. of screens||6,327 single screens (2019)|
3,200 multiplex screens (2019)
|• Per capita||9 per million (2015)|
|Produced feature films (2019)|
|Number of admissions (2016)|
|• Per capita||1.69|
|Gross box office (2019)|
|Total||₹190 billion ($2.7 billion)|
|National films||$2.1 billion (2015)|
|Part of a series on the|
|Culture of India|
Cinema of India consists of films produced in India, where more than 1800 movies are produced annually. Major centres of film production in the country include Mumbai, Hyderabad, Chennai, Kolkata, New Delhi, Amritsar, Kochi, Bangalore, Bhubaneswar-Cuttack, and Guwahati.[details 1] For a number of years the Indian film industry has ranked first in the world in terms of annual film output. In terms of box office it ranked third in 2019, with total gross of around US$2.7 billion.
Indian cinema is composed of various language film industries. In 2019, the Hindi film industry represented 44% of box office revenue, followed by the Tamil and the Telugu film industries, each representing 13%. Other prominent languages in the Indian film industry include Malayalam and Kannada, representing 5% each, as well as Bengali, Marathi, Punjabi, Gujarati and Bhojpuri. As of 2020, the combined revenue of all other language film industries has surpassed that of the Hindi film industry, and in 2021, Telugu cinema became the largest film industry of India in terms of box-office.
Indian cinema is a global enterprise  and the films have wide viewership and fanbase throughout South Asia as well as over 90 countries. Films like Bahubali: The Beginning have been dubbed in many languages, thus starting a Pan-India films movement. Millions of Indians overseas watch Indian films, accounting for 12% of revenue.
Major Indian enterprises in the film industry include Modern Theatres, AVM Productions, Sun Pictures, AGS Entertainment, Geetha Arts, Zee, Mythri Movie Makers, UTV, Suresh Productions, Eros International, Aascar Films, Hombale Films, and Yash Raj Films.
The history of cinema in India extends back to the beginning of the film era. Following the screening of the Lumière and Robert Paul moving pictures in London in 1896, commercial cinematography became a worldwide sensation, and by mid-1896 both Lumière and Robert Paul films had been shown in Bombay.
Silent films (1890s–1920s)
In 1897, a film presentation by Professor Stevenson featured a stage show at Calcutta's Star Theatre. With Stevenson's camera and his encouragement, Hiralal Sen, an Indian photographer, made a film consisting of scenes from that show, namely The Flower of Persia (1898). The Wrestlers (1899), by H. S. Bhatavdekar, showing a wrestling match at the Hanging Gardens in Bombay, was the first film to be shot by an Indian and the first Indian documentary film.
The first Indian film released in India was Shree Pundalik, a silent film in Marathi by Dadasaheb Torne on 18 May 1912 at Coronation Cinematograph, Bombay. Some have argued that Pundalik was not the first Indian film, because it was a photographic recording of a play, and because the cameraman was a British man named Johnson and the film was processed in London.
The second full-length motion picture in India was produced by Dadasaheb Phalke, Phalke is seen as the pioneer of the Indian film industry and a scholar of India's languages and culture. He employed elements from Sanskrit epics to produce his Raja Harishchandra (1913), a silent film in Marathi. The female characters in the film were played by male actors. Only one print of the film was made, for showing at the Coronation Cinematograph on 3 May 1913. It was a commercial success. The first silent film in Tamil, Keechaka Vadham was made by R. Nataraja Mudaliar in 1916. The first silent film in Malayalam, Vigathakumaran was made by J.C. Daniel Nadar, the father of Malayalam film industry, in 1928 which is the first Indian social drama feature film and also incorporates the first Dalit actress in Indian film industry.
The first chain of Indian cinemas, Madan Theatre, was owned by Parsi entrepreneur Jamshedji Framji Madan, who oversaw the production of 10 films annually and distributed them throughout India beginning in 1902. He founded Elphinstone Bioscope Company in Calcutta. Elphinstone merged into Madan Theatres Limited in 1919, which had brought many of Bengal's most popular literary works to the stage. He also produced Satyawadi Raja Harishchandra in 1917, a remake of Phalke's Raja Harishchandra.
Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu from Machilipatnam was an Indian artist and a film pioneer. From 1909, he was involved in many aspects of Indian cinema, travelling across Asia. He was the first to build and own cinemas in Madras. He was credited as the father of Telugu cinema. In South India, the first Telugu and Tamil bilingual talkie Kalidas was released on 31 October 1931. Nataraja Mudaliar established South India's first film studio in Madras.
The film steadily gained popularity across India. Tickets were affordable to the masses (as low as an anna (one-sixteenth of a rupee) in Bombay) with additional comforts available at a higher price.
Young producers began to incorporate elements of Indian social life and culture into cinema, others brought new ideas from across the world. Global audiences and markets soon became aware of India's film industry.
In 1927, the British Government, to promote the market in India for British films over American ones, formed the Indian Cinematograph Enquiry Committee. The ICC consisted of three British and three Indians, led by T. Rangachari, a Madras lawyer. This committee failed to support the desired recommendations of supporting British Film, instead recommending support for the fledgling Indian film industry, their suggestions were shelved.
Ardeshir Irani released Alam Ara, the first Indian talkie, on 14 March 1931. Irani later produced the first south Indian talkie film Kalidas directed by H. M. Reddy released on 31 October 1931. Jumai Shasthi was the first Bengali talkie. Chittor V. Nagaiah, was one of the first multilingual film actor/singer/composer/producer/directors in India. He was known as India's Paul Muni.
In 1933, East India Film Company produced its first Telugu film, Savitri. Based on a stage play by Mylavaram Bala Bharathi Samajam, the film was directed by C. Pullaiah with stage actors Vemuri Gaggaiah and Dasari Ramathilakam. The film received an honorary diploma at the 2nd Venice International Film Festival.
On 10 March 1935, another pioneering filmmaker Jyoti Prasad Agarwala made his first film Joymoti in Assamese. Jyoti Prasad went to Berlin to learn more about films. Indramalati is another film he produced and directed after Joymoti. The first film studio in South India, Durga Cinetone was built in 1936 by Nidamarthi Surayya in Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh. The 1930s saw the rise of music in Indian cinema with musicals such as Indra Sabha and Devi Devyani marking the beginning of song-and-dance in Indian films. Studios emerged by 1935 in major cities such as Madras, Calcutta and Bombay as filmmaking became an established craft, exemplified by the success of Devdas. directed by an Assamese filmmaker Pramathesh Baruah. In 1937, Kisan Kanhiya directed by Moti B was released, the first colour film made in India. The 1940 film, Vishwa Mohini, is the first Indian film to depict the Indian movie world. The film was directed by Y. V. Rao and scripted by Balijepalli Lakshmikanta Kavi.
Swamikannu Vincent, who had built the first cinema of South India in Coimbatore, introduced the concept of "Tent Cinema" in which a tent was erected on a stretch of open land to screen films. The first of its kind was in Madras, called Edison's Grand Cinema Megaphone. This was due to the fact that electric carbons were used for motion picture projectors. Bombay Talkies opened in 1934 and Prabhat Studios in Pune began production of Marathi films meant. R. S. D. Choudhury produced Wrath (1930), which was banned by the British Raj for its depiction of Indian actors as leaders during the Indian independence movement. Sant Tukaram, a 1936 film based on the life of Tukaram (1608–50), a Varkari Sant and spiritual poet became the first Indian film to be screened at an international film festival, at the 1937 edition of the Venice Film Festival. The film was judged one of the three best films of the year. In 1938, Gudavalli Ramabrahmam, co-produced and directed the social problem film, Raithu Bidda, which was also banned by the British administration, for depicting the peasant uprising among the Zamindars during the British raj.
The Indian Masala film—a term used for mixed-genre films that combined song, dance, romance, etc.—arose following World War II. During the 1940s cinema in South India accounted for nearly half of India's cinema halls and cinema came to be viewed as an instrument of cultural revival. The partition of India following independence divided the nation's assets and a number of studios moved to Pakistan. Partition became an enduring film subject thereafter.
After Indian independence the film industry was investigated by the S. K. Patil Commission. Patil recommended setting up a Film Finance Corporation (FFC) under the Ministry of Finance. This advice was adopted in 1960 and FFC provide financial support to filmmakers. The Indian government had established a Films Division by 1948, which eventually became one of the world's largest documentary film producers with an annual production of over 200 short documentaries, each released in 18 languages with 9,000 prints for permanent film theatres across the country.
The Indian People's Theatre Association (IPTA), an art movement with a communist inclination, began to take shape through the 1940s and the 1950s. Realist IPTA plays, such as Nabanna (1944, Bijon Bhattacharya) prepared the ground for realism in Indian cinema, exemplified by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas's Dharti Ke Lal (Children of the Earth) in 1946. The IPTA movement continued to emphasise realism and went on to produce Mother India and Pyaasa, among India's most recognisable cinematic productions.
Golden Age (late 1940s–1960s)
This period saw the emergence of the Parallel Cinema movement, mainly led by Bengalis, which then accounted for a quarter of India's film output. The movement emphasised social realism. Early examples include Dharti Ke Lal (1946, Khwaja Ahmad Abbas), Neecha Nagar (1946, Chetan Anand), Nagarik (1952, Ritwik Ghatak) and Do Bigha Zamin (1953, Bimal Roy), laying the foundations for Indian neorealism and the Indian New Wave.
The Apu Trilogy (1955–1959, Satyajit Ray) won major prizes at all the major international film festivals and firmly established the Parallel Cinema movement. Pather Panchali (1955), the first part of the trilogy, marked Ray's entry in Indian cinema. The trilogy's influence on world cinema can be felt in the "youthful coming-of-age dramas that flooded art houses since the mid-fifties", which "owe a tremendous debt to the Apu trilogy".
Cinematographer Subrata Mitra, who debuted in the trilogy, had his own important influence on cinematography globally. One of his most important techniques was bounce lighting, to recreate the effect of daylight on sets. He pioneered the technique while filming Aparajito (1956), the second part of the trilogy. Ray pioneered other effects such as the photo-negative flashbacks and X-ray digressions in Pratidwandi (1972).
Commercial Hindi cinema began thriving, including acclaimed films Pyaasa (1957) and Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959, Guru Dutt) Awaara (1951) and Shree 420 (1955, Raj Kapoor). These films expressed social themes mainly dealing with working-class urban life in India; Awaara presented the city as both a nightmare and a dream, while Pyaasa critiqued the unreality of city life.
Epic film Mother India (1957, Mehboob Khan), a remake of his earlier Aurat (1940), was the first Indian film to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Mother India defined the conventions of Hindi cinema for decades. It spawned a new genre of dacoit films. Gunga Jumna (1961, Dilip Kumar) was a dacoit crime drama about two brothers on opposite sides of the law, a theme that became common in Indian films in the 1970s. Madhumati (1958, Bimal Roy) popularised the theme of reincarnation in Western popular culture.
Dilip Kumar (Muhammad Yusuf Khan) debuted in the 1940s and rose to fame in the 1950s and was the biggest Indian movie star of the time. He was a pioneer of method acting, predating Hollywood method actors such as Marlon Brando. Much like Brando's influence on New Hollywood actors, Kumar inspired Indian actors, including Amitabh Bachchan, Naseeruddin Shah, Shah Rukh Khan and Nawazuddin Siddiqui.
Neecha Nagar won the Palme d'Or at Cannes, putting Indian films in competition for the Palme d'Or for nearly every year in the 1950s and early 1960s, with many winning major prizes. Ray won the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival for Aparajito (1956) and the Golden Bear and two Silver Bears for Best Director at the Berlin International Film Festival. The films of screenwriter Khwaja Ahmad Abbas were nominated for the Palme d'Or three times. (Neecha Nagar won, with nominations for Awaara and Pardesi (1957)).
Ray's contemporaries Ghatak and Dutt were overlooked in their own lifetimes, but generated international recognition in the 1980s and 1990s. Ray is regarded as one of the greatest auteurs of 20th century cinema, with Dutt and Ghatak. In 1992, the Sight & Sound Critics' Poll ranked Ray at No. 7 in its list of "Top 10 Directors" of all time, while Dutt ranked No. 73 in the 2002 Sight & Sound poll.
Multiple films from this era are included among the greatest films of all time in various critics' and directors' polls. Multiple Ray films appeared in the Sight & Sound Critics' Poll, including The Apu Trilogy (ranked No. 4 in 1992 if votes are combined), Jalsaghar (ranked No. 27 in 1992), Charulata (ranked No. 41 in 1992) and Aranyer Din Ratri (ranked No. 81 in 1982). The 2002 Sight & Sound critics' and directors' poll also included the Dutt films Pyaasa and Kaagaz Ke Phool (both tied at #160), Ghatak's films Meghe Dhaka Tara (ranked #231) and Komal Gandhar (ranked #346), and Raj Kapoor's Awaara, Vijay Bhatt's Baiju Bawra, Mehboob Khan's Mother India and K. Asif's Mughal-e-Azam all tied at #346. In 1998, the critics' poll conducted by the Asian film magazine Cinemaya included The Apu Trilogy (ranked No. 1 if votes are combined), Ray's Charulata and Jalsaghar (both tied at #11), and Ghatak's Subarnarekha (also tied at #11).
Sivaji Ganesan became India's first actor to receive an international award when he won the "Best Actor" award at the Afro-Asian film festival in 1960 and was awarded the title of Chevalier in the Legion of Honour by the French Government in 1995. Tamil cinema is influenced by Dravidian politics, with prominent film personalities C N Annadurai, M G Ramachandran, M Karunanidhi and Jayalalithaa becoming Chief Ministers of Tamil Nadu.
During the 1950s, Indian cinema reportedly became the world's second largest film industry, earning a gross annual income of ₹250 million (equivalent to ₹21 billion or US$300 million in 2019) in 1953.
Realistic Parallel Cinema continued throughout the 1970s, practised in many Indian film cultures. The FFC's art film orientation came under criticism during a Committee on Public Undertakings investigation in 1976, which accused the body of not doing enough to encourage commercial cinema.
Hindi commercial cinema continued with films such as Aradhana (1969), Sachaa Jhutha (1970), Haathi Mere Saathi (1971), Anand (1971), Kati Patang (1971) Amar Prem (1972), Dushman (1972) and Daag (1973).
By the early 1970s, Hindi cinema was experiencing thematic stagnation, dominated by musical romance films. The arrival of screenwriter duo Salim–Javed, consisting of Salim Khan and Javed Akhtar, revitalised the industry. They established the genre of gritty, violent, Bombay underworld crime films, with films such as Zanjeer (1973) and Deewaar (1975). They reinterpreted the rural themes of Mother India and Gunga Jumna in an urban context reflecting 1970s India, channelling the growing discontent and disillusionment among the masses, unprecedented growth of slums and urban poverty, corruption and crime, as well as anti-establishment themes. This resulted in their creation of the "angry young man", personified by Amitabh Bachchan, who reinterpreted Kumar's performance in Gunga Jumna, and gave a voice to the urban poor.
By the mid-1970s, crime-action films like Zanjeer and Sholay (1975) solidified Bachchan's position as a lead actor. The devotional classic Jai Santoshi Ma (1975) was made on a shoe-string budget and became a box office success and a cult classic. Another important film was Deewaar (1975, Yash Chopra). This crime film pitted "a policeman against his brother, a gang leader based on the real-life smuggler Haji Mastan", portrayed by Bachchan. Danny Boyle described it as "absolutely key to Indian cinema".
"Bollywood" was coined in the 70s, when the conventions of commercial Bollywood films were established. Key to this was Nasir Hussain and Salim-Javed's creation of the masala film genre, which combines elements of action, comedy, romance, drama, melodrama and musical. Another Hussain/Salim-Javed concoction, Yaadon Ki Baarat (1973), was identified as the first masala film and the "first" quintessentially "Bollywood" film. Salim-Javed wrote more successful masala films in the 1970s and 1980s. Masala films made Bachchan the biggest Bollywood movie star of the period. Another landmark was Amar Akbar Anthony (1977, Manmohan Desai). Desai further expanded the genre in the 1970s and 1980s.
Commercial Hindi cinema grew in the 1980s, with films such as Ek Duuje Ke Liye (1981), Disco Dancer (1982), Himmatwala (1983), Tohfa (1984), Naam (1986), Mr India (1987), and Tezaab (1988). By 1986, India's annual film output had increased from 741 films produced annually to 833 films annually, making India the world's largest film producer.
In the late 1980s, Hindi cinema experienced another period of stagnation, with a decline in box office turnout, due to increasing violence, decline in musical melodic quality, and rise in video piracy, leading to middle-class family audiences abandoning theatres. The turning point came with Disco Dancer (1982) which was not only a blockbuster in India but was the biggest hit of the year in Russia upon its release in the country. Disco Dancer (1982) started the era of Disco in Indian cinema and saw the rise of the due of Mithun Chakraborty as the lead actor and Bappi Lahiri as the music director. This duo gave the highest number of hits together for the 80's decade of Indian mainstream movies. Thereafter, Yash Chopra's musical romance Chandni (1989), starring Sridevi was instrumental in rejuvenating the romantic musical genre. It also set a new template for Bollywood musical romance films that defined Hindi cinema in the coming years. Commercial Hindi cinema grew in the late 80s and 1990s, with the release of Mr. India (1987), Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak (1988), Chaalbaaz (1989), Maine Pyar Kiya (1989), Lamhe (1991), Saajan (1991), Khuda Gawah (1992), Khalnayak (1993), Darr (1993), Hum Aapke Hain Koun..! (1994), Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge (1995), Dil To Pagal Hai (1997), Pyar Kiya Toh Darna Kya (1998) and Kuch Kuch Hota Hai (1998). Cult classic Bandit Queen (1994) directed by Shekhar Kapur received international recognition and controversy.
In the late 1990s, Parallel Cinema began a resurgence in Hindi cinema, largely due to the critical and commercial success of crime films such as Satya (1998) and Vaastav (1999). These films launched a genre known as Mumbai noir, urban films reflecting social problems there.
Since the 1990s, the three biggest Bollywood movie stars have been the "Three Khans": Aamir Khan, Shah Rukh Khan, and Salman Khan. Combined, they starred in the top ten highest-grossing Bollywood films. The three Khans have had successful careers since the late 1980s, and have dominated the Indian box office since the 1990s. Shah Rukh Khan was the most successful for most of the 1990s and 2000s, while Aamir Khan has been the most successful since the late 2000s; according to Forbes, Aamir Khan is "arguably the world's biggest movie star" as of 2017, due to his immense popularity in India and China. Other Hindi stars include Akshay Kumar, Ajay Devgan, Hrithik Roshan, Anil Kapoor, Sanjay Dutt, Sridevi, Madhuri Dixit and Kajol. Haider (2014, Vishal Bhardwaj), the third instalment of the Indian Shakespearean Trilogy after Maqbool (2003) and Omkara (2006), won the People's Choice Award at the 9th Rome Film Festival in the Mondo Genere making it the first Indian film to achieve this honour.
The 2000s and 2010s also saw the rise of a new generation of popular actors like Ranbir Kapoor, Ranveer Singh, Varun Dhawan, Sidharth Malhotra, Sushant Singh Rajput, Arjun Kapoor, Aditya Roy Kapur and Tiger Shroff, as well as actresses like Vidya Balan, Priyanka Chopra, Katrina Kaif, Kangana Ranaut, Deepika Padukone, Sonam Kapoor, Anushka Sharma, Sonakshi Sinha, Jacqueline Fernandez, Shraddha Kapoor and Alia Bhatt, with Balan and Ranaut gaining wide recognition for successful female-centric films such as The Dirty Picture (2011), Kahaani (2012), Queen (2014), Tanu Weds Manu Returns (2015) and Manikarnika: The Queen of Jhansi (2019). Kareena Kapoor and Rani Mukerji are among the few working actresses from the 2000s and late 1990s who successfully completed more than 20 years in the industry.
Bapu's Pan-Indian film Oka Oori Katha (1977) won special awards at Karlovy Vary International Film Festival and Carthage Film Festival. Sankarabharanam won the Prize of the Public at the Besançon Film Festival of France in the year 1981. B. Narsing Rao scripted and produced Maa Bhoomi which was showcased at Karlovy Vary Film Festival, and Cork Film Festivals. He directed, Daasi "(Bonded Woman)" and Matti Manushulu "(Mud People)" which won the Diploma of Merit awards at the 16th, and 17th Moscow International Film Festivals in 1989 and 1991 respectively. M. V. Raghu's Neo-realistic film Kallu (1988), scripted by Gollapudi Maruti Rao has received thirty state awards and has garnered special mention from the CBFC Jury. In this way, new genres such as romance, drama, social films have gained popularity. Over the time, there is a steady decline for fantasy, mythological and historical films.
Ram Gopal Varma's Siva, which attained cult status in Telugu cinema, is one of the first Telugu films produced after the migration of Telugu film industry from Madras to Hyderabad to feature characters speaking the Telangana dialect. Singeetam Srinivasa Rao introduced science fiction to the Telugu screen with Aditya 369, the film dealt with exploratory dystopian and apocalyptic themes.
The 2000s saw the maximum growth of masala films in the Telugu film industry. The growth of film studios and film productions facilities in Hyderabad made it easy to produce films. The trend of featuring item numbers in the films became too common until the 2020s. Devi Sri Prasad is one of those composers, who has influenced Telugu film music by composing many item numbers. In the years 2005, 2006, 2008, and 2014 the industry has produced the largest number of films in India, exceeding the number of films produced in Bollywood. During the period, remaking of Telugu films into other languages such as Hindi, Bengali, Tamil and Kannada have been outnumbered than ever before. During the period, the term "Tollywood" (portmanteau of the words Telugu and Hollywood) had gained popularity and is commonly used since then.
It is estimated by the Manorama Yearbook 2000 (a popular almanac) that over 5,000 Tamil films were produced in the 20th century. Tamil films have also been dubbed into other languages, thus reaching a much wider audience. There has been a growing presence of English in dialogue and songs in Chennai films. It is not uncommon to see movies that feature dialogue studded with English words and phrases, or even whole sentences. Some movies are also simultaneously made in two or three languages (either using subtitles or several soundtracks). Chennai's film composers have popularised their highly unique, syncretic style of film music across the world.
Early cinemas were impacted by the cultural influences of the country. The Tamil-language was the medium in which many plays and stories were written since the ages as early as the Cholas. They were highly stylized and the nature of the spectacle could attract the people. Along with this, music and dance were one of the main entertainment sources.
In 1916, a studio, the first in south India, was set up in Madras at 10 Millers Road, Kilpauk. He called it the India Film Company. Rangavadivelu, an actor from Suguna Vilasa Sabha, a theatre company then, was hired to train the actors. Thirty-five days later, the first feature film made in south India, The Extermination of Keechakan/Keechakavatham, based on an episode from the Mahabharata, was released produced and directed by R. Nataraja, who established the India Film Company Limited (The Destruction of Keechaka).
There is a strong Indian tradition of narrating mythology, history, fairy tales, and so on through song and dance. Whereas Hollywood filmmakers strove to conceal the constructed nature of their work so that the realistic narrative was wholly dominant, Indian filmmakers did not attempt to conceal the fact that what was shown on the screen was a creation, an illusion, a fiction. However, they demonstrated how this creation intersected with people's day-to-day lives in complex ways. By the end of the 1930s, the State of Madras legislature passed the Entertainment Tax Act 1939.
Tamil cinema later had a profound effect on other filmmaking industries of India, establishing Madras (now Chennai) as a secondary hub for Hindi cinema, other South Indian film industries, as well as Sri Lankan cinema. Over the last quarter of the 20th century, Tamil films from India established a global presence through distribution to an increasing number of overseas theatres in Singapore, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Japan, the Middle East, parts of Africa, Oceania, Europe, North America and other countries. The industry also inspired independent filmmaking in Sri Lanka and Tamil diaspora populations in Malaysia, Singapore, and the Western Hemisphere.
In 1991, Marupakkam directed by K.S. Sethu Madhavan, became the first Tamil film to win the National Film Award for Best Feature Film, the feat was repeated by Kanchivaram in 2007. Tamil films enjoy significant patronage in neighbouring Indian states like Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and New Delhi. In Kerala and Karnataka the films are directly released in Tamil but in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh they are generally dubbed into Telugu where they have a decent market.
Tamil films have enjoyed consistent popularity among populations in South East Asia. Since Chandralekha, Muthu was the second Tamil film to be dubbed into Japanese (as Mutu: Odoru Maharaja) and grossed a record $1.6 million in 1998. In 2010, Enthiran grossed a record $4 million in North America. Tamil language films appeared at multiple film festivals. Kannathil Muthamittal (Ratnam), Veyyil (Vasanthabalan) and Paruthiveeran (Ameer Sultan), Kanchivaram (Priyadarshan) premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival. Tamil films were submitted by India for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language on eight occasions. Chennai based Music Composer A.R. Rahaman have global recognition and have won two Academy Awards and is even nicknamed as "Isai Puyal" (musical storm) and "Mozart of Madras". Nayakan (1987, Kamal Haasan) was included in Time's All-Time 100 Movies list. In 1991, Marupakkam directed by K. S. Sethumadhavan, became the first Tamil film to win the National Film Award for Best Feature Film, the feat was repeated by Kanchivaram in 2007. Priyadarshini become the first Indian playback singer to carry out Ph.D. research in film music and document 100years of music in Tamil cinema
Kannada film Samskara (1970), Pattabhirama Reddy and Singeetam Srinivasa Rao), pioneered the parallel cinema movement in south Indian cinema. The film won Bronze Leopard at the Locarno International Film Festival.
Malayalam cinema experienced its own Golden Age in the 1980s and early 1990s. Acclaimed Malayalam filmmakers industry, included Adoor Gopalakrishnan, G. Aravindan, T. V. Chandran and Shaji N. Karun. Gopalakrishnan, is often considered to be Ray's spiritual heir. He directed some of his most acclaimed films during this period, including Elippathayam (1981) which won the Sutherland Trophy at the London Film Festival. Karun's debut film Piravi (1989) won the Caméra d'Or at the 1989 Cannes Film Festival, while his second film Swaham (1994) was in competition for the Palme d'Or at the 1994 event. Vanaprastham was screened at the Un Certain Regard section of the Cannes Film Festival. Commercial Malayalam cinema began gaining popularity with the action films of Jayan, a popular stunt actor the first ever action adventure superstar of South Indian Cinema who died while filming a helicopter stunt.
Salim–Javed were highly influential in South Indian cinema. In addition to writing two Kannada films, many of their Bollywood films had remakes produced in other regions, including Tamil, Telugu and Malayalam cinema. While the Bollywood directors and producers held the rights to their films in Northern India, Salim-Javed retained the rights in South India, where they sold remake rights, usually for around ₹1 lakh (equivalent to ₹31 lakh or US$43,000 in 2019) each, for films such as Zanjeer, Yaadon Ki Baarat and Don. Several of these remakes became breakthroughs for Rajinikanth, who portrayed Bachchan's role for several Tamil remakes.
Sridevi is widely regarded as the first female superstar of Bollywood cinema due to her pan-Indian appeal and a rare actor who had an equally successful career in the major Indian film industries: Hindi, Tamil and Telugu. She is also the only movie star in the history of Bollywood to star in the top 10 highest grosser of the year throughout her active period (1983-1997).
By 1996, the Indian film industry had an estimated domestic cinema viewership of 600 million viewers, establishing India as one of the largest film markets, with the largest regional industries being Hindi, Tamil and Telugu films. In 2001, in terms of ticket sales, Indian cinema sold an estimated 3.6 billion tickets annually across the globe, compared to Hollywood's 2.6 billion tickets sold.
Influence on the cinema of India
K. Moti Gokulsing and Wimal Dissanayake identify six major influences that have shaped Indian popular cinema:
- The ancient epics of Mahabharata and Ramayana influenced the narratives of Indian cinema. Examples of this influence include the techniques of a side story, back-story and story within a story. Indian popular films often have plots that branch into sub-plots; such narrative dispersals can clearly be seen in the 1993 films Khalnayak and Gardish.
- Ancient Sanskrit drama, with its emphasis on spectacle, combined music, dance and gesture combined "to create a vibrant artistic unit with dance and mime being central to the dramatic experience". Sanskrit dramas were known as natya, derived from the root word nrit (dance), featuring spectacular dance-dramas. The Rasa method of performance, dating to ancient times, is one of the fundamental features that differentiate Indian from Western cinema. In the Rasa method, empathetic "emotions are conveyed by the performer and thus felt by the audience", in contrast to the Western Stanislavski method where the actor must become "a living, breathing embodiment of a character" rather than "simply conveying emotion". The rasa method is apparent in the performances of Hindi actors such as Bachchan and Shah Rukh Khan and in Hindi films such as Rang De Basanti (2006), and Ray's works.
- Traditional folk theatre became popular around the 10th century with the decline of Sanskrit theatre. These regional traditions include the Yatra of West Bengal, the Ramlila of Uttar Pradesh, Yakshagana of Karnataka, 'Chindu Natakam' of Andhra Pradesh and the Terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu.
- Parsi theatre "blended realism and fantasy, music and dance, narrative and spectacle, earthy dialogue and ingenuity of stage presentation, integrating them into a dramatic melodrama. The Parsi plays contained crude humor, melodious songs and music, sensationalism, and dazzling stagecraft." These influences are clearly evident in masala films such as Coolie (1983), and to an extent in more recent critically acclaimed films such as Rang De Basanti.
- Hollywood made popular musicals from the 1920s through the 1960s. Indian musical makers departed from their Hollywood counterparts in several ways. "For example, the Hollywood musicals had as their plot the world of entertainment itself. Indian filmmakers, while enhancing the elements of fantasy so pervasive in Indian popular films, used song and music as a natural mode of articulation in a given situation in their films. There is a strong Indian tradition of narrating mythology, history, fairy stories, and so on through song and dance." In addition, "whereas Hollywood filmmakers strove to conceal the constructed nature of their work so that the realistic narrative was wholly dominant, Indian filmmakers did not attempt to conceal the fact that what was shown on the screen was a creation, an illusion, a fiction. However, they demonstrated how this creation intersected with people's day-to-day lives in complex and interesting ways."
- Western musical television, particularly MTV, had an increasing influence in the 1990s, as can be seen in the pace, camera angles, dance sequences, and music of recent Indian films. An early example of this approach was Tamil language film Bombay (1995, Mani Ratnam).
Sharmistha Gooptu and Bhaumik identify Indo-Persian/Islamicate culture as another major influence. In the early 20th century, Urdu was the lingua franca of popular performances across northern India, established in performance art traditions such as nautch dancing, Urdu poetry and Parsi theatre. Urdu and related Hindi dialects were the most widely understood across northern India, thus Hindustani became the standardised language of early Indian talkies. One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights) had a strong influence on Parsi theatre, which adapted "Persianate adventure-romances" into films, and on early Bombay cinema where "Arabian Nights cinema" became a popular genre.
Like mainstream Indian popular cinema, Indian Parallel Cinema was influenced by a combination of Indian theatre and Indian literature (such as Bengali literature and Urdu poetry), but differs when it comes to foreign influences, where it is influenced more by European cinema (particularly Italian neorealism and French poetic realism) than by Hollywood. Ray cited Vittorio De Sica's Bicycle Thieves (1948) and Jean Renoir's The River (1951), on which he assisted, as influences on his debut film Pather Panchali (1955).
Influence of cinema on India
During colonial rule Indians bought film equipment from Europe. The British funded wartime propaganda films during World War II, some of which showed the Indian army pitted against the Axis powers, specifically the Empire of Japan, which had managed to infiltrate India. One such story was Burma Rani, which depicted civilian resistance to Japanese occupation by British and Indian forces in Myanmar. Pre-independence businessmen such as J. F. Madan and Abdulally Esoofally traded in global cinema.
Early Indian films made early inroads into the Soviet Union, Middle East, Southeast Asia and China. Mainstream Indian movie stars gained international fame across Asia and Eastern Europe. For example, Indian films were more popular in the Soviet Union than Hollywood films and occasionally domestic Soviet films. From 1954 to 1991, 206 Indian films were sent to the Soviet Union, drawing higher average audience figures than domestic Soviet productions, Films such as Awaara and Disco Dancer drew more than 60 million viewers. Films such as Awaara, 3 Idiots and Dangal, were one of the 20 highest-grossing films in China.
Many Asian and South Asian countries increasingly found Indian cinema as more suited to their sensibilities than Western cinema. Jigna Desai holds that by the 21st century, Indian cinema had become 'deterritorialized', spreading to parts of the world where Indian expatriates were present in significant numbers and had become an alternative to other international cinema.
Indian cinema more recently began influencing Western musical films, and played a particularly instrumental role in the revival of the genre in the Western world. Ray's work had a worldwide impact, with filmmakers such as Martin Scorsese, James Ivory, Abbas Kiarostami, François Truffaut, Carlos Saura, Isao Takahata and Gregory Nava citing his influence, and others such as Akira Kurosawa praising his work. The "youthful coming-of-age dramas that have flooded art houses since the mid-fifties owe a tremendous debt to the Apu trilogy". Since the 1980s, overlooked Indian filmmakers such as Ghatak and Dutt posthumously gained international acclaim. Baz Luhrmann stated that his successful musical film Moulin Rouge! (2001) was directly inspired by Bollywood musicals. That film's success renewed interest in the then-moribund Western musical genre, subsequently fuelling a renaissance. Danny Boyle's Oscar-winning film Slumdog Millionaire (2008) was directly inspired by Indian films, and is considered to be an "homage to Hindi commercial cinema".
Indian cinema has been recognised repeatedly at the Academy Awards. Indian films Mother India (1957), Salaam Bombay! (1988) and Lagaan (2001), were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Indian Oscar winners include Bhanu Athaiya (costume designer), Ray (filmmaker), A. R. Rahman (music composer), Resul Pookutty (sound editor) and Gulzar (lyricist), Cottalango Leon and Rahul Thakkar Sci-Tech Award.
Genres and styles
Masala is a style of Indian cinema that mixes multiple genres in one work, especially in Bollywood, West Bengal and South India. For example, one film can portray action, comedy, drama, romance and melodrama. These films tend to be musicals with songs filmed in picturesque locations. Plots for such movies may seem illogical and improbable to unfamiliar viewers. The genre is named after masala, a mixture of spices in Indian cuisine.
Parallel Cinema, also known as Art Cinema or the Indian New Wave, is known for its realism and naturalism, addressing the sociopolitical climate. This movement is distinct from mainstream Bollywood cinema and began around the same time as the French and Japanese New Waves. The movement began in Bengal (led by Ray, Sen and Ghatak) and then gained prominence in other regions. The movement was launched by Roy's Do Bigha Zamin (1953), which was both a commercial and critical success, winning the International Prize at the 1954 Cannes Film Festival. Ray's films include The Apu Trilogy. Its three films won major prizes at the Cannes, Berlin and Venice Film Festivals, and are frequently listed among the greatest films of all time.
Some Indian films are known as "multilinguals", filmed in similar but non-identical versions in different languages. This was done in the 1930s. According to Ashish Rajadhyaksha and Paul Willemen in the Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema (1994), in its most precise form, a multilingual is
a bilingual or a trilingual [that] was the kind of film made in the 1930s in the studio era, when different but identical takes were made of every shot in different languages, often with different leading stars but identical technical crew and music.:15
Rajadhyaksha and Willemen note that in seeking to construct their Encyclopedia, they often found it "extremely difficult to distinguish multi linguals in this original sense from dubbed versions, remakes, reissues or, in some cases, the same film listed with different titles, presented as separate versions in different languages ... it will take years of scholarly work to establish definitive data in this respect".:15
Pan-India film is a style of Indian cinema and a film movement that has gained popularity post the success of Baahubali: The Beginning (2015) which was a Tollywood film. The term "Pan-Indian film" is used for a film that is simultaneously released in Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada and Hindi languages, with an aim to maximize the target audience and increase the revenues.
Music is a substantial revenue generator, with music rights alone accounting for 4–5% of net revenues. The major film music companies are T-Series at Delhi, Sony Music India at Chennai and Zee Music Company at Mumbai, Aditya Music at Hyderabad and Saregama at Kolkata. Film music accounts for 48% of net music sales. A typical film may feature 5–6 choreographed songs. Indian Music Director A.R. Rahaman have global recognition and have won two Academy Awards.
The demands of a multicultural, increasingly globalised Indian audience led to a mixing of local and international musical traditions. Local dance and music remain a recurring theme in India and followed the Indian diaspora. Playback singers such as Mohammad Rafi, Kishore Kumar, Lata Mangeshkar, K. J. Yesudas, P.Susheela, S. Janaki, Asha Bhosle, K. S. Chitra, Kumar Sanu, Udit Narayan and S. P. Balasubrahmanyam drew crowds to film music stage shows. In the 21st century interaction increased between Indian artists and others. Priyadarshini become the first Indian playback singer to carry out Ph.D. research  in film music and document 100years of music in Tamil cinema and 90years of Kannada cinema.
In film-making, a location is any place where acting and dialogue are recorded. Sites, where filming without dialogue takes place, is termed a second unit photography site. Filmmakers often choose to shoot on location because they believe that greater realism can be achieved in a "real" place. Location shooting is often motivated by budget considerations.
The most popular locations for filming in this nation are the main cities of their state for regional industry. Other locations include Manali and Shimla in Himachal Pradesh; Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir; Ladakh; Darjeeling in West Bengal; Ooty and Kodaikanal in Tamil Nadu; Amritsar in Punjab; Udaipur, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer and Jaipur in Rajasthan; Delhi; Kerala; and Goa and Puducherry.
More than 1000 production organisations operate in the Indian film industry, but few are successful. AVM Productions is the oldest surviving studio in India. Other major production houses include Yash Raj Films, T-series, SUN Pictures, Red Chillies Entertainment, Dharma Productions, Eros International, Ajay Devgn FFilms, Balaji Motion Pictures, UTV Motion Pictures, Raaj Kamal Films International, Hombale Films, Aashirvad Cinemas, Wunderbar Films, Hari Om Entertainment and Geetha Arts.
Cinema by language
Films are made in many cities and regions in India including Assam, Bengal, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Jammu, Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Konkan (Goa), Kerala, Maharashtra, Manipur, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, Tripura and Mizoram.
|2019 Indian feature films certified by the Central Board of Film Certification by languages.|
Note: This table indicates the number of films certified by the CBFC's regional offices in nine cities. The actual number of films produced may be less.
|Language||No. of films|
|Lambadi (including Banjari)||5|
The Assamese language film industry traces its origin to the works of revolutionary visionary Rupkonwar Jyotiprasad Agarwala, who was a distinguished poet, playwright, composer, and freedom fighter. He was instrumental in the production of the first Assamese film Joymati in 1935, under the banner of Critrakala Movietone. Due to the lack of trained technicians, Jyotiprasad, while making his maiden film, had to shoulder the added responsibilities as the screenwriter, producer, director, choreographer, editor, set and costume designer, lyricist, and music director. The film, completed with a budget of 60,000 rupees, was released on 10 March 1935. The picture failed miserably. Like many early films, the negatives and prints of Joymati are missing. Some effort has been made privately by Altaf Mazid to restore and subtitle what is left of the prints. Despite the significant financial loss from Joymati, a second picture, Indramalati, was released in 1939. The 21st century has produced Bollywood-style Assamese movies.
The Bengali language cinematic tradition of Tollygunge located in West Bengal, also known as Tollywood (named after Tollygunge), hosted filmmaking masters such as Satyajit Ray, Ritwik Ghatak and Mrinal Sen. Recent Bengali films that have captured national attention include Choker Bali.(Rituparno Ghosh) Bengal has produced science fiction and issue films.
Bengali cinema dates to the 1890s when the first "bioscopes" were shown in theatres in Calcutta. Within five years, Hiralal Sen set up the Royal Bioscope Company, producing scenes from the stage productions of several popular shows at the Star Theatre, Calcutta, Minerva Theatre and Classic Theatre. Following a long gap after Sen, Dhirendra Nath Ganguly (Known as D.G.) established Indo British Film Co, the first Bengali-owned production company, in 1918. The first Bengali Feature film Billwamangal was produced in 1919 under the banner of Madan Theatre. Bilat Ferat (1921) was the IBFC's first production. Madan Theatres production of Jamai Shashthi was the first Bengali talkie.
In 1932, the name "Tollywood" was coined for the Bengali film industry because Tollygunge rhymes with "Hollywood" and because it was then the center of the Indian film industry. The 'Parallel Cinema' movement began in West Bengal. Bengali stalwarts such as Ray, Mrinal Sen, Ghatak, and others earned international acclaim. Actors including Uttam Kumar and Soumitra Chatterjee led the Bengali film industry.
Braj Bhasha language films present Brij culture mainly to rural people, predominant in the nebulous Braj region centred around Mathura, Agra, Aligarh and Hathras in Western Uttar Pradesh and Bharatpur and Dholpur in Rajasthan. It is the predominant language in the central stretch of the Ganges-Yamuna Doab in Uttar Pradesh. The first Brij Bhasha movie India was Brij Bhoomi (1982, Shiv Kumar), which was a success throughout the country. Later Brij Bhasha cinema saw the production of films like Jamuna Kinare and Brij Kau Birju. The culture of Brij is presented in Krishna Tere Desh Main (Hindi).
Bhojpuri language films predominantly cater to residents of western Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh and also have a large audience in Delhi and Mumbai due to the migration of Bhojpuri speakers to these cities. Besides India, markets for these films developed in other Bhojpuri speaking countries of the West Indies, Oceania and South America.
Bhojpuri film history begins with Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo (Mother Ganges, I will offer you a yellow sari, 1962, Kundan Kumar). Throughout the following decades, few films were produced. Films such as Bidesiya (Foreigner, 1963, S. N. Tripathi) and Ganga (Ganges, 1965, Kumar) were profitable and popular, but in general Bhojpuri films were not common in the 1960s and 1970s.
The industry experienced a revival in 2001 with the hit Saiyyan Hamar (My Sweetheart, Mohan Prasad), which shot Ravi Kissan to superstardom. This was followed by several other successes, including Panditji Batai Na Biyah Kab Hoi (Priest, Tell Me When I Will Marry, 2005, Prasad), and Sasura Bada Paisa Wala (My Father-In-Law, the Rich Guy, 2005). Both did much better business in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar than mainstream Bollywood hits, and both earned more than ten times their production costs. Although smaller than other Indian film industries, these successes increased Bhojpuri cinema's visibility, leading to an awards show and a trade magazine, Bhojpuri City.
Known by the sobriquet Chhollywood. It had its beginning in 1965 with the release of the first Chhattisgarhi film Kahi Debe Sandesh (In Black and White, Manu Nayak). Naidu[who?] wrote the lyrics for the film, and two songs were sung by Mohammad Rafi. That film and Ghar Dwar (1971, Niranjan Tiwari) bombed. No Chhollywood movie was produced for nearly 30 years thereafter.
Indian filmmakers also produce English language films. Deepa Mehta, Anant Balani, Homi Adajania, Vijay Singh, Vierendrra Lalit and Sooni Taraporevala have garnered recognition in Indian English cinema.
Before the arrival of talkies, several silent films were closely related to Gujarati culture. Many film directors, producers, and actors associated with silent films were Gujarati and Parsi. Twenty leading film companies and studios were owned by Gujaratis between 1913 and 1931. They were mostly located in Mumbai. At least forty-four major Gujarati directors worked during this period.
Gujarati cinema dates to 9 April 1932, when the first Gujarati film, Narsinh Mehta, was released. Liludi Dharti (1968) was the first colour Gujarati film. After flourishing through the 1960s to 1980s, the industry declined although it later revived. More than one thousand films were released.
The Hindi language film industry of Bombay—also known as Bollywood—is the largest and most powerful branch. Hindi cinema explored issues of caste and culture in films such as Achhut Kanya (1936) and Sujata (1959). International visibility came to the industry with Raj Kapoor's Awara and later in Shakti Samantha's Aradhana. Hindi cinema grew during the 1990s with the release of as many as 215 films annually.
Many actors signed contracts for simultaneous work in 3–4 films. Institutions such as the Industrial Development Bank of India financed Hindi films. Magazines such as Filmfare, Stardust and Cine Blitz became popular.
The Kannada film industry also referred to as Sandalwood, is based in Bangalore and caters mostly to Karnataka. Gubbi Veeranna (1891 – 1972) was an Indian theatre director and artist and an awardee of the Padma Shri award conferred by the President of India. He was one of the pioneers and most prolific contributors to Kannada theatre. Kannada actor Dr. Rajkumar began working with Veeranna and later became an important actor.
Veeranna founded Karnataka Gubbi Productions. He produced Sadarame (1935, Raja Chandrasekar), in which he acted in the lead role. He then produced Subhadra and Jeevana Nataka (1942). He took the lead role in Hemareddy Mallamma (1945). Karnataka Gubbi Productions was later called Karnataka Films Ltd. and is credited with starting the career of Rajkumar when it offered him the lead role in his debut film Bedara Kannappa. He produced silent movies including His Love Affair, (Raphel Algoet). Veeranna was the lead, accompanied by his wife, Jayamma.
Veeranna produced Bedara Kannappa (1954, H. L. N. Simha) which received the first Certificate of Merit. However, the first "President's Silver Medal for Best Feature Film in Kannada" was awarded at the 5th National Film Awards ceremony to Premada Puthri (1957, R. Nagendra Rao). Rajkumar was the legendary actor along with Vishnuvardhan, Ambarish, Anant Nag, Shankar Nag, Prabhakar, Udaya Kumar, Kalyan Kumar, Gangadhar, Leelavathi, Kalpana, Bharathi, Jayanthi, Pandari Bai, Aarathi, Jaimala, Tara, Umashri, Ravichandran, Shivarajkumar, Shashikumar, Ramesh Arvind, Devaraj, Jaggesh, Saikumar, Vinodraj, Charanraj, Ramkumar, Sudeep, Darshan, Puneeth Rajkumar, Yash, and Ramya.
Kannada Directors include H. L. N. Simha, R. Nagendra Rao, B. R. Panthulu, M. S. Sathyu, Puttanna Kanagal, G. V. Iyer, Karnad, T. S. Nagabharana, S. Siddalingaiah, B. V. Karanth, A K Pattabhi, T. V. Singh Thakur, Y. R. Swamy, M. R. Vittal, Sundar Rao Nadkarni, P. S. Moorthy, S. K. A. Chari, Hunsur Krishnamurthy, Prema Karanth, Rajendra Singh Babu, N. Lakshminarayan, Shankar Nag, Girish Kasaravalli, Umesh Kulkarni and Suresh Heblikar. Other noted film personalities in Kannada are, Bhargava, G.K. Venkatesh, Vijaya Bhaskar, Rajan–Nagendra, Geethapriya, Hamsalekha, R. N. Jayagopal, M. Ranga Rao and Yogaraj Bhat.
Kannada cinema contributed to Indian parallel cinema. Influential Kannada films in this genre include Samskara, Chomana Dudi (B. V. Karanth), "Bangarada Manushya", "Mayura", "Jeevana Chaitra", "Gauri Ganesha", "Udbhava", Tabarana Kathe, Vamshavruksha, Kaadu Kudure, Hamsageethe, Bhootayyana Maga Ayyu, Accident, Maanasa Sarovara, Bara, Chitegoo Chinte, Galige, Ijjodu, Kanneshwara Rama, Ghatashraddha, Tabarana Kathe, Mane, Kraurya, Thaayi Saheba, Bandhana, Muthina Haara, Banker Margayya, Dweepa, Munnudi, Bettada Jeeva, Mysore Mallige and Chinnari Muththa.
The song Baare Baare from the 1972 movie Naagarahaavu was the first slow-motion song of Indian cinema. The 1986 movie Anuraga Aralithu was the first Indian movie to be remade in six other languages. The 1986 movie Africadalli Sheela was the first Indian movie to be shot in African forests. The 1987 movie Ondu Muttina Kathe was the first Indian film to have an underwater action sequence shot in an ocean outside India without the help of an oxygen mask. The 1989 movie Idu Saadhya created a record by becoming the first Indian movie to be shot within 36 hours. The 1995 movie Om is the only Indian movie to have been re-released 550 times. The 2005 movie Shanti was the second Indian film to enter the Guinness Book of World Records in the Fewest actors in a narrative film category. It had only one actor with the other characters represented through voice and no physical appearance. The 2006 Kannada movie Mungaru Male was the first Indian movie to run for a year in a multiplex. Rajkumar is the only lead actor in India to have received National Award for singing.
The 1964 movie Naandi set a landmark by being the first ever Kannada film to be screened at an international film festival. This film was screened at IFFI 1992 Kannada cinema Retrospect.
The 1970 movie Samskara won the Bronze Leopard at Locarno International Film Festival The 1977 movie Ghatashraddha became the only Indian film to be chosen by the National Archive of Paris among 100 others, during the centenary celebrations of cinema. At the 2009 International Film Festival of India, it was announced one of the 20 best films in Indian cinema, having received 1.6 million votes. The 1978 movie Ondanondu Kaladalli was released at The Guild Theatre, 50 Rockefeller Plaza on 17 May 1982. Vincent Canby, the chief film critic of The New York Times, called the movie "that is both exotic as well as surprising in view of all the bodies on the ground at the end, sweet natured!". The film was subtitled into English for its American premiere on 18 October 1995 in Shriver Hall at the Johns Hopkins University as part of the 1995 Milton S. Eisenhower Symposium "Framing Society: A Century of Cinema".
The 1987 film Pushpaka Vimana premiered at the International Film Festival of India, 1988 Cannes Film Festival in the International Critics' Week  and retrospective at the Shanghai International Film Festival, and Whistling Woods International.
The 2000 movie Munnudi was screened at Palm Springs International Film Festival (2002). The 2002 movie Atithi was screened at Cairo International Film Festival. The 2006 movie Thutturi won the Best Audience Award at the 9th Dhaka International Film Festival. and won the Earth Vision Award of 2005-06 at the 15th Tokyo Global Environmental Film Festival.
The 2010 movie Kanasemba Kudureyaneri won the NETPAC Award at the Asiatica Film Mediale (Italy) (2010). The 2011 film Koormavatara was screened in 17 film festivals and won acclaims at the film festivals of Bangkok, New York and Vancouver. The 2013 movie Lucia premiered at the London Indian Film Festival on 20 July 2013. It won the Best Film Audience Choice award at the festival. The 2015 movie Thithi won accolades at multiple international film festivals including the 68th Locarno International Film Festival. The 2016 movie Railway Children won the Ecumenical Jury Award (special mention) at Zlín Film Festival. The 2019 movie Arishadvarga also premiered at the London Indian Film Festival followed by the Asian Premiere at the Singapore South Asian International Film Festival and the North American Premiere at the Vancouver International South Asian Film Festival.
In the post-pandemic era, Kannada cinema started making waves across the world in several international film festivals. Pinki Elli? which was a part of Indian Panorama, also opened the Busan International Film Festival. It also won an award at the New York Indian Film Festival. Amruthamathi was screened at nine international film festivals including Boston Film Festival, Atlanta Film Festival, Austria Film Festival, and won multiple awards. Koli Taal and Neeli Hakki were selected for multiple international Film festivals including New York Indian Film Festival. Daari Yaavudayya Vaikunthakke ? won multiple awards at Rajasthan Film Festival and other international film festivals like Barcelona, Nawada, and Golden Sparrow International Film Festivals.
Konkani language films are mainly produced in Goa. It is one of India's smallest film regions, producing four films in 2009. Konkani language is spoken mainly in the states of Goa, Maharashtra and Karnataka and to a smaller extent in Kerala. The first full-length Konkani film was Mogacho Anvddo (1950, Jerry Braganza), under the banner of Etica Pictures. The film's release date, 24 April, is celebrated as Konkani Film Day. Karnataka is the hub of many Konkani speaking people. An immense body of Konkani literature and art is a resource for filmmakers. Kazar (Marriage, 2009, Richard Castelino) and Ujvaadu (Shedding New Light on Old Age Issues, Kasaragod Chinna) are major releases. The pioneering Mangalorean Konkani film is Mog Ani Maipas.
Maithili Films, first full-length was Kanyadan released in 1965. There are numerous films made in the Maithili over the years but Mithila Makhaan is such a special film that got success to grab everyone's attention after winning the National Award in regional films category.
Known by the sobriquet Mollywood, India's fourth-largest film industry, started from Thiruvananthapuram with The Travancore National Pictures (estd in 1928) as the first film studio in Kerala, is nowly mainly based at Kochi. Noted early filmmakers involved in making serious artistic films include Adoor Gopalakrishnan, Shaji N. Karun, G. Aravindan, K. G. George, Padmarajan, T. V. Chandran and Bharathan.
The first full-length Malayalam feature film was Vigathakumaran (1928, J. C. Daniel). This movie is credited as the first Indian social drama feature film, and is one of the few films to have a Dalit lead actress, P.K. Rosy. Daniel is considered the father of the Malayalam film industry. Balan (1938, S. Nottani) was the first Malayalam "talkie".
Malayalam films were mainly produced by Tamil producers until 1947, when the first major film studio, Udaya Studio, opened in Kerala. Neelakkuyil (1954) captured national interest by winning the President's silver medal. Scripted by the well-known Malayalam novelist, Uroob (P. Bhaskaran and Ramu Kariat) is often considered the first authentic Malayali film. Newspaper Boy (1955), made by a group of students, was the first neo-realistic film offering. Chemmeen (1965, Ramu Kariat) based on a story by Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai, became the first South Indian film to win the National Film Award for Best Feature Film. Mammootty holds a record for the number of National Film Awards for Best Actor that he received for Oru Vadakkan Veeragatha and Mathilukal (1989); Vidheyan and Ponthan Mada (1993); and Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar (1998).
Malayalam has been in the forefront of technological innovation in Indian cinema. The first neorealistic film (Newspaper Boy), the first CinemaScope film (Thacholi Ambu), the first 70 mm film (Padayottam), the first 3D film (My Dear Kuttichathan), the first Panavision film (Vanaprastham), the first digital film (Moonnamathoral), The first Smartphone film (Jalachhayam), the first 8K film (Villain) in India were made in Malayalam.
The period from 1986 to 1990 is regarded as the "Golden Age" of Malayalam cinema, with the making of some of the best films in the industry. Four Malayalam films has received selection at the Cannes Film Festival—Shaji N. Karun-directed Piravi (1989), Swaham (1994) and Vanaprastham (1999), and Murali Nair-directed Marana Simhasanam (1999). Piravi (1989) has won the Caméra d'Or — Mention Spéciale (special mention) and Marana Simhasanam has won the Caméra d'Or.
The Kerala State Film Awards constituted by the Government of Kerala recognizes best works in Malayalam cinema every year, along with J. C. Daniel Award which is the highest award for any person in Malayalam cinema for lifetime achievement. K. R. Narayanan National Institute of Visual Science and Arts (KRNNIVSA) is an autonomous institute established by the Government of Kerala at Thekkumthala in Kottayam District in Kerala state as a training-cum-research center in film/audio-visual technology.
Manipuri cinema is a small industry in the state of Manipur. This region's debut was a full-length black and white film Matamgi Manipur (1972). Manipuri cinema started in the 1970s. Langlen Thadoi (1984) was Manipuri cinema's first full-length color film.
Manipuri cinema gained momentum following a ban on the screening of Hindi films in entertainment houses in Manipur. Screening of Hindi movies came to a halt despite reiterated appeals made by successive Chief Ministers. 80-100 movies are made each year. Cinemas opened in Imphal after World War II. The first full-length Manipuri movie was made in 1972, followed by a boom in 2002.
Imagi Ningthem (directed by Aribam Syam Sharma) won the Grand Prix in the 1982 Nantes International Film Festival. A nationwide French telecast of Imagi Ningthem expanded the audience. After watching Ishanou (Aribam Syam Sharma), westerners began research on Lai Haraoba and Manipur's rich folklore. Maipak, Son of Manipur (1971) was the first Manipuri documentary film.
Marathi films are produced in the Marathi Language in Maharashtra. It is one of the oldest efforts in Indian cinema. Dadasaheb Phalke made the first indigenous silent film Raja Harishchandra (1913) with a Marathi crew, which is considered by IFFI and NIFD to be part of Marathi cinema.
The first Marathi talkie, Ayodhyecha Raja (1932, Prabhat Films). Shwaas (2004) and Harishchandrachi Factory (2009), became India's official Oscar entries. Today the industry is based in Mumbai, but it began in Kolhapur and then Pune.
Marathi films feature the work of actors including Durga Khote, V. Shantaram, Lalita Pawar, Nanda, Shriram Lagoo, Ramesh Deo, Seema Deo, Nana Patekar, Smita Patil, Sadashiv Amrapurkar, Sonali Kulkarni, Sonali Bendre, Urmila Matondkar, Reema Lagoo, Padmini Kolhapure, Ashok Saraf, Laxmikant Berde and Sachin Khedekar.
Known by the sobriquet Ollywood, the Odia language film industry operates in Bhubaneswar and Cuttack. The first Odia talkie Sita Bibaha (1936) came from Mohan Sunder Deb Goswami. Shreeram Panda, Prashanta Nanda, Uttam Mohanty, and Bijay Mohanty started the Oriya film industry by finding an audience and a fresh presentation. The first color film, Gapa Hele Be Sata (Although a Story, It Is True), was made by Nagen Ray and photographed by Pune Film Institute-trained cinematographer Surendra Sahu. The best year for Odia cinema was 1984 when Maya Miriga (Nirad Mohapatra) and Dhare Alua were showcased in Indian Panorama and Maya Miriga was invited to Critics Week at Cannes. The film received the Best Third World Film award at Mannheim Film Festival, Jury Award in Hawaii and was shown at the London Film Festival.
It is known by the sobriquet Pollywood. K. D. Mehra made the first Punjabi film, Sheela (also known as Pind di Kudi (Rustic Girl)). Baby Noor Jehan was introduced as an actress and singer in this film. Sheela was made in Calcutta and released in Lahore; it was a hit across the province. Its success led many more producers to make Punjabi films. As of 2009, Punjabi cinema had produced between 900 and 1,000 movies. The average number of releases per year in the 1970s was nine; in the 1980s, eight; and in the 1990s, six. In the 2000s Punjabi cinema revived with more releases every year featuring bigger budgets. Manny Parmar made the first 3D Punjabi film, Pehchaan 3D (2013).
The Sindhi film industry produces movies at intervals. The first was Abana (1958 ), which was a success throughout the country. Sindhi cinema then produced some Bollywood-style films such as Hal Ta Bhaji Haloon, Parewari, Dil Dije Dil Waran Khe, Ho Jamalo, Pyar Kare Dis: Feel the Power of Love and The Awakening. Numerous Sindhi have contributed in Bollywood, including G P Sippy, Ramesh Sippy, Nikhil Advani, Tarun Mansukhani, Ritesh Sidhwani and Asrani.
The first south Indian talkie film Kalidas (H. M. Reddy) was shot in Tamil and Telugu. Sivaji Ganesan became India's first actor to receive an international award when he won Best Actor at the Afro-Asian film festival in 1960 and the title of Chevalier in the Legion of Honour by the French Government in 1995.
AVM studios is the oldest surviving studio in India.
Tamil cinema is influenced by Dravidian politics, and has a rich tradition of films addressing social issues. Tamil Nadu's most prominent Chief Ministers all got their start in cinema: Dravidian stalwarts C N Annadurai and M Karunanidhi were scriptwriters and M G Ramachandran and Jayalalithaa gained a political base through their huge fan following. K. B. Sundarambal was the first film personality to enter a state legislature in India, and the first to command a salary of one lakh rupees.
Tamil films are distributed to various parts of Asia, Southern Africa, Northern America, Europe, and Oceania. The industry-inspired Tamil film-making in Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore and Canada.
Rajnikanth is referred to as a "superstar" and holds matinee idol status in South India. Kamal Haasan debuted in 1960 Kalathur Kannamma, for which he won the President's gold medal for Best Child Actor. With seven submissions, Kamal Haasan has starred in the highest number of Academy Award submissions. Today actors like Suriya, Vijay and Ajith Kumar are some of the most popular names across south India. Critically acclaimed composers such as Ilaiyaraaja and A. R. Rahman work in Tamil cinema. Art film directors include Santosh Sivan. The actresses Sridevi, Vyjayanthimala and Hema Malini were debuted in Tamil films and later became female superstars in Bollywood.
Known by the sobriquet Tollywood, India's largest number of theatres are located in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, places known for producing feature films in Telugu. Ramoji Film City, which holds the Guinness World Record for the world's largest film production facility, is located in Hyderabad. The Prasad IMAX in Hyderabad is the world's largest 3D IMAX screen and is the world's most viewed screen. Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu is considered the "father of Telugu cinema". The annual Raghupati Venkaiah Award was incorporated into the Nandi Awards to recognise contributions to the industry.
Chittor V. Nagaiah was the first multilingual Indian film actor, thespian, composer, director, producer, writer, and playback singer. Nagaiah made significant contributions to Telugu cinema and starred in some two hundred productions. Regarded as one of the finest Indian method actors, he was Telugu's first matinee idol. His forte was intense characters, often immersing himself in the character's traits and mannerisms. He was the first from South India to be honoured with the Padma Shri. He became known as India's Paul Muni. S. V. Ranga Rao was one of the first Indian actors to receive the international award at the Indonesian Film Festival, held in Jakarta, for Narthanasala in 1963. N. T. Rama Rao was an Indian actor, producer, director, editor, and politician who earned three National Film Awards. He served as Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh for seven years over three terms. He was one of the most successful Telugu actors of his time.
B. Narsing Rao, K. N. T. Sastry and Pattabhirama Reddy garnered international recognition for their pioneering work in Parallel Cinema. Adurthi Subba Rao won ten National Film Awards, Telugu cinema's highest individual awards, for his directorial work.
Bhanumathi Ramakrishna was a multilingual Indian film actress, director, music director, singer, producer, author and songwriter. Savitri was the most popular Telugu actress of her era, and is widely known as the first female super star of Telugu cinema, she was also known for her work in Tamil cinema. Ghantasala was an Indian film composer, playback singer known for his works predominantly in South Indian cinema. S. P. Balasubrahmanyam holds the Guinness World Record of having sung the most songs for any male playback singer; the majority were in Telugu.
S. V. Ranga Rao, N. T. Rama Rao, Savitri, Kanta Rao, Bhanumathi Ramakrishna, Gummadi, Sobhan Babu, Krishna and Krishnam Raju were the stalwarts of the industry. Chiranjeevi was listed among "the men who changed the face of the Indian Cinema" by IBN-live India., The Telugu cinema (a.k.a Tollywood) history created the two part of Baahubali: The Beginning (2015) and Baahubali 2: The Conclusion (2017). The Baahubali franchise has achieved the highest grossing Indian multilingual film franchise of all time globally, with a box office of approximately ₹19 billion (US$270 million). The first edition, Baahubali: The Beginning was nominated for Saturn Award for Best Fantasy Film, while the second edition, Baahubali 2: The Conclusion received the Saturn Award for Best International Film by the American Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy and Horror Films. The sequel garnered the Australian Telstra People's Choice Award at the 2017 Indian Film Festival of Melbourne.
Known by the sobriquet Coastalwood. Tulu cinema (or Coastalwood) is a part of Indian cinema. The Tulu film industry produces 5 to 7 films annually. Usually, earlier, these films were released in theatres across the Tulu Nadu region. But currently the Tulu film industry has grown to such an extent that films are being released simultaneously in Mangalore, Mumbai, Bangalore, and Gulf countries.
Enna Thangadi, was the first, released in 1971. The critically acclaimed Suddha won the award for Best Indian Film at the Osian film festival held at New Delhi in 2006. Oriyardori Asal, released in 2011, is the most successful. Koti Chennaya (1973, Vishu Kumar) was the first history-based. The first colour film was Kariyani Kattandi Kandani (1978, Aroor Bhimarao).
Dadasaheb Phalke is known as the "Father of Indian cinema". The Dadasaheb Phalke Award, for lifetime contribution to cinema, was instituted in his honour by the Government of India in 1969, and is the country's most prestigious and coveted film award.
|Bengal Film Journalists' Association Awards||1937||Government of West Bengal|
|National Film Awards||1954||Directorate of Film Festivals,|
Government of India
|Maharashtra State Film Awards||1963||Government of Maharashtra|
|Nandi Awards||1964||Government of Andhra Pradesh|
|Punjab Rattan Awards||1940||Government of Punjab|
|Tamil Nadu State Film Awards||1967||Government of Tamil Nadu|
|Karnataka State Film Awards||1967||Government of Karnataka|
|Orissa State Film Awards||1968||Government of Odisha|
|Kerala State Film Awards||1969||Government of Kerala|
|Arab Indo Bollywood Awards||2016||ICF Studios|
|Bhojpuri Film Awards||2001||AB5 Multimedia|
|Sabrang Film Awards||2014||Godrej Consumer Products|
|International Bhojpuri Film Awards||2015||Yashi Films International|
||1954||Bennett, Coleman and Co. Ltd.|
|Filmfare Awards South||1954||Bennett, Coleman and Co. Ltd.|
|South Indian International Movie Awards||2012||Vibri Media Group|
|IIFA Awards||2000||Wizcraft International Entertainment Pvt Ltd|
|IIFA Utsavam||2016||Wizcraft International Entertainment Pvt Ltd|
|Zee Cine Awards Telugu||2017||Zee Entertainment Enterprises|
|Zee Cine Awards||1998||Zee Entertainment Enterprises|
|Sansui Viewer's Choice Movie Awards||1998||Pritish Nandy Communications|
|Santosham Film Awards||2004||Santosham film magazine|
|CineMAA Awards||2004||Tollywood Movie Artistes Association|
|Asianet Film Awards||1998||Asianet|
|Screen Awards||1994||Screen Weekly|
|Zee Gaurav Puraskar||2003||Zee Entertainment Enterprises|
|TSR TV9 National Awards Telugu||2007-
|Associated Broadcasting Company Private Limited|
|Apsara Awards||2004||Apsara Producers Guild Awards|
|Vijay Awards||2007||STAR Vijay|
|Marathi International Film and Theatre Awards||2010||Marathi Film Industry|
|Punjabi International Film Academy Awards||2012||Parvasi Media Inc.|
|Prag Cine Awards||2013||Prag AM Television|
|Filmfare Awards East||2014||Bennett, Coleman and Co. Ltd.|
Government-run and private institutes provide formal education in various aspects of filmmaking. Some of the prominent ones include:
- State Institute of Film and Television
- AJK Mass Communication Research Centre, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi
- Annapurna International School of Film and Media, Hyderabad
- Asian Academy of Film and Television
- Biju Pattnaik Film and Television Institute of Odisha
- BOFTA - Blue Ocean Film and Television Academy, Kodambakkam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
- Centre for advanced media studies, Patiala
- Mass Communication and the New Media Central University of Jammu.
- Department of Culture and Media studies, Central University of Rajasthan
- Film and Television Institute of India (FTII), Pune
- Film-Theater Studies, SOH, Tamil Nadu Open University, Saidapet, Chennai
- Government Film and Television Institute, Bangalore
- K. R. Narayanan National Institute of Visual Science and Arts (KRNNIVSA), Kottayam, Kerala
- L. V. Prasad Film and TV Academy, Chennai
- M.G.R. Government Film and Television Training Institute, Chennai
- Matrikas Film School
- National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad
- Palme Deor Media College, Tambaram west, Chennai and Arulananda Nagar, Thanjavur
- Regional Government Film and Television Institute (RGFTI), Guwahati
- Satyajit Ray Film and Television Institute, Calcutta
- School of Media and Cultural Studies, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai
- Srishti School of Art, Design, and Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka
- Whistling Woods International
- National School of Drama, Delhi
- Cinema of Nepal
- List of Indian animated movies
- International Film Festival of India
- Lists of Indian actors
- List of Indian film actresses
- Hyderabad is the hub of the Telugu cinema.
- Mumbai is known as the film capital of India and the hub of Bollywood.
- Chennai is the hub of Tamil film industry.
- Kolkata is the home of Bengali cinema.
- Kochi is known as the hub of Malayalam cinema.
- Bangalore is the hub of Kannada cinema.
- The twin cities of Bhubaneswar & Cuttack play host to the Odiya film industry.
- Guwahati is the hub of Assamese cinema
- "FICCI-EY Report on Media and Entertainment 2020" (PDF). Ficci.in. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- "Feature films: Cinema infrastructure - Capacity". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. UNESCO. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
- "Indian Feature Films Certified in 2019" (PDF). Filmfed.org. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
- "Culture: Feature Films". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. 2015. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
- "Indian film industry's gross box office earnings may reach $3.7 billion by 2020: Report - Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis". 26 September 2016.
- "India Box Office collections: Regional cinema led by Tamil movies overtakes Bollywood". The Financial Express. 2020. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
- Hasan Suroor (26 October 2012). "Arts: Sharmila Tagore honoured by Edinburgh University". The Hindu. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- "Leading film markets worldwide by number of films produced 2018". Statista. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
- "Tamil leads as India tops film production". The Times of India. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- "Electrolux-2nd" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
- "Most of Jubilee Hills, Film Nagar is Wakf land". The Hindu. 7 May 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
- "ANR inspired Telugu film industry's shift from Chennai". The Hindu. 13 May 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
- "The birth of India's film industry: how the movies came to Mumbai". The Guardian. 25 July 2013. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
- "Commercial and bollywood hub Mumbai vs Media and political 'capital' Delhi: Is the race over?". The Economic Times. 25 December 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
- "Tamil films: How north Chennai marks its presence while Kodambakkam thrives". Hindustan Times. 23 February 2017. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
- Hiro, Dilip (2010). After Empire: The Birth of a Multipolar World. p. 248. ISBN 978-1-56858-427-0.
- "Lights, camera, action..." Business Standard India. Business Standard. 21 January 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
- "Will viewers return to theatres after lockdown? asks Bengal's film industry". Hindustan Times. 23 April 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
- "Love, sex and the bhadralok". Business Line. 16 December 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
- "Kochi sizzling onscreen". The New Indian Express. 29 January 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
- "Mollywood comes home to Kochi". The Hindu. 4 March 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
- "Kochi Says Lights, Camera, Action!". The New Indian Express. 6 April 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
- "Mini-film city at Ramanthuruth". The Times of India. 7 November 2017. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
- "Bengaluru's 100-yr-old Badami House, hub of Kannada cinema, will soon be no more". The News Minute. 12 October 2017. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
- "Thriving nucleus of a film industry". The Hindu. 28 October 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
- "The New Capital at Bhubaneswar" (PDF). Government of Odisha. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
- "First archives for Odia films soon". The New Indian Express. 25 June 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
- "Express Rewind: Assamese cinema and the murmurs of a comeback". The New Indian Express. 30 December 2018. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
- "Guwahati to host 65th Filmfare Awards". The Times of India. 26 November 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
- "Leading film markets worldwide by number of films produced 2018". Statista. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
- Frater, Patrick (13 April 2016). "Asia Expands Domination of Global Box Office". Variety. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
- "India Box Office collections: Regional cinema led by Telugu, Tamil movies overtakes Bollywood". The Financial Express. 11 July 2020. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
- "India - box office distribution by language 2019". Statista. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
- "Tollywood | ఆ విషయంలో బాలీవుడ్ను వెనక్కి నెట్టేసిన టాలీవుడ్." Namasthe Telangana. 5 January 2022. Retrieved 20 January 2022.
- S, Srivatsan (7 January 2022). "The 'pan-Indian' strategy of Telugu cinema". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 20 January 2022.
- Mukherjee, Nairita; Joshi, Tushar (22 December 2021). "Is South cinema the new Bollywood?". India Today. Retrieved 20 January 2022.
- Khanna, 155
- Khanna, 158
- Potts, 74
- Burra & Rao, 252
- McKernan, Luke (31 December 1996). "Hiralal Sen (copyright British Film Institute)". Retrieved 1 November 2006.
- Kadam, Kumar (24 April 2012). "दादासाहेब तोरणेंचे विस्मरण नको!". Maharashtra Times. Archived from the original on 8 October 2013.
- Raghavendara, MK (5 May 2012). "What a journey".
- Damle, Manjiri (21 April 2012). "Torne's 'Pundlik' came first, but missed honour". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 30 May 2013.
- Mishra, Garima (3 May 2012). "Bid to get Pundalik recognition as first Indian feature film".
- "Dadasaheb Phalke Father of Indian Cinema". Thecolorsofindia.com. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- Bāpū Vāṭave; National Book Trust (2004). Dadasaheb Phalke, the father of Indian cinema. National Book Trust. ISBN 978-81-237-4319-6. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- Sachin Sharma (28 June 2012). "Godhra forgets its days spent with Dadasaheb Phalke". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 19 April 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- Vilanilam, J. V. (2005). Mass Communication in India: A Sociological Perspective. New Delhi: Sage Publications. p. 128. ISBN 81-7829-515-6.
- Burra & Rao, 253
- "Metro Plus Chennai / Madras Miscellany: The pioneer 'Tamil' film-maker". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 7 September 2009. Archived from the original on 12 September 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
- "Nijam cheppamantara, abaddham cheppamantara..." The Hindu. 9 February 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2020 – via www.thehindu.com.
- Velayutham, Selvaraj. Tamil cinema: the cultural politics of India's other film industry. p. 2.
- Muthiah, S. (7 September 2009). "The pioneer 'Tamil' film-maker". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 12 September 2009. Retrieved 21 April 2014.
- Burra & Rao, 252–253
- Purohit, Vinayak (1988). Arts of transitional India twentieth century, Volume 1. Popular Prakashan. p. 985. ISBN 978-0-86132-138-4. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- [Narayanan, Arandhai (2008) (in Tamil) Arambakala Tamil Cinema (1931–1941). Chennai: Vijaya Publications. pp. 10–11. ISBN].
- "Articles – History of Birth And Growth of Telugu Cinema". CineGoer.com. Archived from the original on 26 October 2005. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- "Nagaiah – noble, humble and kind-hearted". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 8 April 2005. Archived from the original on 25 November 2005.
- "Paul Muni of India – Chittoor V. Nagayya". Bharatjanani.com. 6 May 2011. Archived from the original on 26 March 2012. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
- Narasimham, M. L. (7 November 2010). "SATI SAVITHRI (1933)". The Hindu. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
- Bhagwan Das Garg (1996). So many cinemas: the motion picture in India. Eminence Designs. p. 86. ISBN 81-900602-1-X.
- "The Hindu News". The Hindu. 6 May 2005. Archived from the original on 6 May 2005.
- Burra & Rao, 254
- "First Indian Colour Film". Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "A revolutionary filmmaker". The Hindu. 22 August 2003. Archived from the original on 17 January 2004. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- "He brought cinema to South". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 30 April 2010. Archived from the original on 5 May 2010. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- "Citation on the participation of Sant Tukaram in the 5th Mostra Internazionale d'Arte Cinematographica in 1937". National Film Archive of India. Archived from the original on 8 November 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
- "How free is freedom of speech?". Postnoon. 21 May 2012. Archived from the original on 24 May 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 27 June 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Rajadhyaksa, 679
- Rajadhyaksa, 684
- Rajadhyaksa, 681–683
- Rajadhyaksa, 681
- K. Moti Gokulsing, K. Gokulsing, Wimal Dissanayake (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books. p. 17.
- Sharpe, Jenny (2005). "Gender, Nation, and Globalization in Monsoon Wedding and Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge". Meridians: Feminism, Race, Transnationalism. 6 (1): 58–81 [60 & 75]. doi:10.1353/mer.2005.0032. S2CID 201783566.
- Gooptu, Sharmistha (July 2002). "Reviewed work(s): The Cinemas of India (1896–2000) by Yves Thoraval". Economic and Political Weekly. 37 (29): 3023–4.
- "Satyajit Ray". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Aditya Chakrabortty (22 July 2013). "Satyajit Ray's artifice and honesty set him apart from other film directors". The Guardian.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 January 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 September 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- World Archipelago (April 2013). Book Details. columbia.edu. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231535472.
- "Satyajit Ray: five essential films". British Film Institute.
- K. Moti Gokulsing, K. Gokulsing, Wimal Dissanayake (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books. p. 18.
- "Pather Panchali: Its history, the genius behind it, and Satyajit Rays style of working".
- Rajadhyaksha, Ashish (2016). Indian Cinema: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 61. ISBN 9780191034770.
- Maker of innovative, meaningful movies. The Hindu, 15 June 2007
- Ghatak, Ritwik (2000). Rows and Rows of Fences: Ritwik Ghatak on Cinema. Ritwik Memorial & Trust Seagull Books. pp. ix & 134–36.
- Hood, John (2000). The Essential Mystery: The Major Filmmakers of Indian Art Cinema. Orient Longman Limited. pp. 21–4. ISBN 9788125018704.
- "Do Bigha Zamin". Filmreference.com. 3 August 1980. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- Srikanth Srinivasan (4 August 2008). "Do Bigha Zamin: Seeds of the Indian New Wave". Dear Cinema. Archived from the original on 15 January 2010. Retrieved 13 April 2009.
- Rajadhyaksa, 683
- Sragow, Michael (1994). "An Art Wedded to Truth". The Atlantic Monthly. University of California, Santa Cruz. Archived from the original on 12 April 2009. Retrieved 11 May 2009.
- "Subrata Mitra". Internet Encyclopedia of Cinematographers. Retrieved 22 May 2009.
- Nick Pinkerton (14 April 2009). "First Light: Satyajit Ray From the Apu Trilogy to the Calcutta Trilogy". The Village Voice. Retrieved 9 July 2009.
- Mother India on IMDb
- Sridharan, Tarini (25 November 2012). "Mother India, not Woman India". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 6 January 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2012.
- Bollywood Blockbusters: Mother India (Part 1) (Documentary). CNN-IBN. 2009. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015.
- Kehr, Dave (23 August 2002). "Mother India (1957). Film in review; 'Mother India'". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
- Teo, Stephen (2017). Eastern Westerns: Film and Genre Outside and Inside Hollywood. Taylor & Francis. p. 122. ISBN 9781317592266.
- Ganti, Tejaswini (2004). Bollywood: A Guidebook to Popular Hindi Cinema. Psychology Press. pp. 153–. ISBN 978-0-415-28854-5.
- Doniger, Wendy (2005). "Chapter 6: Reincarnation". The woman who pretended to be who she was: myths of self-imitation. Oxford University Press. pp. 112–136 .
- Usman, Yasser (16 January 2021). "Dilip Kumar as 'Pyaasa' hero is what Guru Dutt wanted. But first day of shoot changed it all". ThePrint. Retrieved 1 November 2021.
- "How Bollywood legend Dilip Kumar became India's biggest star". gulfnews.com. Retrieved 1 November 2021.
- Before Brando, There Was Dilip Kumar, The Quint, 11 December 2015
- "India and Cannes: A Reluctant Courtship". Passion For Cinema. 2008. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2009.
- K. Moti Gokulsing, K. Gokulsing, Wimal Dissanayake (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books. pp. 18–9.
- Santas, Constantine (2002). Responding to film: A Text Guide for Students of Cinema Art. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-8304-1580-9.
- Kevin Lee (5 September 2002). "A Slanted Canon". Asian American Film Commentary. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 24 April 2009.
- Totaro, Donato (31 January 2003). "The "Sight & Sound" of Canons". Offscreen Journal. Canada Council for the Arts. Retrieved 19 April 2009.
- "Sight and Sound Poll 1992: Critics". California Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on 16 October 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- Aaron and Mark Caldwell (2004). "Sight and Sound". Top 100 Movie Lists. Archived from the original on 29 July 2009. Retrieved 19 April 2009.
- "Sight and Sound 1992 Ranking of Films". Archived from the original on 22 October 2009. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- "Sight and Sound 1982 Ranking of Films". Archived from the original on 22 October 2009. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- "2002 Sight & Sound Top Films Survey of 253 International Critics & Film Directors". Cinemacom. 2002. Retrieved 19 April 2009.
- "'Mayabazar' is India's greatest film ever: IBNLive poll". Ibnlive.in.com. Archived from the original on 4 February 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- "Sivaji Ganesan's birth anniversary". The Times of India. 1 October 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
- Gokulsing & Dissanayake, 132–133
- Kasbekar, Asha (2006). Pop Culture India!: Media, Arts, and Lifestyle. ABC-CLIO. p. 215. ISBN 978-1-85109-636-7.
- Pani, S. S. (1954). "India in 1953". The Film Daily Year Book of Motion Pictures. 36. John W. Alicoate. p. 930. Retrieved 1 May 2022.
THE INDIAN FILM INDUSTRY, said to be the second largest in the world, claims to have invested Rs. 420 million and to have a gross annual income of Rs. 250 million.
- Rajadhyaksa, 685
- Rajadhyaksa, 688
- "Salim-Javed: Writing Duo that Revolutionized Indian Cinema". Pandolin. 25 April 2013. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
- Chaudhuri, Diptakirti (1 October 2015). Written by Salim-Javed: The Story of Hindi Cinema's Greatest Screenwriters. Penguin UK. ISBN 9789352140084.
- Raj, Ashok (2009). Hero Vol.2. Hay House. p. 21. ISBN 9789381398036.
- "Revisiting Prakash Mehra's Zanjeer: The film that made Amitabh Bachchan". The Indian Express. 20 June 2017.
- Ganti, Tejaswini (2004). Bollywood: A Guidebook to Popular Hindi Cinema. Psychology Press. p. 153. ISBN 9780415288545.
- Chaudhuri, Diptakirti (2015). Written by Salim-Javed: The Story of Hindi Cinema's Greatest Screenwriters. Penguin Books. p. 72. ISBN 9789352140084.
- Kumar, Surendra (2003). Legends of Indian cinema: pen portraits. Har-Anand Publications. p. 51.
- Mazumdar, Ranjani (2007). Bombay Cinema: An Archive of the City. University of Minnesota Press. p. 14. ISBN 9781452913025.
- Chaudhuri, Diptakirti (2015). Written by Salim-Javed: The Story of Hindi Cinema's Greatest Screenwriters. Penguin Group. p. 74. ISBN 9789352140084.
- "Deewaar was the perfect script: Amitabh Bachchan on 42 years of the cult film". Hindustan Times. 29 January 2017.
- Amitava Kumar (23 December 2008). "Slumdog Millionaire's Bollywood Ancestors". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 4 January 2008.
- Anand (7 March 2004). "On the Bollywood beat". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 3 April 2004. Retrieved 31 May 2009.
- Subhash K Jha (8 April 2005). "Amit Khanna: The Man who saw 'Bollywood'". Sify. Archived from the original on 9 April 2005. Retrieved 31 May 2009.
- Chaudhuri, Diptakirti (1 October 2015). Written by Salim-Javed: The Story of Hindi Cinema's Greatest Screenwriters. Penguin UK. p. 58. ISBN 9789352140084.
- "How film-maker Nasir Husain started the trend for Bollywood masala films". Hindustan Times. 30 March 2017.
- Kaushik Bhaumik, An Insightful Reading of Our Many Indian Identities, The Wire, 12 March 2016
- Rachel Dwyer (2005). 100 Bollywood films. Lotus Collection, Roli Books. p. 14. ISBN 978-81-7436-433-3. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- Films in Review. Then and There Media, LCC. 1986. p. 368.
And then I had forgotten that lndia leads the world in film production, with 833 motion pictures (up from 741 the previous year).
- iDiva (13 October 2011). "Sridevi - The Dancing Queen". Archived from the original on 24 February 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
- Ray, Kunal (18 December 2016). "Romancing the 1980s". The Hindu.
- Arundhati Roy, Author-Activist Archived 24 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine india-today.com. Retrieved 16 June 2013
- "The Great Indian Rape-Trick" Archived 14 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, SAWNET - The South Asian Women's NETwork. Retrieved 25 November 2011
- Aruti Nayar (16 December 2007). "Bollywood on the table". The Tribune. Retrieved 19 June 2008.
- Christian Jungen (4 April 2009). "Urban Movies: The Diversity of Indian Cinema". FIPRESCI. Archived from the original on 17 June 2009. Retrieved 11 May 2009.
- "The Three Khans of Bollywood - DESIblitz". 18 September 2012.
- Cain, Rob. "Are Bollywood's Three Khans The Last Of The Movie Kings?". Forbes.
- After Aamir, SRK, Salman, why Bollywood's next male superstar may need a decade to rise, Firstpost, 16 October 2016
- "Why Aamir Khan Is The King Of Khans: Foreign Media".
- D'Cunha, Suparna Dutt. "Why 'Dangal' Star Aamir Khan Is The New King Of Bollywood". Forbes.
- Cain, Rob (5 October 2017). "Why Aamir Khan Is Arguably The World's Biggest Movie Star, Part 2". Forbes.
- Muzaffar Raina (25 November 2013). "Protests hit Haider shoot on Valley campus". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 20 April 2015. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- "The Official Awards of the ninth edition of the Rome Film Festival". romacinefest.it. 25 October 2014. Archived from the original on 26 October 2014. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- Oka Oori Katha (The Outsiders). Mrinal Sen. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- "K. Viswanath Film craft Page 6 DFF" (PDF). Retrieved 1 January 2013.
- "100 Years of Indian Cinema: The 100 greatest Indian films of all time". IBNLive. Archived from the original on 24 April 2013.
- "The saga of a lensman". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 9 June 2003. Archived from the original on 23 October 2003.
- Pasupulate, Karthik (20 February 2013). "Power of the tongue". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 19 April 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
- Narasimham, M. L. (12 October 2018). "The story behind the song ' Nerajaanavule' from the movie Aditya 369". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- "9 Factors That Made Devi Sri Prasad A Brand In South Indian Cinema". pyckers. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
- "Tollywood loses to Bollywood on numbers". The Times of India. 2 October 2010. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012.
- "The great role reversal of Tollywood". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
- "Abhinay Deo – "All stories can be found in Mahabharata and Ramayana" – Bollywood Movie News". IndiaGlitz. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- Velayutham, Selvaraj (2008). "'India' in Tamil silent era cinema". Tamil Cinema: The Cultural Politics of India's Other Film Industry. Routledge. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-415-39680-6.
- "Indian Films vs Hollywood". Theviewspaper.net. 4 July 2008. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- "THE TAMIL NADU ENTERTAINMENTS TAX ACT, 1939" (PDF). Government of Tamil Nadu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- Pillai, Sreedhar. "A gold mine around the globe". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
- "Eros buys Tamil film distributor". Business Standard. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
- "With high demand for Indian movies, Big Cinemas goes global". The Times of India. 12 June 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- "Symposium: Sri Lanka's Cultural Experience". Frontline. Chennai, India. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- "Celebration of shared heritage at Canadian film festival". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- Baskaran, Sundararaj Theodore (2013). The Eye Of The Serpent: An Introduction To Tamil Cinema. Westland. pp. 164–. ISBN 978-93-83260-74-4.
- Movie Buzz (14 July 2011). "Tamil films dominate Andhra market". Sify. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- "A few hits and many flops". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 29 December 2006. Archived from the original on 3 January 2007.
- "Mutu: Odoru Maharaja" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- Gautaman Bhaskaran (6 January 2002). "Rajnikanth casts spell on Japanese viewers". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 20 May 2007. Retrieved 10 May 2007.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
- "Agni Natchathiram & Kaakha Kaakha | 12 Unknown facts in Kollywood history!". Behindwoods. 11 March 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2021.
- "India's Oscar failures (25 Images)". Movies.ndtv.com. Archived from the original on 22 September 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- Nayakan, All-Time 100 Best Films, Time, 2005
- Desk, News (9 September 2021). "101st convocation of University of Mysore! Priyadarshini first Indian playback singer to receive PhD". Welcome to Mysooru News. Retrieved 2 October 2021.
- Mary, S. B. Vijaya (24 September 2021). "Singer Priyadarshini documents 100 years of film music". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2 October 2021.
- "Priyadarshini becomes the first playback singer to receive Ph.D". Star of Mysore. 17 September 2021. Retrieved 2 October 2021.
- "End of a path-breaking journey". Online Edition of The Deccan Herald, dated 16 May 2006. The Printers (Mysore) Pvt. Ltd. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 8 August 2007.
- "Cinema History Malayalam Cinema". Malayalamcinema.com. Archived from the original on 23 December 2008. Retrieved 30 December 2008.
- "The Movie Interview: Adoor Gopalakrishnan". Rediff. 31 July 1997. Retrieved 21 May 2009.
- Kishore, Vikrant; Sarwal, Amit; Patra, Parichay (2016). Salaam Bollywood: Representations and Interpretations. Routledge. p. 238. ISBN 9781317232865.
- Jha, Lata (18 July 2016). "10 Rajinikanth films that were remakes of Amitabh Bachchan starrers". Mint.
- "Business India". Business India. A. H. Advani (478–481): 82. July 1996.
As the Indian film industry (mainly Hindi and Telugu combined) is one of the world's largest, with an estimated viewership of 600 million, film music has always been popular.
- "Bollywood: Can new money create a world-class film industry in India?". Business Week. 2 December 2002.
- Lorenzen, Mark (April 2009). "Go West: The Growth of Bollywood" (PDF). Creativity at Work. Copenhagen Business School.
- "CNN Travel". CNN.
- "King of Good times Prasad's Imax". The Hindu Newspaper. 7 August 2011.
- "The Seven IMAX Wonders of the World". Gizmodo.com. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- "Ramoji Film City sets record". Business Line. Archived from the original on 8 December 2008. Retrieved 3 August 2007.
- Gokulsing, K. Moti; Dissanayake, Wimal (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books. pp. 98–99. ISBN 1-85856-329-1.
- K. Moti Gokulsing, K. Gokulsing, Wimal Dissanayake (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books. p. 98.
- Matthew Jones (January 2010). "Bollywood, Rasa and Indian Cinema: Misconceptions, Meanings and Millionaire". Visual Anthropology. 23 (1): 33–43. doi:10.1080/08949460903368895. S2CID 144974842.
- Cooper, Darius (2000). The Cinema of Satyajit Ray: Between Tradition and Modernity. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–4. ISBN 978-0-521-62980-5.
- K. Moti Gokulsing, K. Gokulsing, Wimal Dissanayake (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books. pp. 98–99.
- K. Moti Gokulsing, K. Gokulsing, Wimal Dissanayake (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books. p. 99.
- Gooptu, Sharmistha (2010). Bengali Cinema: 'An Other Nation'. Routledge. p. 38. ISBN 9781136912177.
- Velayutham, 174
- Desai, 38
- Dr. Sudha Ramachandran (2 June 2015). "Budding romance: Bollywood in China". Asia Times. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
- Anil K. Joseph (20 November 2002). "Lagaan revives memories of Raj Kapoor in China". Press Trust of India. Archived from the original on 26 August 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2009.
- "Rahman's 'Lagaan' cast a spell on me". Sify. 13 February 2004. Archived from the original on 24 March 2009. Retrieved 24 February 2009.
- "RussiaToday: Features: Bollywood challenges Hollywood in Russia". Archived from the original on 26 June 2008.
- Ashreena, Tanya. "Promoting Bollywood Abroad Will Help to Promote India". Archived from the original on 3 December 2013.
- Rajagopalan, Sudha (2005). Indian Films in Soviet Cinemas: The Culture of Movie-going After Stalin. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-22099-8.
- Moscow Prime Time: How the Soviet Union Built the Media Empire that Lost the Cultural Cold War, page 44, Cornell University Press, 2011
- Manschot, J.; Vos, Marijke De (2005). Behind The Scenes Of Hindi Cinema: A Visual Journey Through The Heart Of Bollywood. Royal Tropical Institute Press (KIT (Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen).
- Kalinovsky, Artemy M.; Daigle, Craig (5 June 2014). The Routledge Handbook of the Cold War. Routledge. pp. 357–. ISBN 978-1-134-70065-3.
- Sergey Kudryavtsev. "Зарубежные фильмы в советском кинопрокате".
- "Bollywood re-enters Russian homes via cable TV". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 27 September 2007. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
- How To Become A Foreign Movie Star In China: Aamir Khan's 5-Point Formula For Success, Forbes, 11 June 2017
- "Dangal in China: How Aamir Khan became India's most popular export to the land of the dragon". 20 May 2017.
- 'Dangal' Makes More History In China, Joins List Of All-Time 20 Biggest Box Office Hits, Forbes, 9 June 2017
- Arthur J Pais (14 April 2009). "Why we admire Satyajit Ray so much". Rediff.com. Retrieved 17 April 2009.
- Desai, 37
- Chris Ingui. "Martin Scorsese hits DC, hangs with the Hachet". Hatchet. Archived from the original on 26 August 2009. Retrieved 6 June 2009.
- Sheldon Hall. "Ivory, James (1928–)". Screen Online. Retrieved 12 February 2007.
- Dave Kehr (5 May 1995). "The 'world' of Satyajit Ray: Legacy of India's Premier Film Maker On Display". Daily News. Archived from the original on 15 September 2009. Retrieved 6 June 2009.
- Suchetana Ray (11 March 2008). "Satyajit Ray is this Spanish director's inspiration". CNN-IBN. Archived from the original on 15 September 2009. Retrieved 6 June 2009.
- "On Ray's Trail". The Statesman. Archived from the original on 3 January 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2007.
- Robinson, A (2003). Satyajit Ray: The Inner Eye: the Biography of a Master Film-maker. I. B. Tauris. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-86064-965-3.
- Carrigy, Megan (October 2003). "Ritwik Ghatak". Senses of Cinema. Archived from the original on 30 April 2009. Retrieved 3 May 2009.
- "Asian Film Series No.9 GURU DUTT Retorospective". Japan Foundation. 2001. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2009.
- "Baz Luhrmann Talks Awards and 'Moulin Rouge'". About.com. Retrieved 15 May 2009.
- "Guide Picks – Top Movie Musicals on Video/DVD". About.com. Retrieved 15 May 2009.
- "Slumdog draws crowds, but not all like what they see". The Age. Melbourne. 25 January 2009. Retrieved 24 January 2008.
- "'Slumdog Millionaire' has an Indian co-director". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 11 January 2009. Archived from the original on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 23 January 2009.
- "Slumdog gets 10 Oscar noms". Rediff News. Retrieved 23 January 2009.
- "Trends and genres". Filmreference.com. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- "Take One: The First Annual Village Voice Film Critics' Poll". The Village Voice. 1999. Archived from the original on 26 August 2007. Retrieved 27 July 2006.
- "All-Time 100 Best Movies". Time. 12 February 2005. Archived from the original on 23 May 2005. Retrieved 19 May 2008.
- "The Sight & Sound Top Ten Poll: 1992". Sight & Sound. British Film Institute. Archived from the original on 9 March 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2008.
- "The Best 1,000 Movies Ever Made". by the Film Critics of The New York Times, 2002.
- Gokulsing & Dissanayake, 132
- Rajadhyaksha, Ashish; Willemen, Paul; Paul Willemen (1994). Encyclopaedia of Indian Cinema. New Delhi: Oxford University Press; British Film Institute (London). ISBN 0-19-563579-5.
- "'Pan-India' films make a comeback". Telangana Today. 17 April 2021.
- Potts, 75
- Thompson, 74
- Zumkhawala-Cook, 312
- ScoopWhoop (16 May 2015). "13 Locations In India Made Famous By Bollywood Movies".
- "Top filming locations in India". 26 October 2015. Archived from the original on 26 April 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
- Business, Standard (19 September 2013). "The myth of the overseas market". Business Standard India. Business-Standard. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
- "Film Federation Of India" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
- "Joymati". IMDb.
- Lakshmi B. Ghosh, A rare peep into the world of Assamese cinema The Hindu: New Delhi News: A rare peep into the world of Assamese cinema, The Hindu, 2006
- Gokulsing & Dissanayake, 138
- Gokulsing & Dissanayake, 139
- Gokulsing & Dissanayake, 138–140
- Jamai Shashthi on IMDb: first Bengali talkie
- Sarkar, Bhaskar (2008). "The Melodramas of Globalization". Cultural Dynamics. 20 (1): 31–51 . doi:10.1177/0921374007088054. S2CID 143977618.
- "Encyclopedia of India's Art, Culture, Movies and People". 21 January 2013. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013.
- "First Film Produced In Different Languages". merapahad.in. 2 April 2010. Archived from the original on 30 April 2010.
- "Central Board of Film Certification". cbfcindia.gov.in. Archived from the original on 6 January 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 October 2014. Retrieved 27 October 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "फिल्म 'कान्हा की ब्रज भूमि' में दिखेगा आगरा". jagran. 17 April 2013.
- "- 'ब्रज की राधा द्वारिका के श्याम' में झलकेगी ब्रज की संस्कृति - Amar Ujala". Amarujala.
- "ब्रज फिल्म की शूटिंग शुरू". jagran. 1 May 2012.
- Mesthrie, Rajend (1991). Language in Indenture: A Sociolinguistic History of Bhojpuri-Hindi in South Africa. London: Routledge. pp. 19–32. ISBN 978-0-415-06404-0.
- Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo on IMDb
- "The Telegraph – Calcutta: etc". The Telegraph. Calcutta. 14 April 2006. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- "Move over Bollywood, Here's Bhojpuri", BBC News Online: http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/1/hi/world/south_asia/4512812.stm
- "Home". Bhojpuri Film Award. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- "bhojpuricity.com". bhojpuricity.com. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- "Rare language films enthral film buffs at KIFF". Business Standard India (Press release). Press Trust of India. 15 November 2017. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
- "My Bicycle". The Daily Star. 2 April 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
- In, CGFilm (7 November 2010). "Chhollywood Films". CGFilm Chhollywood Industry. CGFilm. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
- A film entitled "Kahi Debe Sandesh" the first film to be produced in Chhattisgarh dialect was released for commercial exhibition at Durg'. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- P.E.N. All-India Centre, Bombay (1969). "The Indian P.E.N., Volume 35". The Indian P.E.N. 35: 362. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- Ghosh, Avijit (16 May 2010). "Chhollywood calling". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
- K. Moti Gokulsing; Wimal Dissanayake (17 April 2013). Routledge Handbook of Indian Cinemas. Routledge. pp. 88–99. ISBN 978-1-136-77284-9.
- "News: Limping at 75". Screen. 4 May 2007. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012.
- "'Dhollywood' at 75 finds few takers in urban Gujarat". Financial Express. 22 April 2007.
- "Gujarati cinema: A battle for relevance". dna. 16 December 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- "Golly! Gujarati films cross 1k mark". The Times of India. 29 July 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- "Bachchan Receives Lifetime Achievement Award at DIFF". Khaleej Times. 25 November 2009. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 24 November 2011.
- "When Bollywood's ex-lovers reunited to work together". Mid-Day (Mid-Day.com). Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- Pippa de Bruyn; Niloufer Venkatraman; Keith Bain; Niloufer Venkatraman; Keith Bain (2006). Frommer's India. Frommer's. p. 579. ISBN 978-0-471-79434-9.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)Crusie, Jennifer; Yeffeth, Glenn (2005). Flirting with Pride & Prejudice. BenBella Books, Inc. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-932100-72-3.
- Gokulsing & Dissanayake, 10–11
- Gokulsing & Dissanayake, 10
- Gokulsing & Dissanayake, 11
- Rajadhyaksha, Ashish (1998). Oxford Guide to Film Studies. Eds. John Hill and Church Gibson. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- "GFTI Bangalore". www.filminstitutebangalore.com/. Archived from the original on 21 August 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "Did you know? Kannada song 'Baare Baare Chandada Cheluvina Taare' from 'Naagarahaavu' was the first slow-motion song of Indian cinema". The Times of India.
- "Not Rajinikanth or Amitabh Bachchan, Rajkumar's film was first to be remade in 6 languages in India".
- "Ondu Muttina Kathe is the first Indian movie to be shot underwater". The Times of India.
- "Latest News, India News, Covid-19 News, Breaking News, Today's News Headlines Online". Archived from the original on 9 March 2016.
- "Shivarajkumar sets a new record!". The Times of India.
- "Did you know 'Shanthi' was the first Kannada movie and second Indian movie to enter the Guinness Book of World Records for featuring only one actor in the film?". The Times of India.
- "Did you know? 'Mungaru Male' was the first film to cross Rs 50 crore at the box office as well as run for a year in a multiplex". The Times of India.
- History 44 - Naandi Gets International Recognition
- Khajane, Muralidhara (27 January 2017). "Kannada cinema makes its presence felt at Bengaluru film fest". The Hindu.
- "Kannada films for all time". 31 October 2018.
- Comedian Vadiraj is dead
- Khajane, Muralidhara (26 February 2018). "Celebration of Kannada 'power' at BIFFes". The Hindu.
- "Tikkavarapu Pattabhirama Reddy – Poet, Film maker of international fame from Nellore - 1Nellore.com". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
- "Asiatic Film Mediale". asiaticafilmmediale.it. Archived from the original on 16 November 2008.
- "Girish Kasaravalli to be felicitated". The Hindu. 25 April 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
- "Ghatashraddha, one of the 20 best movies". The Times of India. 4 December 2009. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- Khajane, Muralidhara (5 December 2019). "A journey in reels". The Hindu.
- Canby, Vincent (17 May 1982). "From India 'Once Upon a Time'". The New York Times.
- MSE Symposium Considers the Cinema at 100, 18 Sept 1995
- Biswas, Nilosree (6 May 2007). "Need for a universal story". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 30 November 2019. Retrieved 30 November 2019.
- "Sakhya Indian Cinema Club: Pushpaka Vimanam (The Love Chariot)". Graduate Union. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014.
- "Celebrate Cinema" (PDF). Whistling Woods. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "Archived copy". www.chirag-entertainers.com. Archived from the original on 23 March 2002. Retrieved 14 March 2022.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Entertainment News: Latest Bollywood & Hollywood News, Today's Entertainment News Headlines".
- "9th Dhaka International Film Festival". Dhakafilmfest.org. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- "EARTH VISION-Tokyo Global Environmental Film Festival". Earth-vision. Archived from the original on 14 July 2013. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- "Riding the Stallion of Dream". NETPAC. Retrieved 11 September 2019.
- Suresh, Sunayana (27 October 2012). "'Kurmavatara' in 17 film festivals". The Times of India. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
- "Lucia to premiere at LIFF". The Indian Express. 2 July 2013.
- "Indian Film Festival 2013 – London". britishsouthindians.
- "Crowd-funded 'Lucia' wins smash hit 4th edition of LIFF". London Indian Film Festival. Archived from the original on 15 August 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- "Kannada Film 'Thithi' Wins Two Awards at Locarno International Film Fest".
- "Award winning Kannada film struggles for screens, theatres say not 'commercial' enough". The News Minute. 26 December 2017.
- "Award winning "Railway Children" releases in Mangaluru today!". 22 December 2017.
- "Thriller set in Bengaluru to premiere in London". 6 June 2019.
- "ಲಂಡನ್ ಫಿಲ್ಮ್ ಫೆಸ್ಟಿವಲ್ನಲ್ಲಿ 'ಅರಿಷಡ್ವರ್ಗ' ಪ್ರದರ್ಶನ!".
- "Arishadvarga – SgSaiff".
- "Surrey Civic Theatres | Description - Feature Movie: Arishadvarga".
- Bharadwaj, K. v Aditya (28 June 2021). "Kannada cinema making waves in international film festivals". The Hindu.
- "Annual report 2009" (PDF). Central Board of Film Certification, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2010. Cite journal requires
- "Panaji Konkani Cinema – A Long Way to Go". Daijiworld.com. Archived from the original on 26 August 2012. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
- "Yahoo! Groups". Yahoo!. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
- "Konkani Cinema Day – Some Reflections | iGoa". The Navhind Times. 23 April 2011. Archived from the original on 10 June 2012. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
- "First Maithili movie?". The Times of India. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
- "'प्यारी बहनिया बनेगी दुल्हनिया मैथिली फिल्म का मुहुर्त". Hindustan (in hindi). Retrieved 18 July 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
- "Neetu Chandra's 'Mithila Makhaan' wins 'Best Maithili Film' National Award!". The Times of India. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
- N. J. Nair (23 October 2005). "His pioneering effort set the cameras rolling". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 14 January 2006. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- Sebastian, Meryl Mary (June 2013). "The Name of the Rose". TBIP. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- B. Vijayakumar (7 September 2009). "Balan 1938". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 23 September 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- Jonathan Crow (2012). "Balan (1938)". Movies & TV Dept. The New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Renaissance for Udaya Studio". The Hindu. 29 April 2009. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- B. Vijayakumar (1 November 2008). "Neelakuyil 1954". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- B. Vijayakumar (20 May 2005). "Newspaper Boy: a flashback to the Fifties". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 23 May 2005. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- B. Vijayakumar (22 November 2010). "Chemmeen 1965". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Mammootty: Lesser known facts". The Times of India. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
- "An interview with 'Navodaya' Appachan". Archives.chennaionline.com. Archived from the original on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 30 December 2008.
- "Rediff Movies: Team of 48". Rediff.com. Retrieved 30 December 2008.
- thssk. "Casting a magic spell". Hinduonnet.com. Archived from the original on 10 January 2009. Retrieved 30 December 2008.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
- History of Malayalam Cinema. Cinemaofmalayalam.net. Retrieved on 29 July 2013.
- "Film shot with cell phone camera premiered". The Hindu. 7 June 2010. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
- "Mohanlals Villain shot an released in 8K resolution - Malayalam Movie News - IndiaGlitz". IndiaGlitz.com. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
- "Filmfare for Malayalam Film Industry - Filmfare Awards for Malayalam Films". www.awardsandshows.com. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- Special Correspondent (12 January 2016). "Cinema an integral part of our cultural identity". The Hindu. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
- "Balan may act in Nagpuri film if script is appealing". Hindustan Times. 9 April 2017.
- "नागपुरी फिल्म के 'दादा साहेब' धनंजय नाथ तिवारी !". www.panchayatnama.com. Archived from the original on 24 March 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
- "History of Oriya Film Industry". izeans.com. Archived from the original on 20 September 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2008.
- "Orissa Cinema:: History of Orissa Cinema, Chronology of Orissa Films". orissacinema.com. Archived from the original on 5 July 2008. Retrieved 23 October 2008.
- "Jatt, Juliet and jameen". Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- "Interview with Sange Dorjee". DearCinema. Archived from the original on 8 July 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
- Kasbekar, Asha (2006). Pop Culture India!: Media, Arts, and Lifestyle. ABC-CLIO. p. 213. ISBN 978-1-85109-636-7.
- "From the UMICH website". Archived from the original on 23 April 2005.
- Gokulsing & Dissanayake, 133
- Ethiraj, Gopal (14 December 2009). "Rajini is simple, stylish, spiritual, that explains his uniqueness". Asian Tribune. Archived from the original on 15 December 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
- "Re-imagining India's M&E sector" (PDF). Ernst & Young. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 August 2018. Retrieved 20 August 2018.
- "Tollywood loses to Bollywood on numbers". The Times of India. 2 October 2010. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012.
- "Telugu film industry enters new era". Blonnet.com. 6 November 2007. Archived from the original on 11 August 2009. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- "Largest film studio". Guinnessworldrecords.com. 1 January 2005. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- "Telugu Cinema Celebrity - Raghupati Venkaiah Naidu". www.idlebrain.com. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
- "Chittoor Nagaiah statue to be installed in Tirupati". The Hindu. 18 July 2006.
- "acting mentor". The New Indian Express.
- "Paul Muni of India – Chittoor V.Nagayya". Bharatjanani.com. 6 May 2011. Archived from the original on 26 March 2012. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
- Mahabhinishkramana, Viswa Nata Chakravarti, M. Sanjay Kishore, Sangam Akademy, Hyderabad, 2005, pp: 69–70.
- "NTR, Sridevi greatest actor of all times in India: survey". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 18 October 2014.
- "Arts / Cinema: Conscientious filmmaker". The Hindu (Press release). 7 May 2011. Archived from the original on 9 May 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- "Tikkavarapu Pattabhirama Reddy – Poet, Film maker of international fame from NelloreOne Nellore". 1nellore.com. One Nellore. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- "Stars: Star Profiles: Adurti Subbarao: A Tribute". telugucinema.com. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013.
- Maheeneni. "Welcome to Abhinethri.com — Exclusive photo of Legendary Actress Bhanumathi Ramakrishna from NTR Starrer Classic Movie Malliswari (1951)..." Archived from the original on 25 September 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
- "Telugu Cinema Etc — Idlebrain.com".
- "Wish singer SPB on his birthday today". The Times of India. 4 June 2013. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
- "S.P. Balasubramanyam - The Man Who Broke The Guiness Book Of Records". lokvani.com.
- "Telugu star Shoban Babu passes away". Hindustan Times. 21 March 2008. Archived from the original on 7 July 2010. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "100 Years of Cinema: The men who changed the face of Indian films". ibnlive.in.com. IBNLive. Archived from the original on 17 February 2013.
- "AU confers honorary degrees on Chiru, others". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 7 November 2006. Archived from the original on 5 February 2008. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- "Bahubali-2 To Be Screened At British Film Institute". 1 March 2017. Archived from the original on 25 December 2017. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
- "Baahubali 2 premiere: Queen Elizabeth II will watch it before anybody else in India?". 28 February 2017.
- "Bahubali 2 Becomes Highest Grosser Of All Time In Five Days - Box Office India". www.boxofficeindia.com.
- "Why Business Of Dubbed Tamil Telugu Not Included - Box Office India". www.boxofficeindia.com.
- "Top GROSS Numbers - Hindi And All Languages - Box Office India". www.boxofficeindia.com.
- "Is Baahubali 2 a Hindu film? Dissecting religion, folklore, mythology in Rajamouli's epic saga- Entertainment News, Firstpost". Firstpost. 1 May 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- "63rd National Film Awards" (PDF) (Press release). Directorate of Film Festivals. 28 March 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
- Dave McNary (27 June 2018). "'Black Panther' Leads Saturn Awards; 'Better Call Saul,' 'Twin Peaks' Top TV Trophies". Variety. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
- "Dangal and Baahubali won Telestra People's choice award in IFFM Melbourne". 12 August 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- "Tulu Cinema at 35". raveeshkumar.com.
- "Quiet voices from afar". dna. 11 November 2006.
- "Things fall apart". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 29 April 2006. Archived from the original on 14 March 2007.
- "Filmmaker extraordinary". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 21 July 2006. Archived from the original on 14 March 2007.
- "'Oriyardori Asal' headed for 175-day run in theatres!". The Dakshin Times. Archived from the original on 8 November 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
- "Directorate of Film Festivals". Dff.nic.in. 10 June 2012. Archived from the original on 27 April 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- Hungama, Bollywood (16 November 2006). "Vinod Chopra awarded Sunil Dutt Punjab Rattan Award - Vidhu Vinod Chopra - Latest Celebrity news". Bollywood Hungama. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
- "Best Chennai Film Institute / Film School - BOFTA - Blue Ocean Film and Television Academy". Blue Ocean Film and Television Academy.
- GFTI. "GFTI". www.filminstitutebangalore.com. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- KRNNIVSA. "Govt Film Institute in Kerala". www.krnnivsa.edu.in. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- L.V.Prasad Film & TV Academy. "prasadacademy.com". prasadacademy.com. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- "matrikasfilmschool.com". matrikasfilmschool.com. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- "National Institute of Design - Film and Video Communication". Nid.edu. Archived from the original on 18 November 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- "Welcome To Palmedeor Film & Media College". www.palmedeor.in.
- "School of Media and Cultural Studies - TISS". Archived from the original on 18 February 2013.
- Celli, Carlo. (2013) “The Promises of India” National Identity in Global Cinema: How Movies Explain the World. Palgrave MacMillan, 61–70. ISBN 978-1137379023.
- Suresh Chabria; Paolo Cherchi Usai (1994). Light of Asia: Indian Silent Cinema, 1912–1934. Wiley Eastern. ISBN 978-81-224-0680-1.
- Stanley A. Wolpert (2006). Encyclopedia of India. ISBN 978-0-684-31350-4.
- Desai, Jigna (2004). Beyond Bollywood: The Cultural Politics of South Asian Diasporic Film. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-96684-9.
- K. Moti Gokulsing; Wimal Dissanyake (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books Limited. ISBN 978-1-85856-329-9.
- Gulzar, Govin Nihalanni, & Saibel Chatterjee. Encyclopaedia of Hindi Cinema New Delhi: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2003. ISBN 81-7991-066-0.
- Khanna, Amit (2003), "The Business of Hindi Films", Encyclopaedia of Hindi Cinema: historical record, the business and its future, narrative forms, analysis of the medium, milestones, biographies, Encyclopædia Britannica (India) Private Limited, ISBN 978-81-7991-066-5.
- Gopal, Sangita; Moorti, Sujata (2008). Global Bollywood: Travels of Hindi Song and Dance. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-4578-7.
- Narweker, Sanjit, ed. Directory of Indian Film-Makers and Films. Flicks Books, 1994. ISBN 0-948911-40-9
- Stanley A. Wolpert (2006). Encyclopedia of India. ISBN 978-0-684-31351-1.
- Nowell-Smith, Geoffrey (1996). The Oxford History of World Cinema. Oxford University Press, US. ISBN 978-0-19-811257-0.
- Passek, Jean-Loup, ed. (1983). Le cinéma indien. Paris: Centre national d'art et de culture Georges Pompidou. ISBN 9782864250371. OCLC 10696565.
- Rajadhyaksha, Ashish; Willemen, Paul (1999). Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-57958-146-6.
- Stanley A. Wolpert (2006). Encyclopedia of India. ISBN 978-0-684-31351-1.
- Velayutham, Selvaraj (2008). Tamil Cinema: The Cultural Politics of India's Other Film Industry. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-39680-6.
- Watson, James L. (2009), Globalization, Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Report of the Indian Cinematograph Committee 1927–1928. Superintendent, The Government Press, Madras. 1928.
- Dwyer, Rachel; Patel, Divia (2002). Cinema India: The Visual Culture of Hindi Film. ISBN 978-0-8135-3175-5.
- Culture and Representation: The Emerging Field of Media Semiotics/J A H Khatri/Ruby Press & Co./ISBN 978-93-82395-12-6/ 2013.