India is a federal constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system consisting of 28 states and 8 union territories. All states, as well as the union territories of Jammu and Kashmir, Puducherry and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, have elected legislatures and governments, both patterned on the Westminster model. The remaining five union territories are directly ruled by the central government through appointed administrators. In 1956, under the States Reorganisation Act, states were reorganised on a linguistic basis. Their structure has since remained largely unchanged. Each state or union territory is further divided into administrative districts.
The legislatures of three states Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra and Uttarakhand meet in different capitals for their summer and winter sessions. Ladakh has both Leh and Kargil as its administrative capitals.
The state and union territory capitals are sorted according to administrative, legislative and judicial capitals. The administrative capital is where the executive government offices are located.
|Legislative capital||Judicial capital||Year of
|Andhra Pradesh||Amaravati||Amaravati||Amaravati||2017||Hyderabad[lower-alpha 1](1956–2017)|
|Assam||Dispur||Dispur||Guwahati||1972||Shillong[lower-alpha 2] (1950–1972)|
|Himachal Pradesh||Shimla||Shimla (Summer)
|Maharashtra||Mumbai[lower-alpha 5]||Mumbai (Summer)
|Tamil Nadu||Chennai[lower-alpha 7]||Chennai||Chennai||1956||—|
|Legislative capital||Judicial capital||Year of|
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Port Blair||–||Kolkata||1956|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu||Daman||–||Mumbai||2020|
|Jammu and Kashmir||Srinagar (summer)
|Delhi||New Delhi||New Delhi||New Delhi||1956|
- Hyderabad is de jure joint capital of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana until 2024.
- Shillong was the joint capital of Assam and Meghalaya until 1972.
- Naya Raipur is planned to replace Raipur as the capital city of Chhattisgarh.
- Panaji was the capital of Goa from 1843 when it was ruled by the Portuguese.
- Mumbai (Bombay) was the capital of Bombay Presidency which was a province until 1950. After that Bombay became the capital of Bombay State. Subsequently, Bombay State was split into Gujarat and Maharashtra in 1960.
- Gangtok has been the capital of Sikkim since 1890. Kingdom of Sikkim joined the Indian Union in 1975.
- Chennai (Madras) was the capital of the Madras Presidency since 1839, which was redrawn as Madras State in 1956. Madras State was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1969.
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- "Bhararisain declared as summer capital of Uttarakhand". www.timesnownews.com. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
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