Rajya Sabha

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Coordinates: 28°37′0″N 77°12′30″E / 28.61667°N 77.20833°E / 28.61667; 77.20833

Rajya Sabha

Term limits
6 years
Harivansh Narayan Singh, JD(U)
since 14 September 2020
Pramod Chandra Mody
since 12 November 2021
Mallikarjun Kharge, INC
since 16 February 2021 [1]
Seats245 (233 Elected + 12 Nominated)
Rajya Sabha
Political groups
Government (116)
NDA (116)
  •   BJP (98)
  •   AIADMK (5)
  •   JD(U) (5)
  •   AGP (1)
  •   UPPL (1)
  •   NPP (1)
  •   MNF (1)
  •   PMK (1)
  •   TMC(M) (1)
  •   RPI(A) (1)
  •   NOM (1)
  •   IND (1)

Opposition (117)
UPA (50)

Others (67)

Vacant (14)

  •   Vacant (14)
233 members by single transferable vote by state legislatures, 12 appointed by the President
Last election
October 2021
Next election
Meeting place
view of Sansad Bhavan, seat of the Parliament of India
Rajya Sabha chamber, Sansad Bhavan,
Sansad Marg, New Delhi, India - 110 001
Constitution of India
The Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) (English)

The Rajya Sabha, constitutionally the Council of States (informally known as the House of Elders),[2] is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of India. As of 2021 it has a maximum membership of 245, of which 233 are elected by the legislatures of the states and union territories using single transferable votes through open ballots, while the president can appoint 12 members for their contributions to art, literature, science, and social services. The potential seating capacity of the Rajya Sabha is 250 (238 elected, 12 appointed), according to article 80 of the Indian Constitution.[3] Members sit for staggered terms lasting six years, with about a third of the 233 designates up for election every two years, in even-numbered years.[4] The Rajya Sabha meets in continuous sessions, and unlike the Lok Sabha, being the lower house of the Parliament, the Rajya Sabha is not subjected to dissolution. However, the Rajya Sabha, like the Lok Sabha, can be prorogued by the president.

The Rajya Sabha has equal footing in legislation with the Lok Sabha, except in the area of supply, where the latter has overriding powers. In the case of conflicting legislation, a joint sitting of the two houses can be held, where the Lok Sabha would hold a greater influence because of its larger membership. The vice president of India (currently, Venkaiah Naidu) is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, who presides over its sessions. The Deputy Chairman, who is elected from amongst the house's members, takes care of the day-to-day matters of the house in the absence of the Chairman. The Rajya Sabha held its first sitting on 13 May 1952.[5]

The Rajya Sabha meets in the eponymous chamber in Parliament House in New Delhi. Since 18 July 2018, the Rajya Sabha has the facility for simultaneous interpretation in all the 22 scheduled languages of India.[6]


Template:Primary sources section Article 84 of the Constitution lays down the qualifications for membership of Parliament. A member of the Rajya Sabha must:[7]

  • Be a citizen of India.
  • Make and subscribe before some person authorized in that behalf by the Election Commission an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule to the Constitution.
  • Be at least 30 years old. (article 84 constitution of India)
  • Be elected by the Legislative Assembly of States and Union territories by means of single transferable vote through proportional representation.[8]
  • Not be a proclaimed criminal.
  • Not be a subject of insolvent, i.e. he/she should not be in debt that he/she is not capable of repaying in a current manner and should have the ability to meet his/her financial expenses.
  • Not hold any other office of profit under the Government of India.
  • Not be of unsound mind.
  • Possess such other qualifications as may be prescribed in that behalf by or under any law made by Parliament.

In addition, twelve members are nominated by the president of India having special knowledge in various areas like arts and science. However, they are not entitled to vote in presidential elections as per Article 55 of the Constitution.


The Constitution of India places some restrictions on the Rajya Sabha, and the Lok Sabha (the lower house, House of People) is more powerful in certain areas.

Money bills[edit]

The definition of a money bill is given in Article 110 of the Constitution of India. A money bill can be introduced only in the Lok Sabha by a minister and only on the recommendation of the president of India. When the Lok Sabha passes a money bill then the Lok Sabha sends the money bill to the Rajya Sabha for 14 days during which it can make recommendations. Even if the Rajya Sabha fails to return the money bill in 14 days to the Lok Sabha, that bill is deemed to have passed by both houses. Also, if the Lok Sabha rejects any (or all) of the amendments proposed by the Rajya Sabha, the bill is deemed to have been passed by both houses of Parliament in the form the Lok Sabha finally passes it. Hence, the Rajya Sabha can only give recommendations for a money bill, but the Rajya Sabha cannot amend a money bill. This is to ensure that the Rajya Sabha must not add any non-money matters to the money bill. There is no joint sitting of both the houses for money bills, because all final decisions are taken by the Lok Sabha.[9][non-primary source needed]

Joint Sitting of the Parliament[edit]

Article 108 provides for a joint sitting of the two houses of Parliament in certain cases. A joint sitting can be convened by the president of India when one house has either rejected a bill passed by the other house, has not taken any action on a bill transmitted to it by the other house for six months, or has disagreed with the amendments proposed by the Lok Sabha on a bill passed by it. Considering that the numerical strength of the Lok Sabha is more than twice that of the Rajya Sabha, the Lok Sabha tends to have a greater influence in a joint sitting of Parliament. A joint session is chaired by the speaker of the Lok Sabha. Also, because the joint session is convened by the president on the advice of the government, which already has a majority in the Lok Sabha, the joint session is usually convened to get bills passed through a Rajya Sabha in which the government has a minority.

Joint sessions of Parliament are a rarity, and have been convened three times in the last 71 years, for passage of a specific legislative act, the latest time being in 2002:

  • 1961: Dowry Prohibition Act, 1958
  • 1978: Banking Services Commission (Repeal) Act, 1977
  • 2002: Prevention of Terrorism Act, 2002

No-confidence motion[edit]

Unlike the Lok Sabha, a member of the Rajya Sabha cannot bring to the house a no-confidence motion against the government.[citation needed]


In the Indian federal structure, the Rajya Sabha is a representative of the states in the union legislature (hence the name, Council of States). For this reason, the Rajya Sabha has powers that protect the rights of states against the union government.

Union-state relations[edit]

The Constitution empowers the Parliament of India to make laws on the matters reserved for states. However, this can only be done if the Rajya Sabha first passes a resolution by a two-third majority granting such a power to the union parliament. The union government cannot make a law on a matter reserved for states without any authorisation from the Rajya Sabha.

The union government reserves the power to make laws directly affecting the citizens across all the states whereas, a single state in itself reserves the power to make rules and governing laws of their region. If any bill passes through the Rajya Sabha, that means, majority of states of the union want that to happen. The Rajya Sabha, therefore, plays a vital role in protecting the states' culture and interests.

Creation of all-India services[edit]

The Rajya Sabha, by a two-thirds supermajority, can pass a resolution empowering the Indian government to create more all-India services common to both the union and the states.

Membership by party[edit]

Members of the Rajya Sabha by their political party (as of May 2022):

Alliance Party MPs Rajya Sabha Leader


BJP 98 Piyush Goyal
AIADMK 5 Navaneethakrishnan
JD(U) 5 R.N.Thakur
AGP 1 B.P Baishya
UPPL 1 Rwngwra Narzary
NPP 1 W. Kharlukhi
MNF 1 K. Vanlalvena
PMK 1 A. Ramadas
TMC(M) 1 G. K. Vasan
RPI(A) 1 Ramdas Athawale
IND 1 Subhash Chandra
INC 29 M. Kharge
DMK 10 Tiruchi Siva
NCP 4 Sharad Pawar
SHS 3 Sanjay Raut
JMM 1 Shibu Soren
AGM 1 Ajit Kumar Bhuyan
IUML 1 Abdul Wahab
MDMK 1 Vaiko
AITC 13 Derek O'Brien
AAP 8 Sanjay Singh
BJD 8 Prasanna Acharya
TRS 7 K. Keshava Rao
YSRCP 6 V. Vijayasai Reddy
RJD 5 P.C. Gupta
SP 5 Ram Gopal Yadav
CPI(M) 5 Elamaram Kareem
BSP 3 Ramji Gautam
CPI 2 Binoy Viswam
TDP 1 K. Ravindra
JD(S) 1 HD Devegowda
KC(M) 1 Jose K. Mani
SDF 1 Hishey Lachungpa
Vacant (14)
  • Nominated (7)
  • J&K (4)
  • Bihar (1)
  • Odisha(1)
  • Karnataka (1)
Total 245


Seats are allotted in degressive proportion to the population of each state or union territory, meaning that smaller states have a slight advantage over more populous states.[10] Certain states even have more representatives than states more populous than them, because in past they too had high population. For example, Tamil Nadu has 18 representatives for 72 million inhabitants (in 2011) whereas Bihar (104 million) and West Bengal (91 million) only have 16. As the members are elected by the state legislature, some small union territories, those without legislatures, cannot have representation. Hence, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Ladakh and Lakshadweep do not send any representatives. Twelve members are nominated by the president.[11][12]

As per the Fourth Schedule to the Constitution of India on 26 January 1950, the Rajya Sabha was to consist of 216 members, of which 12 members were to be nominated by the president and the remaining 204 elected to represent the states.[12] The present sanctioned strength of the Rajya Sabha in the Constitution of India is 250, which can be increased by constitutional amendment. However, the present strength is 245 members according to the Representation of People Act, 1951, which can be increased up to 250 by amending the act itself, of whom 233 are representatives of the states and union territories and 12 are nominated by the president.[12] The 12 nominated members of the Rajya Sabha are persons who are eminent in particular fields and are well-known contributors in the particular field.

Number of members by state/union territory[edit]

State/ UT Seats L




NDA UPA Others
Andhra Pradesh[13] 11 6 4 YSRCP 6
Arunachal Pradesh 1 1 1
Assam 7 4 4 Asom Gana Parishad 1 AGM 1
Bihar 16 5 2 4 JD(U) 4 1 RJD 5
Chhattisgarh 5 3 2 3
Goa 1 1 1
Gujarat 11 8 8 3
Haryana 5 3 3 IND 1 1
Himachal Pradesh 3 3 3
Jammu and Kashmir 4 4 4
Jharkhand 6 4 4 1 JMM 1
Karnataka 12 5 1 5 5 Janata Dal 1
Kerala 9 4 1 IUML 1 CPI (M) 4
KC(M) 1
Madhya Pradesh 11 8 8 3
Maharashtra 19 8 8 RPI(A) 1 3 NCP 4 SHS 3
Manipur 1 1 1
Meghalaya 1 1 NPP 1
Mizoram 1 1 MNF 1
Nagaland 1 1 1
NCT Of Delhi 3 3 AAP 3
Odisha 10 9 1 BJD 9
Puducherry 1 1 1
Punjab 7 5 1 AAP 5
Rajasthan 10 7 7 3
Sikkim 1 1 Sikkim Democratic Front 1
Tamil Nadu 18 10 AIADMK 5 DMK 10
TMC(M) 1
Telangana[13] 7 6 1 TRS 6
Tripura 1 1 1
Uttar Pradesh 31 22 22 1 SP 5
Uttarakhand 3 2 2 1
West Bengal 16 13 2 AITC 13
CPI (M) 1
Presidential nominees 12 9 9 NOM 3
Total 245 100 8 100 20 29 18 70
NDA 120 UPA 47


Leader of the House[edit]

Besides the chairman (vice-president of India) and the deputy chairman, there is also a position called leader of the House. This is a cabinet minister – the prime minister if he is a member of the House or another nominated minister. The leader has a seat next to the chairman, in the front row.

Leader of the Opposition[edit]

Besides the leader of the House, who is the government's chief representative in the House, there is also a leader of the opposition (LOP) – leading the opposition parties. The function was only recognized in the Salary and Allowances of Leaders of the Opposition in Parliament Act, 1977. This is commonly the leader of the largest non-government party and is recognized as such by the chairman.


The Secretariat of the Rajya Sabha was set up under the provisions contained in Article 98 of the Constitution. The said Article, which provides for a separate secretarial staff for each house of Parliament, reads as follows:- 98. Secretariat of Parliament – Each House of Parliament shall have a separate secretarial staff: Provided that nothing in this clause shall be construed as preventing the creation of posts common to both Houses of Parliament. (2) Parliament may by law regulate the recruitment and the conditions of service of persons appointed to the secretarial staff of either House of Parliament.[citation needed]

The Rajya Sabha Secretariat functions under the overall guidance and control of the chairman. The main activities of the Secretariat inter alia include the following :

(i) providing secretarial assistance and support to the effective functioning of the Council of States (Rajya Sabha); (ii) providing amenities as admissible to Members of Rajya Sabha; (iii) servicing the various Parliamentary Committees; (iv) preparing research and reference material and bringing out various publications; (v) recruitment of manpower in the Sabha Secretariat and attending to personnel matters; and (vi) preparing and publishing a record of the day-to-day proceedings of the Rajya Sabha and bringing out such other publications, as may be required concerning the functioning of the Rajya Sabha and its Committees.[citation needed]

In the discharge of his constitutional and statutory responsibilities, the chairman of the Rajya Sabha is assisted by the secretary-general, who holds the rank equivalent to the cabinet secretary to the government of India. The secretary-general, in turn, is assisted by senior functionaries at the level of secretary, additional secretary, joint secretary and other officers and staff of the secretariat. The present secretary-general is Pramod Chandra Mody.[14][15] In the winter 2019 session, uniforms of Rajya Sabha marshals were restyled from traditional Indian attire comprising turbans to dark navy blue and olive green military-style outfits with caps.[16][17]


Rajya Sabha TV (RSTV) is a 24-hour parliamentary television channel owned and operated by the Rajya Sabha. The channel aims to provide in-depth coverage and analysis of parliamentary affairs, especially its functioning and policy development. During sessions, RSTV provides live coverage and presents an analysis of the proceedings of the house as well as other day-to-day parliamentary events and developments.

Now it has been merged in SansadTV along with LSTV and are being run by same channel.[18]

See also[edit]


  1. Press Trust of India (17 February 2021). "Cong leader Mallikarjun Kharge is new Leader of Opposition in Rajya Sabha". Business Standard India. Business Standard. Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
    p. 91. "The House is known as the House of Elders ”.
    p. 119. "this House is known as the House of Elders".
    "WOMEN MEMBERS OF RAJYA SABHA" (PDF). rajyasabha.nic.in. Rajya Sabha. Retrieved 6 December 2021.
  3. "Rajya Sabha Introduction". rajyasabha.gov.in. Archived from the original on 15 August 2020. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  4. Deshmukh, Yashwant (11 June 2016). "Crucial polls today: A guide to calculus of Rajya Sabha for dummies". Firstpost. Archived from the original on 19 June 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  5. "OUR PARLIAMENT". Indian Parliament. Archived from the original on 17 May 2011. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
  6. "Rajya Sabha MPs can now speak in 22 Indian languages in House". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 8 October 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  7. "Council of States (Rajya Sabha) – rajyasabha.in". Archived from the original on 18 June 2012.
  8. "HANDBOOK FOR RETURNING OFFICERS – FOR ELECTIONS TO THE COUNCIL OF STATES AND STATE LEGISLATIVE COUNCILS" (PDF). Election Commission of India. 1992. pp. 400–426. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 January 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  9. "Website of the Rajya Sabha – Legislation". Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  10. "642 Sidharth Chauhan, Bicameralism: comparative insights and lessons". Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  11. "FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT RAJYA SABHA". Indian Parliament. Archived from the original on 24 July 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 "Composition of Rajya Sabha – Rajya Sabha At Work" (PDF). rajyasabha.nic.in. Rajya Sabha Secretariat, New Delhi. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
  13. 13.0 13.1 "Rajya Sabha members allotted to Telangana, Andhra Pradesh". The Economic Times. 30 May 2014. Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
  14. "Secretary-General, Rajya Sabha". Archived from the original on 11 August 2018. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  15. "Ex-CBDT chief P.C. Mody made Rajya Sabha Secretary General". The Hindu. Special Correspondent. 12 November 2021. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 7 March 2022.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  16. Harwant Singh (retd), Lt Gen. "Curb rampant copying of military uniform". The Tribune. Archived from the original on 26 December 2019. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  17. Service, Tribune News. "Naidu orders review of new military-style uniform of marshals". The Tribune. Archived from the original on 26 December 2019. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  18. "About Rajya Sabha TV". Rajya Sabha. Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2014.

Further reading[edit]

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