Economy of Uttar Pradesh
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
View of Noida city from the Hilton Noida
|Currency||Indian Rupee ₹|
|1 April – 31 March|
|GDP||₹19.5 trillion (US$270 billion) (2020-21)|
|8.3% (2020–21 est.)|
GDP per capita
|₹94,431 (US$1,300) (2020–21)|
GDP per capita rank
GDP by sector
|Agriculture (24%) |
Services (50%) (2018–19)
Population below poverty line
|Template:Decreasepositive 26.4% in poverty (2020-2021)|
|0.596 (2018) (32nd)|
|Unemployment||4.1% (Feb 2021)|
|Agriculture, Livestock, Farming, Fishing, Pottery, Gold market, Brass Industry, IT Industry, Construction Industry, Infrastructure Industry, IT Consulting, Electronics Industry, Engineering Hub, Garment, Textile Industry, Advertising Industry, Automobile Industry, Leather Industry and others|
|28.8% of GSDP (2020–21 est.)|
|₹−53,195 crore (US$−7.5 billion) (2.97% of GSDP) (2020–21 est.)|
|Revenues||₹4.25 lakh crore (US$60 billion)(2020–21 est.)|
|Expenses||₹5.50 lakh crore (US$77 billion)(2021–22 est.)|
The economy of Uttar Pradesh is the Second largest of all the states of India. According to a report published by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India the nominal GDP of the state for the year 2020-21 is ₹ 19.48 lakh crore (US$270 billion). The largest Indian state, Maharashtra based on nominal GDP, has an urban population of 5,08,18,259, while Uttar Pradesh has an urban population of 4,44,95,063. According to the 2011 census report, 22.76% of Uttar Pradesh's population lives in urban areas. The state has 7 cities with populations exceeding 10 lakh (1 million) each. After partition in 2000 (Uttrakhand state carved out of it), the new Uttar Pradesh state produces about 92% of the economic output of the old Uttar Pradesh state. Currently, the poverty rate stands at 26.4%, just above the national average.
In the tenth five-year planning period of 2002 and 2007, Uttar Pradesh registered an annual economic growth rate of 5.2%. In the eleventh period, between 2007 and 2012, Uttar Pradesh registered an annual economic growth rate of 7%. In 2012–13 and 2013–14, however, the growth rate decreased to 5.9% and 5.1%, respectively, one of the lowest in India. The state's debt was estimated at 67% of the gross domestic product in 2005. In 2012, the state was one of the highest receivers of overall remittances to India which stood at $46.75 billion (₹3,42,884.05 crore), along with Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Punjab. Additionally, the state government has selected seven cities for Metro train projects: Meerut, Allahabad, Gorakhpur, Agra, Kanpur, Lucknow, and Varanasi. The Lucknow Metro project was completed in September 2017. Uttar Pradesh is an agrarian state, and the highest producer of wheat (30% of the nation's supply).
Agriculture, livestock and fishing
Uttar Pradesh is a major contributor to the national food grain stock. In 2013–14, this state produced 5 crores (50.05 million) tonnes of food grain, 18.90% of the country's total production. This is partly due to the fertile regions of the Indo-Gangetic plain and partly due to irrigation facilities such as canals and tube wells. Lakhimpur Kheri is a densely populated sugar-producing district in the country. It has been the most common producer of food grains in India since the 1950s, due to high-yielding varieties of seed, greater availability of fertilisers, and increased use of irrigation. Western Uttar Pradesh is more advanced in terms of agriculture as compared to the other regions in the state. The majority of the state's population depends upon farming activities. Wheat, rice, pulses, oilseeds, and potatoes are major agricultural products. Sugarcane is the most important cash crop throughout the state. Uttar Pradesh is one of the most important states in India as far as horticulture is concerned. Mangoes are also produced in the state.
|Gross State Domestic Product at Current Prices|
|Year||Gross State Domestic Product|
|1980–81||₹15,554 crore (equivalent to ₹2.9 trillion or US$41 billion in 2019)|
|1985–86||₹27,748 crore (equivalent to ₹3.3 trillion or US$46 billion in 2019)|
|1990–91||₹55,506 crore (equivalent to ₹4.4 trillion or US$61 billion in 2019)|
|1995–96||₹106,249 crore (equivalent to ₹5.1 trillion or US$71 billion in 2019)|
|2000-01||₹173,068 crore (equivalent to ₹5.8 trillion or US$81 billion in 2019)|
|2005-06||₹241,196 crore (equivalent to ₹6.6 trillion or US$92 billion in 2019)|
|2010-11||₹532,218 crore (equivalent to ₹9.6 trillion or US$130 billion in 2019)|
|2015–16||₹906,909 crore (equivalent to ₹11 trillion or US$150 billion in 2019)|
|2017–18||₹1,446,000 crore (US$200 billion) (est.)|
UP has witnessed rapid industrialisation in the recent past, particularly after the launch of policies of economic liberalisation in the country. As of March 1996, there were 1,661 medium and large industrial undertakings and 2,96,338 small industrial units employing 18.3 lakh persons. The per capita state domestic product was estimated at ₹7,263 in 1997–98 and there has been a visible decline in poverty in the state. However, nearly 40 percent of the total population lives below the poverty line.
There are numerous types of minerals in the state and many industries have come up based on these minerals. There are several cement plants in Mirzapur in the Vindhya region, a bauxite-based aluminium plant in the Banda region, and the Sonbhadra region. In the hilly regions of the state, many non-metallic minerals are found which are used as industrial raw materials. Coal deposits are found in the Singrauli region. Nevertheless, the state is poor in mineral resources. The only considerable deposits are of limestone in the Mirzapur district. These are being extracted and are used largely in cement manufacture.
Cottage industries, such as handloom and handicrafts, have traditionally provided livelihood to a large number of people in the state. These industries include:
- Prayagraj (Allahabad) developed into a major industrial centre. Some of the most reputed industries in Allahabad include Alstom, ITI Limited, Bharat Pumps & Compressors headquarters, Areva, Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL), Dey's medical, EMC Limited, Food Corporation of India (FCI), Triveni Structurals Limited (TSL) and Cotton Mills subsidiary of Central Government. Industrial development in Prayagraj is increasing as the Government of India has approved Prayagraj-Naini-Bara Investment Zone (3,000 hectares) which is to be funded by World Bank.
- Varanasi is a world-famous centre of handloom woven, embroidered textiles; the main products are Zari-embroidery and brocade-work on silk sarees. Lucknow is a centre of 'Chikan' embroidery, renowned for its grace and delicacy, a skill more than 200 years old. Uttar Pradesh produces about 15% of the total fabric production of the country, employs about 30% of the total workforce of artisans in India, and is responsible for an annual production of about US$0.1 million in the state.
- Varanasi is well known for manufacturing the diesel-electric locomotives at Banaras Locomotive Works. The workshop at DLW is further upgraded to manufacture electric locomotives for the Indian Railways. It is the largest diesel-electric locomotives manufacturer in India.
- The state has two major production centres of leather and leather products, with over 11,500 units; Agra and Kanpur are the key centres. About 200 tanneries are located in Kanpur.
- Moradabad is renowned for brass work and has carved a niche for itself in the handicraft industry throughout the world. Lately, other products that are produced here like iron sheet metalwares, aluminium artworks, woodworks, and glasswares have become popular with numerous foreign buyers, and are therefore being exported in large quantities. On average Moradabad exports goods worth ₹3000–4000 crore each year, which constitutes 40% of total exports from India under this category.
- Meerut is one of the biggest gold markets in Asia. It is one of the largest exporters of sports-related items and musical instruments in the country.
- Bulandshahr is renowned for Khurja Pottery worldwide. There are nearly 23 export-oriented units and they are exported to foreign countries such as United Kingdom, United States, Australia, New Zealand, United Arab Emirates, and others. The Sikandrabad industrial area, developed by UPSIDC, has a large number of national and multinational companies working here successfully.
Minerals and heavy industries
Handloom and handicrafts
Handlooms and handicrafts are a very important source of income in UP. There are thousands of power looms and handlooms in the state, most of which are situated in eastern UP. Many people depend on it for their livelihood. Main centres in eastern UP include Tanda, Varanasi, Azamgarh, Bhadohi, Mirzapur, Mau and Mau Aima (Prayagraj). In Western UP some of the important centres are Meerut, Etawah, Etah and Kasganj. In Eastern UP, Tanda is a small town with a population of approximately 1,50,000 people with over 1,00,000 power looms. The main products include Lungis, Gamchas, Shawls, Rumaal, and garment clothes.
The service industry plays a large role in the economy of Uttar Pradesh. It contributed nearly 49% of the gross state domestic product in 2017–18. Uttar Pradesh is the 'IT-Hub' of North India, with a share of software exports next to that of Karnataka. But unlike South Indian states, IT enterprises are limited to particular areas only, such as Noida, Greater Noida and Ghaziabad, which lie in the National Capital Region (NCR), commercial capital Kanpur and in the state capital Lucknow.
Prayagraj city is home to glass and wire-based industry. The main industrial areas of Prayagraj are Naini and Phulpur, where several public and private sector companies have offices and factories. Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited, India's largest oil company (which is state-owned), is constructing a 7 million MTPA (70 lakh tonnes per annum) capacity refinery in Lohgara with an investment estimated at ₹6,200 crore. Allahabad Bank, which began operations in 1865, Bharat Pumps & Compressors and A. H. Wheeler and Company have their headquarters in the city. Major companies in the city are Reliance Industries, ITI Limited, BPCL, Dey's Medical, Food Corporation of India, Raymond Synthetics, Triveni Sheet Glass, Triveni Electroplast, EMC Power Ltd, Steel Authority of India, HCL Technologies, Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative (IFFCO), Vibgyor Laboratories, Geep Industries, Hindustan Cable, Indian Oil Corporation Ltd, Baidyanath Ayurved, Hindustan Laboratories.
The infrastructure in UP is improving in comparison to the other advanced states of India. In 2013, the Government of India declared the construction of Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport in Lucknow and Lal Bahadur Shastri Airport in Varanasi, and both became operational in 2016. In January 2015, it was announced the Metro Train project for Lucknow would be completed as of December 2016. Lucknow metro became operational in September 2017. The Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation bus service is one of the largest in the country with more than 10,000 buses. UPSRTC ALSO introduced Volvo, Scania, and Janrath ac buses service across the state.
The length of the national highway and railway track is highest in India. A new international airport had been proposed in Gautambudh Nagar district passed by the central government and supposed to start by 2023. Kushinagar international airport also is due to become operational in 2021. Work has also started on Ayodhya airport. Uttar Pradesh has the most national highways and the state's 8th airport Bareilly Airport began operation in March 2021, with the first route between Bareilly and Delhi, the flight will take an hour. The Yamuna Expressway, which is between New Delhi to Agra, is one of the best highways in the country. In 2015, the state government started another expressway project between Agra to Lucknow that will reduce the journey time; it was inaugurated on 21 November 2016. On 31 December 2015, Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced an expressway between New Delhi and Meerut, which will cost ₹7,500 crore. It will reduce the journey time to one hour. Delhi-Meerut expressway was opened for public use in April 2021.In 2018 four new expressways - Purvanchal expressway, Bundelkhand expressway, Kanpur-Lucknow expressway, Gorakhpur Link expressway, Ganga expressway, Ballia link expressway are being constructed. Purvanchal expressway is due to be opened for public use in April 2021 while the Bundelkhand expressway will start operating in February 2022.
Uttar Pradesh has one of the lowest literacy rates among Indian states. With just 67.68% literacy rate, Uttar Pradesh is ranked 29th in India according to the 2011 census.
- "State Domestic Product and other aggregates, 2011-12 series". Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India. 15 March 2021. Retrieved 15 April 2021.
- "Uttar Pradesh Budget Analysis 2019-20" (PDF). PRS Legislative Research. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "SDGs India Index". NITI Aayog. 31 December 2019.
- "Unemployment Rate in India". Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy. p. 1. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
- "NRIs beat FDI, keep the money coming". Hindustan Times. 8 October 2012. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
- "Agricultural Statistics at a Glance 2018" (PDF). ands.dacnet.nic.in. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
- "Uttar Pradesh | History, Government, Map, & Population". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
- "UP Agriculture – Need for Transparent Agricultural Scheme". Get news on PM's schemes, central and state government schemes, central ministries and government departments. 3 November 2018. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
- "Table 5 : Net State Value Added – State-Wise (At Current Prices)" (PDF). Reserve Bank of India. 15 September 2017. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
- Gayam, Aravind (12 July 2017). "Uttar Pradesh Budget Analysis 2017–18" (PDF). PRS Legislative Research. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 August 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
- "Minor industries". Rediff.com. Archived from the original on 10 October 2012. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Office of the Development Commissioner (Small Scale Industries) (1993). Report on the second all-India census of small scale industrial units. Development Commissioner, Small Scale Industries, Ministry of Industry, Govt. of India. p. 72. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- "GDP & per capita income of Allahabad" (PDF). Planning Commission of India. 8 March 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- "Summary results of third census". All India Census of Small scale Industries. Archived from the original on 5 May 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- of the city., accelerating the development. "significant industrial organizations". Explore Allahabad Press. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- "List of Companies" (PDF). Ministry of Corporate Affairs. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 September 2012. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- "Industries that play a vital role in the economy of the district". Maps of India. Archived from the original on 9 September 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- "State of Literacy" (PDF). censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 30 January 2021.