Wind power in India

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Mean wind speed in India.[1]

Wind power generation capacity in India has significantly increased in recent years. As of 31 May 2022, the total installed wind power capacity was 40.71 GW, the fourth largest installed wind power capacity in the world.[2] Wind power capacity is mainly spread across the Southern, Western and Northern Western regions.[3]

Wind power costs in India are decreasing rapidly.[4] The levelised tariff of wind power reached a record low of 2.43 (3.4¢ US) per kWh (without any direct or indirect subsidies) during auctions for wind projects in December 2017.[5][6][7] However, the levelised tariff increased to 2.77 (3.9¢ US) per kWh in March 2021.[8] In December 2017, union government announced the applicable guidelines for tariff-based wind power auctions to bring more clarity and minimise the risk to the developers.[9]

Wind farms midst paddy fields in India.

National Wind power potential[edit]

The Indian government has installed over 800 wind-monitoring stations all over country through National Institute of Wind Energy (NIWE) and issued wind potential maps at 50m, 80m, 100m and 120m above ground level. The recent assessment indicates a gross wind power potential of 302 GW in the country at 100 meter and 695.50 GW at 120 meter above ground level.[10]

Installed capacity[edit]

The table below shows India's year on year installed wind power, annual wind power generation and annual growth in wind power generation since 2006.[11]

Installed wind power capacity and generation in India since 2007[12]
Financial year 06-07 07-08 08-09 09-10 10-11 11-12 12-13 13-14 14-15 15-16 16-17 17-18 18-19[13] 19-20 20-21 21-22
Installed capacity (MW) 7,850 9,587 10,925 13,064 16,084 18,421 20,150 22,465 23,447 26,777 32,280 34,046 35,626 37,669 38,785 40,355
Generation (GWh) 28,214 28,604 46,011 52,666 62,036 64,485 59,824 68,640[14]

History[edit]

Template:Bar graph Development of wind power in India began in December 1952, when Maneklal Sankalchand Thacker, a distinguished power engineer, initiated a project with the Indian Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) to explore the possibilities of harnessing wind power in the country.[15] The CSIR established a Wind Power Sub-Committee under P. Nilakantan, which was assigned the task of investigating the available resources that could be practically utilized, along with researching the economic possibilities of wind energy.[16] With assistance from the Indian Meteorological Department, the Sub-Committee extensively reviewed available data on surface winds in India and their velocity duration, and began detailed surveys of promising sites for harnessing the optimum amount of wind energy; it also successfully developed and tested large wood-and-bamboo windmills.

In September 1954, a Symposium on Solar Energy and Wind Power organised by the CSIR and UNESCO was held in New Delhi; among the attendees was E. W. Golding, a British power engineer and authority on wind energy generation.[15] Convinced of the potential of wind power in India, he recommended continued and extensive wind velocity surveys in different regions of India, the full-time assignment of staff to experimental wind power studies, the establishment of a dedicated research laboratory and development of small to medium-sized wind-powered electrical generators. Golding's recommendations were adopted by the CSIR in 1957.[15] By this time, regions of Saurashtra and around Coimbatore had been identified as promising sites for generating electricity from wind power, and the Wind Power Sub-Committee had begun to erect 20 wind velocity survey stations across India, in addition to testing its indigenously designed windmills and obtaining a 6 kW. Allgaier wind turbine, which was presented to India by the West German government; experiments at Porbandar with the latter had commenced by 1961.[16][15] The Indian government also considered a proposal to erect over 20,000 small to medium-sized wind-powered electrical generators in rural districts, to be used for powering water pumps and supplying electricity for remotely situated structures such as lighthouses.[16]

In 1960, the CSIR established a Wind Power Division as part of the new National Aeronautical Laboratory (NAL) in Bangalore, which was founded that year.[15] From the 1960s into the 1980s, the NAL and other groups continued to carry out wind velocity surveys and develop improved estimates of India's wind energy capacity.[17] Large-scale development of wind power began in 1985 with the first wind project in Veraval, Gujarat, in the form of a 40-kW Dutch machine (make Polenko) connected to the grid. The project, an initiative of late Dr. K S Rao, the then Director of GEDA (Gujarat Energy Development Agency), was a joint venture between GEDA and J K Synthetics Ltd. Though the performance of this machine was quite poor, it established the technical viability of operating wind turbines in the grid-connected mode in India. Subsequently, the Government of India planned several demonstration wind farms in the coastal regions of the country and simultaneously launched a massive programme to identify sites suitable for wind projects. In 1986, demonstration wind farms were set up in the coastal areas of Maharashtra (Ratnagiri), Gujarat (Okha) and Tamil Nadu (Tirunelveli) with 55 kW Vestas wind turbines. These demonstration projects were supported by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE). The demonstration projects set up in 1985-86 established beyond doubt, both the technical and economic viability of the wind energy projects, while the wind-mapping programme resulted in the identification of many sites suitable for wind power projects (C-WET 2001; Mani 1990, 1992, 1994; Mani and Mooley 1983).

The potential for wind farms in the country was first assessed in 2011 to be more than 2,000 GW by Prof. Jami Hossain of TERI University, New Delhi.[18] This was subsequently re-validated by Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, US (LBNL) in an independent study in 2012. As a result, the MNRE set up a committee to reassess the potential[19] and through the National Institute of Wind Energy (NIWE, previously C-WET) has announced a revised estimation of the potential wind resource in India from 49,130 MW to 302,000 MW assessed at 100 m hub height.[20] Wind turbines are now being set up at even 120 m hub height and the wind resource at higher hub heights of around 120 m or more that are prevailing is possibly even more.

In 2015, the MNRE set the target for Wind Power generation capacity by 2022 at 60,000 MW.[2][21]

East and North east regions have no grid connected wind power plant as of December 2017.

No offshore wind farm is under implementation as of December 2017.[22] However, an Offshore Wind Policy was announced in 2015 and presently weather stations and LIDARs are being set up by NIWE at some locations.[23] The first offshore wind farm is planned near Dhanushkodi in Tamil Nadu.[24]

Electricity generation[edit]

Wind power accounts for nearly 10% of India's total installed power generation capacity and generated 62.03 TWh in the fiscal year 2018–19, which is nearly 4% of total electricity generation.[25] The capacity utilisation factor is nearly 19.33% in the fiscal year 2018-19 (16% in 2017–18, 19.62% in 2016-17 and 14% in 2015–16). 70% of annual wind generation is during the five months duration from May to September coinciding with Southwest monsoon duration. In India, solar power is complementary to wind power as it is generated mostly during the non-monsoon period in daytime.[26]

Monthly Electricity Generation in India April, 2018 - March, 2019[27]
Month North West South East North East Total (GWh)
April 2018 552.54 1,604.27 1,165.93 - - 3,322.74
May 2018 587.60 2,481.92 1,371.58 - - 4,441.09
June 2018 1,035.61 3,461.16 3,827.89 12.28 - 8,336.94
July 2018 950.36 4,011.23 6,403.68 - - 11,365.27
August 2018 910.12 3,730.76 7,129.62 1.15 - 11,771.66
September 2018 600.53 1,778.12 3,708.99 5.70 - 6,093.34
October 2018 209.39 744.69 1,864.79 3.91 - 2,789.24
November 2018 184.31 760.81 1,232.00 3.91 - 2,181.03
December 2018 283.01 1,333.62 1,163.33 9.29 - 2,789.24
January 2019 312.56 1,233.13 1,296.29 9.91 - 2,851.89
February 2019 385.01 1,313.14 1,384.07 12.25 - 3,094.47
March 2019 392.77 1,477.50 1,083.57 12.10 - 2,965.93
Total (GWh) 6,403.79 23,930.36 31,631.72 70.50 - 62,036.38

Wind power by state[edit]

Muppandal Wind farm near NH44

There is a growing number of wind energy installations in states across India.

Installed wind capacity by state as of 31 March 2021[28]
State Total Capacity (MW)
Tamil Nadu 9608.04
Gujarat 8561.82
Maharashtra 5000.33
Karnataka 4938.60
Rajasthan 4326.82
Andhra Pradesh 4096.65
Madhya Pradesh 2519.89
Telangana 128.10
Kerala 62.50
Others 4.30
Total 39247.05

Tamil Nadu[edit]

Tamil Nadu's wind power capacity is around 29% of India's total.[when?] The Government of Tamil Nadu realized the importance and need for renewable energy, and set up a separate Agency, as registered society, called the Tamil Nadu Energy Development Agency (TEDA) as early as 1985. Tamil Nadu is a leader in Wind Power in India. In Muppandal windfarm the total capacity is 1500 MW, the largest wind power plant in India. The total wind installed capacity in Tamil Nadu is 7633 MW.[29] During the fiscal year 2014–15, the electricity generation is 9.521 GWh, with about a 15% capacity utilization factor.[30]

Maharashtra[edit]

Maharashtra is one of the prominent states that installed wind power projects second to Tamil Nadu in India. As of end of March 2016, installed wind power capacity is 4655.25 MW[citation needed]. As of now[when?] there are 50 developers registered with state nodal agency "Maharashtra energy Development Agency" for development of wind power projects. All the major manufacturers of wind turbines including ReNew Power, Suzlon, Vestas, Gamesa, Regen, Leitner Shriram have presence in Maharashtra.

Gujarat[edit]

Gujarat government's focus on tapping renewable energy has led to a sharp rise in the wind power capacity in the last few years. According to official data, wind power generation capacity in the state has increased a staggering ten times in the last six years. Gujarat has 16% of total capacity of country. ONGC Ltd. has installed a 51MW wind energy farm at Bhuj in Gujarat. Renewable energy projects worth a massive Rs 1 lakh crore of memorandums of understanding (MoUs) in the Vibrant Gujarat Summit in 2017.[31]

Rajasthan[edit]

4298 MW wind power plant has been installed in Rajasthan.[citation needed]

Madhya Pradesh[edit]

In consideration of unique concept, Govt. of Madhya Pradesh has sanctioned another 15 MW project to Madhya Pradesh Windfarms Ltd. MPWL, Bhopal at Nagda Hills near Dewas under consultation from Consolidated Energy Consultants Ltd. CECL Bhopal. All the 25 WEGs have been commissioned on 31.03.2008 and under successful operation.[32]

Kerala[edit]

55 MW production of wind power is installed in Kerala. The first wind farm of the state was set up in 1997 at Kanjikode in Palakkad district.[citation needed]

The agency has identified 16 sites for setting up wind farms through private developers.[citation needed]

Odisha[edit]

Odisha a coastal state has higher potential for wind energy. Current installation capacity stands at 2.0 MW. Odisha has a windpower potential of 1700MW. The Govt of Odisha is actively pursuing to boost Wind power generation in the state. however it has not progressed like other states primarily because Odisha having a huge coal reserve and number of existing and upcoming thermal power plants, is a power surplus state.[33]

West Bengal[edit]

The total installation in West Bengal is 2.10 MW till Dec 2009 at Fraserganj, Distt- South 24 Paraganas. More 0.5 MW (approx) at Ganga Sagar, Kakdwip, Distt - South 24 Paraganas. Both the project owned by West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency (WBREDA), Govt. of WB and project was executed on turnkey basis by Utility Powertech Limited (UPL).[citation needed]

Ladakh[edit]

The union territory of Ladakh and its Kargil district are potential wind energy areas, which are yet to be exploited.[20] Wind Speeds are higher during the winter months in Ladakh, which is complementary to the hydro power available during the summer months from the snow melt water. Being a Himalayan region located at higher altitude, the heating energy requirements are high which can be met by the renewable energy resources such as wind, solar and hydro power. The union territory is yet to open its account in grid connected wind power installations.[needs update]

Projects[edit]

India's largest wind power production facilities (10MW and greater)[34][35]

Windmills on the Tirumala hills in Andhra Pradesh
A wind farm in Rajasthan
Wind turbines midst of India's agricultural farms.
Rank Power plant Producer Location State MWe
1 Muppandal Wind Farm[36] Muppandal Wind Kanyakumari Tamil Nadu 1500
2 Jaisalmer Wind Park[37] Suzlon Energy Jaisalmer Rajasthan 1064
3 Brahmanvel windfarm[38] Parakh Agro Industries Dhule Maharashtra 528
4 Kayathar Siemens Gamesa, ReNew Power Tutcorin Tamilnadu 300
5 Dhalgaon windfarm[39] Gadre Marine Exports Sangli Maharashtra 278
6 Vankusawade Wind Park Suzlon Energy Ltd. Satara District. Maharashtra 259
7 Vaspet ReNew Power Vaspet Maharashtra 144
8 Tuljapur Siemens Gamesa, ReNew Power Osmanabad Maharashtra 126
9 Beluguppa Wind Park Orange Renewable Beluguppa Andhra Pradesh 100.8
10 Mamatkheda Wind Park Orange Renewable Mamatkheda Madhya Pradesh 100.5
11 Anantapur Wind Park Orange Renewable Nimbagallu Andhra Pradesh 100
12 Damanjodi Wind Power Plant Suzlon Energy Ltd. Damanjodi Odisha 99
13 Jath ReNew Power Jath Maharashtra 84
14 Welturi ReNew Power Welturi Maharashtra 75
15 Acciona Tuppadahalli Tuppadahalli Energy India Pvt Ltd Chitradurga District Karnataka 56.1
16 Dangiri Wind Farm Oil India Ltd. Jaiselmer Rajasthan 54
17 Bercha Wind Park Orange Renewable Ratlam Madhya Pradesh 50
18 Cape Comorin Aban Loyd Chiles Offshore Ltd. Kanyakumari Tamil Nadu 33
19 Kayathar Subhash Subhash Ltd. Kayathar Tamil Nadu 30
20 Jasdan NTPC LTD. Jasdan Gujarat 25.0
21 Ramakkalmedu Subhash Ltd. Ramakkalmedu Kerala 25
22 Gudimangalam Gudimangalam Wind Farm Gudimangalam Tamil Nadu 21
23 Shalivahana Wind Shalivahana Green Energy. Ltd. Tirupur Tamil Nadu 20.4[40]
24 Puthlur RCI Wescare (India) Ltd. Puthlur Andhra Pradesh 20
25 Lamda Danida Danida India Ltd. Lamba Gujarat 15
26 Chennai Mohan Mohan Breweries & Distilleries Chennai Tamil Nadu 15
27 Shah Gajendragarh MMTCL Gadag Karnataka 15
28 Jamgudrani MP MP Windfarms Ltd. Dewas Madhya Pradesh 14
29 Jogmatti BSES BSES Ltd. Chitradurga District Karnataka 14
30 Perungudi Newam Newam Power Company Ltd. Perungudi Tamil Nadu 12
31 Kethanur Wind Farm Kethanur Wind Farm Kethanur Tamil Nadu 11
32 Shah Gajendragarh Sanjay D. Ghodawat Gadag Karnataka 10.8
33 Hyderabad TSRTC Telangana SRTC Hyderabad Telangana 10
34 Muppandal Madras Madras Cements Ltd. Muppandal Tamil Nadu 10
35 Poolavadi Chettinad Chettinad Cement Corp. Ltd. Poolavadi Tamil Nadu 10

Offshore wind power plants[edit]

India has an offshore wind energy potential of around 70 GW in parts along the coast of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu.[41] As of May 2022, there is no offshore wind project under construction or operation.[42]

India started planning in 2010 to enter into offshore wind power,[43] and a 100 MW demonstration plant located off the Gujarat coast began planning in 2014.[44] In 2013, a consortium (instead of group of organizations), led by Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) started project FOWIND (Facilitating Offshore Wind in India) to identify potential zones for development of off-shore wind power in India and to stimulate R & D activities in this area.[45] The other consortium partners include the Centre for Study of Science, Technology and Policy (CSTEP), DNV GL, the Gujarat Power Corporation Limited (GPCL) and the World Institute of Sustainable Energy (WISE). The consortium was awarded the grant of €4.0 million by the delegation of the European Union to India in 2013 besides co-funding support from GPCL. The project action will be implemented from December 2013 to March 2018.

The project focuses on the States of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu for identification of potential zones for development through techno-commercial analysis and preliminary resource assessment. It will also establish a platform for structural collaboration and knowledge sharing between stakeholders from European Union and India, on offshore wind technology, policy, regulation, industry and human resource development. FOWIND activities will also help facilitate a platform to stimulate offshore wind related R&D activities in the country. The consortium published initial pre-feasibility assessment reports for offshore wind farm development in Gujarat and Tamil Nadu on 16 June 2015.[46][47] In September 2015, the India's cabinet has approved the National Offshore Wind Energy Policy. With this, the Ministry of New & Renewable Energy (MNRE) has been authorized as the Nodal Ministry for use of offshore areas within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)[48]

India seems pacing up rapidly towards offshore wind energy development as the Nodal Ministry (MNRE) & Nodal Agency (NIWE) calls with the Expression of Interest (EoI)[49] inviting the bidders for development of first 1000MW commercial scale offshore windfarm in India, near the coast of Gujarat. The EoI published on 16 Apr 2018, specifies the proposed area identified under the FOWIND & FOWPI study funded by European Union. The proposed location of the offshore windfarm could be 23–40 km off the coast from the Pipavav port, Gulf of Khambhat. The proposed area covers about 400sq km. The wind measurements & other data collection are under progress under the supervision of NIWE.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

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