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Master piece of ramappa temple.jpg
A torana, gate to sacred precinct, Warangal Fort Park and Museum, Telangana, India - 7.jpg
Telangana State Legislature Building.jpg
125 feet Ambedkar Statue in Hyderabad, Telangana (cropped).jpg
Charminar Hyderabad 1.jpg
Forte di golconda, vedute da est 06.jpg
Satyameva Jayate (Truth alone triumphs)
The map of India showing Telangana
Location of Telangana in India
Coordinates: 17°49′28″N 79°11′16″E / 17.824400°N 79.187900°E / 17.824400; 79.187900Coordinates: 17°49′28″N 79°11′16″E / 17.824400°N 79.187900°E / 17.824400; 79.187900
Country India
RegionSouth India
Before wasPart of Andhra Pradesh
FormationJune 2, 2014; 9 years ago (2014-06-02)
Telangana Day
and largest city
 • BodyGovernment of Telangana
 • GovernorTamilisai Soundararajan[1]
 • Chief ministerK. Chandrashekar Rao (BRS)
State LegislatureBicameral
 • CouncilTelangana Legislative Council (40 seats)
 • AssemblyTelangana Legislative Assembly (119 seats)
National ParliamentParliament of India
 • Rajya Sabha7 seats
 • Lok Sabha17 seats
High CourtTelangana High Court
 • Total112,077 km2 (43,273 sq mi)
 • Rank11th
 • Length770 km (480 mi)
 • Width515 km (320 mi)
Elevation256 m (840 ft)
Highest elevation965 m (3,166 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
 • TotalNeutral increase 35,003,674
 • Rank12th
 • Density312/km2 (810/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Rural
 • OfficialTelugu[5]
 • Additional officialUrdu[5][6]
 • Official scriptTelugu script
 • Total (2022–23)Increase13.27 lakh crore (US$190 billion)
 • Rank9th
 • Per capitaIncrease317,115 (US$4,400) (5th)
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-TG
Vehicle registrationTS
HDI (2022)Neutral increase0.705 High[8] (16th)
Literacy (2017–18)Neutral increase 72.80%[9]
Sex ratio (2011)988/1000 (27th)
Symbols of Telangana
MammalSpotted deer[10]
BirdIndian roller[10]
FlowerSenna auriculata[10]
TreeProsopis cineraria[10]
State highway mark
SH IN-TG.png
State highway of Telangana
TG SH1 - TG SH24
List of Indian state symbols

Telangana (/ˌtɛlənˈɡɑːnə/; Telugu: [ˈtelaŋɡaːɳa] (About this soundlisten), Urdu: [ˈtɪləŋɡɑːna] (About this soundlisten)) is a landlocked state in India situated on the south-central stretch of the Indian peninsula on the high Deccan Plateau.[11] It is the eleventh-largest state and the twelfth-most populated state in India as per 2011 census.[12] On 2 June 2014, the area was separated from the northwestern part of Andhra Pradesh as the newly formed state of Telangana, with Hyderabad as its capital.

Throughout antiquity and the Middle ages, the Telangana region was part of multiple Indian empires; such as the Mauryans, Satavahanas, Vishnukundinas, Chalukyas, Cholas, Rashtrakutas, Kakatiyas, Delhi Sultanate, Bahmani Sultanate and Golconda Sultanate. During the 17th—19th centuries, the region was ruled by the Mughals and Nizam of Hyderabad.[13][14] In 1823, the Nizam's ceded Northern Circars—(Coastal Andhra) and Ceded Districts—(Rayalseema) to the British India under subsidiary alliance which reduced it to that of a landlocked princely state bounded on all sides by the British India. Following the Indian Independence in 1947—the Hyderabad state joined the Union of India in 1948 after a police action. In 1956, the Hyderabad State was dissolved—and its Telugu speaking region Telangana was merged with the Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh. A peasant-driven movement began to advocate for separation from Andhra Pradesh starting in the early 1950s, and continued until Telangana was granted statehood on 2 June 2014.[15]

The economy of Telangana is the seventh-largest in India, with a gross state domestic product (GSDP) of 13.25 trillion (US$190 billion) and has GSDP per capita of 320,000 (US$4,500).[16][17] Telangana has scored 0.705 human development index.[8] The state has emerged as a major focus for robust IT software, industry and services sector. The state is also the main administrative centre of many Indian defence aerospace and research labs like Bharat Dynamics Limited, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Defense Research and Development Organization and Defence Research and Development Laboratory.[18]

Hyderabadi cuisine and Kakatiya architecture both from Telangana, are on the list of creativity UNESCO creative city of gastronomy and UNESCO World Heritage Site. The cultural centers of Telangana, Hyderabad and Warangal, are noted for their wealth and renowned historical structures – Ramappa Temple (UNESCO World Heritage Site), Charminar, Qutb Shahi Tombs, Falaknuma Palace, Chowmahalla Palace, Warangal Fort, Kakatiya Kala Thoranam, Thousand Pillar Temple and the Bhongir Fort. The historic city Golconda in Hyderabad established itself as a diamond trading Centre and, until the end of the 19th century, the Golconda market was the primary source of the finest and largest diamonds in the world. Thus, the legendary name Golconda Diamonds became synonymous with Golconda itself. Religious edifices like the Lakshmi Narasimha Temple in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district, Makkah Masjid in Hyderabad, the ancient Bhadrakali Temple and Govinda Rajula Gutta in Warangal, Alampur Jogulamba Temple in Jogulamba Gadwal district and Medak Cathedral, Kondagattu Anjaneya Swamy Temple, Kothakonda Veerabhadra Swamy Temple, Lord Shiva temple in Vemulawada of Rajanna-Sircilla district are several of its most famous places of worship. Buddhism also flourished in the region and many Aramams can be found.


A popular etymology derives the word "Telangana" from Trilinga desha ("land of three lingas"), a region so-called because three important Shaivite shrines were located here: Kaleshwaram (present day Telangana), Srisailam and Draksharama (present day Andhra Pradesh).[19]

According to Jayadheer Tirumala Rao-a scholar of history; the name Telangana is of Gondi origin. Rao asserts that it is derived from "Telangadh", which means "south" in Gondi and has been referred in "Gond script dating back to about 2000 years".[20]

One of the earliest uses of a word similar to Telangana can also be seen in a name of Malik Maqbul Tilangani (14th century CE), who was called the Tilangani, which implies that he was from Telangana. He was the commander of the Warangal Fort (Kataka Pāludu) and later Wazir— Minister under Firuz Shah Tughlaq.[21][22]

A 16th-century travel writer, Firishta, recorded in his book:

During the just reign of Ibrahim Kootb Shah, Tulingana, like Egypt, became the mart of the whole world. Merchants from Toorkistan, Arabia, and Persia resorted to it; and they met with such encouragement that they found in it inducements to return frequently. The greatest luxuries from foreign parts daily abounded at the king's hospitable board.[23]

The word "Telinga" changed over time to "Telangana" and the name "Telangana" was designated to distinguish the predominantly Telugu-speaking region of the erstwhile Hyderabad State from its predominantly Marathi-speaking one, Marathwada. After Asaf Jahi's ceded the Seemandhra region to the British, the rest of the Telugu region retained the name Telangana and the other parts were called Madras Presidency's Circars and Ceded.[24]


Early history[edit]

The Satavahana dynasty (230 BCE–220 CE) became the dominant power in this region. It originated from the lands between the Godavari and Krishna rivers and was based at Amaravathi and Dharanikota.[25] After the decline of the Satavahanas, various dynasties, such as the Vakataka, Vishnukundina, Chalukya, Rashtrakuta and Western Chalukya, ruled the area.[26]

Medieval period[edit]

Ramagiri Fort ruins at Begampet in Peddapalli district is an ancient fort initially built by the Sathavahanas and modified many times by other dynasties until the 16th century.
Kota Gullu, temple ruins built in the 12th century by Kakatiyas at Ghanpur, Mulug in Warangal district.

The Telangana area experienced its golden age during the reign of the Kakatiya dynasty, which ruled most parts of the present-day Andhra Pradesh and Telangana from 1083 to 1323 CE.[26] Rudrama Devi and Prataparudra II were prominent rulers from the Kakatiya dynasty. The dynasty weakened with the attack of Malik Kafur in 1309 and was dissolved after the defeat of Prataparudra by the forces of Muhammad bin Tughluq in 1323.[27][28]

The area came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate in the 14th century, followed by the Bahmani Sultanate. Quli Qutb Mulk, a governor of Golconda, revolted against the Bahmani Sultanate and established the Qutb Shahi dynasty in 1518. On 21 September 1687, the Golconda Sultanate came under the rule of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb after a year-long siege of the Golconda fort.[29]

During the early seventeenth century a strong cotton-weaving industry existed in Telangana. Large quantities of cotton were produced for domestic and exports consumption. High quality plain and patterned cloth made of muslin and calico was produced.[30]

In 1712, Qamar-ud-din Khan was appointed by emperor Farrukhsiyar as the viceroy of Deccan with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk (meaning "Administrator of the Realm"). He was later recalled to Delhi, with Mubariz Khan appointed as the viceroy. In 1724, Qamar-ud-din Khan defeated Mubariz Khan to reclaim the Deccan suba, establishing it as an autonomous province of the Mughal empire. He took the name Asif Jah, starting what came to be known as the Asaf Jahi dynasty.[26] He named the area Hyderabad Deccan. Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were called Asif Jahi Nizams or nizams of Hyderabad. The Medak and Warangal divisions of Telangana were part of their realm.[31]

Telangana was the seat of numerous dynasties. The Chowmahalla Palace was home to the Nizams of Hyderabad.

When Asif Jah I died in 1748, there was political unrest due to contention for the throne among his sons, who were aided by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces. In 1769, Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the Nizams. The Nizam Nasir-ud-dawlah, Asaf Jah IV signed the subsidiary alliance with the British in 1799 and lost its control over the state's defence and foreign affairs. Hyderabad State became a princely state among the presidencies and provinces of British India.[31]

In 1787, heavy flooding killed over 20,000 causing a plague which killed about 10,656,000 Telugus again in Telangana.[32]

Modern period[edit]

When India became independent from the British Empire in 1947, the Nizam of Hyderabad did not want to merge with the Indian Union and wanted to remain independent. The Government of India annexed Hyderabad State on 17 September 1948 after a military operation called Operation Polo.[26] It appointed a civil servant, M. K. Vellodi, as first chief minister of Hyderabad State on 26 January 1950.[33] He administered the state with the help of English-educated bureaucrats from the Madras and Bombay states, who were familiar with British systems of administration unlike the bureaucrats of Hyderabad State who used a completely different administrative system. The official language of the state was switched from Urdu to English.

In 1952, Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected chief minister of the Hyderabad State in its first democratic election. During this time, there were violent agitations by some Telanganites to send the Madras state bureaucrats back and implement a rule by the natives (mulkis) of Hyderabad (Syed Alam Sharjil) was elected chief minister of Hyderabad after (Dr. Burgula Ramakrishana Rao) for one year after he resigned from the post.[34]

The Telangana Rebellion was a peasant revolt supported by the communists. It originated in the Telangana regions of the Hyderabad State between 1946 and 1951, led by the Communist Party of India (CPI).[35]

The revolt began in the Nalgonda district against the feudal lords of Reddy and Velama castes. It quickly spread to the Warangal and Bidar districts. Peasant farmers and labourers revolted against the local feudal landlords (jagirdars and deshmukhs) and later against the Nizam Osman Ali Khan. The violent phase of the movement ended after the government of India's Operation Polo.[36] Starting in 1951, the CPI shifted to a more moderate strategy of seeking to bring communism to India within the framework of Indian democracy.[37]

In December 1953, the States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) was appointed to form states on a linguistic basis.[38] An agreement was reached between Telangana leaders and Andhra leaders on 20 February 1956 to merge Telangana and Andhra with promises to safeguard Telangana's interests.[39] After reorganisation in 1956, the region of Telangana was merged with Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh.

Following this Gentlemen's agreement, the central government established the unified state of Andhra Pradesh on 1 November 1956.[40][41][42] G.O 553 of 1959 from the united Andhra Pradesh state moved two revenue divisions of Bhadrachalam from East Godavari and Aswaraopeta from West Godavari to Khammam for administrative convenience.

There have been several movements to revoke the merger of Telangana and Andhra, major ones occurring in 1969, 1972, and 2009. The movement for a new state of Telangana gained momentum in the 21st century by an initiative of Kalvakuntla Chandrashekhar Rao from Bharat Rashtra Samithi later joined by Telangana Political Joint Action Committee, TJAC including political leadership representing the Telangana area.[43] On 9 December 2009 the government of India announced the process of formation of the Telangana state. Violent protests led by people in the Coastal Andhra and Rayalseema regions occurred immediately after the announcement, and the decision was put on hold on 23 December 2009.

The movement continued in Hyderabad and other districts of Telangana.[44] There have been hundreds of claimed suicides,[45] strikes, protests and disturbances to public life demanding separate statehood.

On 30 July 2013, the Congress Working Committee unanimously passed a resolution to recommend the formation of a separate Telangana state. After various stages the bill was placed in the Parliament of India in February 2014.[46] In February 2014, Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was passed by the Parliament of India for the formation of Telangana state, comprising ten districts from north-western Andhra Pradesh.[47] The bill received the assent of the president and was published in the Gazette on 1 March 2014.[48]

The state of Telangana was officially formed on 2 June 2014. Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao was elected as the first chief minister of Telangana, following elections in which the Bharat Rashtra Samithi party secured majority.[49] Hyderabad will remain as the joint capital of both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh for a period, not more than ten years after that period Hyderabad shall be the capital of the state of Telangana and there shall be a new capital for the state of Andhra Pradesh.[50] Andhra Pradesh picked Amaravati as its capital and relocated its secretariat in 2016 and its legislature in 2017.[51][52]


Telangana and its neighbours

Telangana is situated on the Deccan Plateau, in the central stretch of the eastern seaboard of the Indian Peninsula. It covers 112,077 square kilometres (43,273 sq mi).[2] The region is drained by two major rivers, with about 79% of the Godavari River catchment area and about 69% of the Krishna River catchment area, but most of the land is arid.[2] Telangana is also drained by several minor rivers such as the Bhima, the Maner, the Manjira, the Musi, and the Tungabhadra

The annual rainfall is between 900 and 1500mm in northern Telangana and 700 to 900mm in southern Telangana, from the southwest monsoons. Telangana contains various soil types, some of which are red sandy loams (Chalaka), Red loamy sands (Dubba), lateritic soils, salt-affected soils, alluvial soils, shallow to medium black soils and very deep black cotton soils. These soil types allow the planting of a variety of fruits and vegetable crops such as mangoes, oranges, coconut, sugarcane, paddy, banana and flower crops.[53][54][55]


Telangana is a semi-arid area and has a predominantly hot and dry climate. Summers start in March, and peak in mid-April with average high temperatures in the 37–38 °C (99–100 °F) range. The monsoon arrives in June and lasts until Late-September with about 755 mm (29.7 inches) of precipitation. A dry, mild winter starts in late November and lasts until early February with little humidity and average temperatures[56] in the 22–23 °C (72–73 °F) range.


The Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests ecoregion covers much of the state, including Hyderabad. The characteristic vegetation is woodlands of Hardwickia binata and Albizia amara. Over 80% of the original forest cover has been cleared for agriculture, timber harvesting, or cattle grazing, but large blocks of forest can be found in Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve and elsewhere.[57] The more humid Eastern Highlands moist deciduous forests cover the Eastern Ghats in the eastern part of the state.

National parks and sanctuaries[edit]

Telangana has three National Parks: Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park in Hyderabad district, and Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park and Mrugavani National Park in Ranga Reddy district.

Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) near Hyderabad

Wildlife Sanctuaries in Telangana include Eturunagaram Wildlife Sanctuary and Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary in Warangal District, Kawal Tiger Reserve and Pranahita Wildlife Sanctuary in Adilabad district, Kinnerasani Wildlife Sanctuary in Khammam district, Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary in Medak district, Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve in Nalgonda and Mahbubnagar districts, Pocharam Wildlife Sanctuary in Medak and Nizamabad districts, Shivaram Wildlife Sanctuary in Karimnagar district.

Sacred groves are small areas of forest preserved by local people. Sacred groves provide sanctuary to the local flora and fauna. Some are included within other protected areas, like Kadalivanam in Nagarjunsagar–Srisailam Tiger Reserve, but most stand alone. There are 65 sacred groves in Telangana—two in Adilabad district, thirteen in Hyderabad district, four in Karimnagar district, four in Khammam district, nine in Mahbubnagar district, four in Medak district, nine in Nalgonda district, ten in Ranga Reddy district, and three in Warangal district.[58]



Languages of Telangana (2011)[59]

  Telugu (75.51%)
  Urdu (12.32%)
  Lambadi (5.55%)
  Marathi (1.77%)
  Hindi (1.52%)
  Others (3.33%)

Telugu one of the classical languages of India is the official language of Telangana and Urdu is the second official language of the state.[60] About 75% of the population of Telangana speak Telugu and 12% speak Urdu.[61][62] Before 1948, Urdu was the official language of Hyderabad State, and due to a lack of Telugu-language educational institutions, Urdu was the language of the educated elite of Telangana.[63] After 1948, once Hyderabad State joined the new Republic of India, Telugu became the language of government, and as Telugu was introduced as the medium of instruction in schools and colleges, the use of Urdu among non-Hyderabadi Muslims decreased.[64] Both Telugu and Urdu are used in services across the state, such as the Telangana Legislature website, with Telugu and Urdu versions of the website available,[65] as well as the Hyderabad metro, wherein both languages are used on station names and signs along with English and Hindi.[66] The Urdu spoken in Telangana is called Hyderabadi Urdu, which in itself is a dialect of the larger Dakhini Urdu dialects of South India. Although the language is spoken by most Hyderabadi Muslims, the language in a literary context has long been lost, and standard Urdu is used.[67] Hindi is spoken mainly in Hyderabad, as well as some other urban areas like Warangal. Lambadi, a language related to Rajasthani dialects, is spoken throughout the state. Marathi is predominant in regions bordering Maharashtra, especially in the old Adilabad district, while Kannada is spoken by significant minorities along some parts of the Karnataka border. The old Adilabad district has a large number of speakers of tribal languages such as Gondi and Kolami, while Koya is a language spoken by significant numbers in Bhadradi Kothagudem district and along the Chhattisgarh border.[68]


Religion in Telangana (2011)[69]

  Hinduism (85.09%)
  Islam (12.69%)
  Christianity (1.27%)
  Buddhism (0.09%)
  Sikhism (0.09%)
  Jainism (0.08%)
  Other (0.01%)
  Not stated (0.68%)

According to the 2011 census, Hindus form 85.1% of the State's population. Muslims form 12.7% and Christians form 1.3%.[69]


According to the 2011 census, Telangana's literacy rate is 66.46%. Male literacy and female literacy are 74.95% and 57.92%, respectively.[2] Hyderabad district has the highest literacy rate with 80.96% and Mahabubnagar district has the lowest with 56.06%.[70]

In a 2019 report, the Key Indicators of Household Social Consumption on Education in India, by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Telangana has a literacy rate of 72.8% which is the fourth lowest among large states. It also has the second lowest literacy rate among rural women at 53.7%. 37.1% of the population aged 3–35 years received free education at pre-primary and higher levels in Telangana.[9]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Telangana at the time of formation on 2 June 2014.
Telangana new districts created in 2016

The state is divided into 33 districts. The latest two new districts, Mulugu and Narayanpet, were formed on 17 February 2019.[71] The districts are divided into 70 revenue divisions which are further divided into 584 mandals.[72][73] There are a total of 10,909 revenue villages and 12,769 gram panchayats in the state.[74]

The districts in the state are:

S.No. District Headquarters Earlier part of
1 Adilabad Adilabad Adilabad
2 Bhadradri Kothagudem Kothagudem Khammam
3 Hanumakonda Hanumakonda Warangal, Karimnagar
4 Hyderabad Hyderabad Hyderabad
5 Jagitial Jagitial Karimnagar
6 Jangaon Jangaon Warangal, Nalgonda
7 Jayashankar Bhupalpally Bhupalpally Warangal, Karimnagar
8 Jogulamba Gadwal Gadwal Mahabubnagar
9 Kamareddy Kamareddy Nizamabad
10 Karimnagar Karimnagar Karimnagar
11 Khammam Khammam Khammam
12 Kumuram Bheem Asifabad Adilabad
13 Mahabubabad Mahabubabad Warangal, Khammam
14 Mahbubnagar Mahbubnagar Mahbubnagar
15 Mancherial Mancherial Adilabad
16 Medak Medak Medak
17 Medchal–Malkajgiri Shamirpet Ranga Reddy
18 Mulugu Mulugu Warangal
19 Nagarkurnool Nagarkurnool Mahabubnagar
20 Nalgonda Nalgonda Nalgonda
21 Narayanpet Narayanpet Mahabubnagar
22 Nirmal Nirmal Adilabad
23 Nizamabad Nizamabad Nizamabad
24 Peddapalli Peddapalli Karimnagar
25 Rajanna Sircilla Sircilla Karimnagar
26 Ranga Reddy Shamshabad Ranga Reddy
27 Sangareddy Sangareddy Medak
28 Siddipet Siddipet Medak, Karimnagar, Warangal
29 Suryapet Suryapet Nalgonda
30 Vikarabad Vikarabad Ranga Reddy
31 Wanaparthy Wanaparthy Mahabubnagar
32 Warangal Warangal Warangal
33 Yadadri Bhuvanagiri Bhongir Nalgonda

There are a total of 12 cities in the state. Hyderabad is the biggest city in the state and 4th largest city in India. There are 13 municipal corporations and 132 municipalities in the state.

Government and politics[edit]

Telangana State Secretariat

Telangana is governed by a parliamentary system of representative democracy, a feature the state shares with other Indian states. Universal suffrage is granted to residents. There are three branches of government.

  1. Executive authority is vested in the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister, although the titular head of government is the Governor. The governor is the head of state appointed by the President of India. The leader of the party or coalition with a majority in the Legislative Assembly is appointed as the chief minister by the governor, and the Council of Ministers are appointed by the governor on the advice of the chief minister. The Council of Ministers reports to the Legislative Assembly.
  2. The legislature, the Telangana Legislative Assembly and the Telangana Legislative Council, consists of elected members and special office bearers such as the Speaker and Deputy Speaker, that are elected by the members. Assembly meetings are presided over by the speaker or the deputy speaker in the speaker's absence. The Assembly is bicameral with 119 Members of the Legislative Assembly and 40 Member of the Legislative Council. Terms of office run for five years unless the Assembly is dissolved prior to the completion of the term. The Legislative Council is a permanent body with one-third of members retiring every two years.
  3. The judiciary is composed of the High Court of Judicature at Hyderabad and a system of lower courts.

Auxiliary authorities known as panchayats, for which local body elections are regularly held, govern local affairs. The state contributes seats to Lok Sabha.

The main political parties in the regional politics are the Bharat Rashtra Samithi, All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen, Bharatiya Janata Party and Indian National Congress. Following the Telangana Legislative Assembly Election in 2014, the Bharat Rashtra Samithi under Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao was elected to power.


Coal Handling Ropeway near Manuguru, Bhadradri Kothagudem district.

The economy of Telangana is mainly driven by agriculture. Two important rivers of India, the Godavari and Krishna, flow through the state, providing irrigation. Farmers in Telangana mainly depend on rain-fed water sources for irrigation. Rice is the major food crop. Other important crops are cotton, sugar cane, mango, and tobacco. Recently, crops used for vegetable oil production such as sunflower and peanuts have gained favour. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, the world's highest masonry dam.[75][76]

The state has also started to focus on the fields of information technology and biotechnology. Telangana is one of top IT-exporting states of India. There are 68 Special Economic Zones in the state.[77]

Telangana is a mineral-rich state, with coal reserves at Singareni Collieries Company.[78] The Golconda region has produced some of the world's most famous diamonds, including the colourless Koh-i-Noor (United Kingdom), the blue Hope (United States), the pink Daria-i-Noor (Iran), the white Regent (France), the Dresden Green (Germany), and the colourless Orlov (Russia), Nizam and Jacob (India), as well as the now-lost diamonds Florentine Yellow, Akbar Shah and Great Mogul.


Rice is the major food crop and staple food of the state. Other important crops are maize, tobacco, mango, cotton and sugar cane.[79] Agriculture has been the chief source of income for the state's economy. The Godavari and Krishna rivers flow through the state, providing irrigation. Apart from major rivers, there are small rivers like Tunga Bhadra, Bima, Dindi, Kinnerasani, Manjeera, Manair, Penganga, Pranahitha, peddavagu and Taliperu. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, the world's highest masonry dam.[80]

Agri Export Zones for the following produce have been proposed for the following locations:[81][citation needed]

In 2019, environmental anthropologist Andrew Flachs raised concerns regarding the financial and social pressures experienced by small cotton farmers in Telangana.[82]


The HITEC City is a major IT hub of Hyderabad
JP Morgan Chase & Co. Tower
Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Several major manufacturing and services industries are in operation mainly around Hyderabad. Automobiles and auto components, spices, mines and minerals, textiles and apparels, pharmaceutical, horticulture, and poultry farming are the main industries in Telangana.[83]

In terms of services, Hyderabad is nicknamed "Cyberabad" due to the location of major software industries in the city.[84][85] Prior to secession, it contributed 10% to India's and 98% to Andhra Pradesh's exports in the IT and ITES sectors in 2013[86] With Hyderabad in the front line of Telangana's goal to promote information technology in India, the city boasts the HITEC City as its premier hub. IT companies/hubs have also been set up in Warangal,[87] Karimnagar, and Khammam.[88]

The state government is in the process of developing industrial parks at different places, for specific groups of industries. The existing parks are Software Park at Hyderabad, HITEC City for software units, Apparel Park at Gundlapochampalli, Export Promotion Park at Pashamylaram, Biotechnology park at Turkapally.[citation needed]

Hyderabad is also a major site for healthcare-related industries including hospitals and pharmaceutical organisations such as Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Yashoda Hospitals, LV Prasad Eye Care, Akruti Institute of cosmetic and plastic surgery, Fever Hospital, Durgabai Deshmukh, Continental Hospitals and Apollo Hospitals. Many pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical-related companies like Dr. Reddy's Laboratories, Shantha Biotechnics and Aragen (Formerly GVK BIO) are based out of Hyderabad.

In addition, Hyderabad-based healthcare non-profits include the Indian Heart Association, a cardiovascular disease NGO.[89]


Telangana State Tourism Development Corporation (TSTDC) is a state government agency which promotes tourism in Telangana.[90] Telangana has a variety of tourist attractions including historical places, monuments, forts, waterfalls, forests and temples.



The print media mainly consists of Telugu and English newspapers. Nava Telangana, Sakshi, Andhra Jyothi, Eenadu and Namaste Telangana are all Telugu newspapers. Mainly in English newspapers are Deccan Chronicle, The Times Of India, The Hindu, Telangana Today and The Hans India.[93] Notable Urdu newspapers include Etemaad Daily, The Munsif Daily, and The Siasat Daily.


Irrigation projects[edit]

Project River District
Kaleswaram Godavari Jayashankar Bhupalpally
Sriram Sagar Godavari Nizamabad
Nagarjuna Sagar Krishna Nalgonda, Guntur
Srisailam Krishna Mahabubnagar, Kurnool
Nizam Sagar Manjira Nizamabad
Singur Dam Manjira Medak
Lower Manair Dam Maner Karimnagar
Mid Manair Dam Maner Rajanna Sircilla
Upper Manair Dam Maner Rajanna Sircilla
Sripada Yellampalli Godavari Peddapalli, Mancherial
Jurala Krishna Jogulamba Gadwal
Koil Sagar Krishna Mahabubnagar
Osman Sagar Musi Ranga Reddy district
Himayat Sagar Musi Ranga Reddy district

Public transport[edit]

The state is well connected with other states by means of road, rail and airways. The Telangana State Road Transport Corporation (TSRTC) is the major public transport corporation that connects all the cities and villages.[94] Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station (M.G.B.S) in Hyderabad is the central bus-station of the state.[95][96] Jubilee Bus Station in Secunderabad serves inter city bus services.


The state has a total of 16 national highways and accounts for a total length of 3,550.69 km (2,206.30 mi).[97]


The history of railways in this region dates back to the time of Nizam of Hyderabad in 1874. The Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway, which had its beginnings in a line built privately by the HEH the Nizam. Much to the dismay of the British authorities, The Nizam bore all the expenses for the construction of the line.[98]

It operates under the auspices of the South Central Railway founded in 1966. The landmark building Rail Nilayam in Secunderabad is the Zonal Headquarters office of South Central Railway. Secunderabad and Hyderabad are the main divisions of the South Central Railway that fall in the state.[99]


Rajiv Gandhi International Airport at Shamshabad is an international airport serving the city of Hyderabad. It is the largest airport in the state and one of the busiest airports in the country. The government has plans to upgrade Warangal Airport, Nizamabad Airport[100] and Ramagundam Airport - it also plans to construct airports in Ramagundam and Kothagudem using the UDAN scheme. [101]

Warangal has a domestic airport in Mamunooru which was established in the year 1930 during the Nizam period. All the exports and imports of Azam Jahi Mills, Warangal were done through the Warangal Airport.[citation needed]


Sammakka Saralamma Jatara is a famous Hindu festival in Telangana

The state has a rich tradition in classical music, painting and folk arts such as Burra Katha, shadow puppet show, and Perini Shivatandavam,Gusadi Dance, Kolatam and Bathukamma.

The important festivals of the state are Bonalu and Bathukamma.


Badami Chalukya architecture is spread across the state, notable temple is Alampur Jogulamba Temple. Chalukyas of Vemulavada built many Temples in Vemulawada, Bheemeshvara temple, Raja Rajeswara Temple, Vemulawada.

Medieval forts such as the Bhongir Fort, Khammam Fort, and Rachakonda Fort are spread across the state. Among the notable ones is the Warangal Fort, which served as the capital of the Kakatiya dynasty.[102] The Kakatiya Kala Thoranam within the fort has become a symbol of Telangana, and features on the state emblem.[103] Ramappa Temple is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The fort complex, and Thousand Pillar Temple are on the tentative list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[102]

File:Sriranganayaka Temple.jpg
Temple Pillars of Sri Ranganayaka Swamy Temple, Srirangapuram.

Samsthanams built Temples in Dravidian architecture, Kollapur, and Jataprole Samsthanams, Gadwal Samsthanam built temples in Dravidian architecture.

File:Ammapally Temple.jpg
12th century: Built during the time of Kalyani Chalukyas Ammapalli Sita Ramachandraswamy Devasthanam, a Rama temple without Hanuman but instead Kodandarama. This signifies it as a temple Sri Rama travelled to or stayed at during his 14 years of exile.

The Qutb Shahi dynasty established the city of Hyderabad as their capital. The Charminar, Golconda Fort, and Qutb Shahi tombs in Hyderabad were built by the Qutb Shahi dynasty.[104]

The Nizam era saw the construction of palaces such as the Chowmahalla Palace and Falaknuma Palace, as well as elaborate public buildings such as the Osmania General Hospital, all in Hyderabad.

Religious destinations[edit]

There are religious worship centres of different religions in the state.

Hindu worship destinations include Bhadrachalam Temple, Gnana Saraswati Temple, Yadagirigutta Temple, Ramappa Temple, Vemulawada Raja Rajeshwara temple, the Thousand Pillar Temple, Statue of Equality (Ramanuja).

The Muslim worship destinations such as Makkah Masjid near Charminar, Khairtabad Mosque, Mian Mishk Masjid, Toli Masjid and Spanish Mosque.

Christian worship centres include the Diocese of Dornakal of the Church of South India, Bahe Church of South India, and Medak Cathedral. There are also some Buddhist destinations, such as Nelakondapalli, Dhulikatta, Phanigiri and Kolanpaka.[105]


Telugu cinema, also known by its sobriquet as Tollywood, is a part of Indian cinema producing films in the Telugu language, and is centred in the Hyderabad, Telangana neighbourhood of Film Nagar.[106] In the early 1990s, the Telugu film industry had largely shifted from Chennai to Hyderabad. The Telugu film industry is the second-largest film industry in India next to Bollywood.[107] In the years 2005, 2006 and 2008 the Telugu film industry produced the largest number of films in India, exceeding the number of films produced in Bollywood.[108][109] The industry holds the Guinness World Record for the largest film production facility in the world.[110]


Telangana cuisine is a unique and delicious cuisine that is influenced by the region's rich history of deccan and Telugu culture.[111] The cuisine is known for its use of spices,[112] millets,[113] and rotis. Telangana cuisine also features a variety of other dishes, including biryani, haleem, and kebabs.[114]

Visual arts[edit]

Indigenous art forms of Telangana include the Cheriyal scroll painting,[115] Nirmal paintings, and Karimnagar Silver Filigree.[116] A distinctive Persianate style of painting, called Deccan painting developed in the region during the medieval period.[117]

Notable museums in the state include the Salar Jung Museum in Hyderabad, which is one of the largest in India.[118] Other museums include the Telangana State Archeology Museum, City Museum, and Nizam Museum in Hyderabad, Warangal Museum in Warangal, and Alampur Museum in Alampur.


Telangana has multiple institutes of higher education universities along with numerous primary and secondary schools. The Department of Higher Education deals with matters relating to education at various levels in the state of Telangana.

Main gate of NIT Warangal

According to a 2019 report, the state has a literacy rate of 72.8%, which is one of the lowest in India.[9] Schools in Telangana are run by the state government or private organisations, which include religious institutions. Some specialized schools such as the Kendriya Vidyalayas and Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas are run by agencies of the central government.[119] As of 2017, there are 41,337 schools in the state, with about 70% of them being government schools.[120]

Telangana is home to 27 universities, which include 3 central universities, 17 state universities, 2 deemed universities, and 5 private universities. The Osmania University in Hyderabad, established in 1918, is the oldest modern university in the state, and one of the largest university systems in the world. The University of Hyderabad consistently ranks among the top universities in the country.[121] Apart from these, specialised institutes of national importance in the state include AIIMS Bibinagar, IIT Hyderabad, and NIT Warangal.[122]

Other notable institutions include Indian School of Business, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, Kakatiya University, International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad, NALSAR University of Law, Kaloji Narayana Rao University of Health Sciences, National Institute of Fashion Technology Hyderabad, Footwear Design and Development Institute, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hyderabad, and Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies, Basar, among others.[123]


The Hyderabad FC is a professional football club based in Hyderabad and plays in top-tier league of India, the Indian Super League. The home ground of the club is G.M.C Balayogi Athletic Stadium, in Gachibowli.[124]

The Hyderabad cricket team is represented in the Ranji Trophy and has won twice. The Sunrisers Hyderabad, an Indian Premier League franchise, is based in Hyderabad and has won the trophy once. Deccan Chargers, a currently defunct franchise from Hyderabad, also won the Indian Premier League once. The Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium is the home ground of both Hyderabad cricket team and Sunrisers Hyderabad. It hosts international as well as domestic matches.

The Hyderabad Hunters, a Premier Badminton League franchise; the Telugu Titans, a Pro Kabaddi League franchise; the Hyderabad Sky, a UBA Pro Basketball League franchise and the Telugu Tigers, a Premier Futsal franchise are also based in Hyderabad. Hyderabad Hunters have won the Premier Badminton League title.

Other stadiums include G. M. C. Balayogi Athletic Stadium, Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium and Gachibowli Indoor Stadium.

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]


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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]


General information

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