This article's lead section may be too long for the length of the article. (January 2023)
Telangana (// (listen); Telugu: [ˈtelaŋɡaːɳa], Urdu: [ˈtɪləŋɡɑːna] (listen)) is a landlocked state in India situated on the south-central stretch of the Indian peninsula on the high Deccan Plateau. It is the eleventh-largest state and the twelfth-most populated state in India with a geographical area of 112,077 km2 (43,273 sq mi) and 35,193,978 residents as per 2011 census. On 2 June 2014, the area was separated from the northwestern part of Andhra Pradesh as the newly formed state of Telangana, with Hyderabad as its capital.
Throughout antiquity and the Middle Ages, the region now known as Telangana was ruled by multiple major Indian powers such as the Mauryans, Satavahanas, Vishnukundinas, Chalukyas, Cholas, Rashtrakutas, Kakatiyas, Delhi Sultanate, Bahmani Sultanate, Golconda Sultanate. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the region was ruled by the Mughals of India. The region is known for its Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb culture. During the 18th century and the British Raj, Telangana was ruled by the Nizam of Hyderabad. In 1823, the Nizams lost control over Northern Circars (Coastal Andhra) and Ceded Districts (Rayalseema), which were handed over to the East India Company. The annexation by the British of the Northern Circars deprived Hyderabad State, the Nizam's dominion, of the considerable coastline it formerly had, to that of a landlocked princely state with territories in the central Deccan, bounded on all sides by British India. Thereafter, the Northern Circars were governed as part of Madras Presidency until India's independence in 1947, after which the presidency became India's Madras state.
The Hyderabad state joined the Union of India in 1948 after a police action. In 1956, the Hyderabad State was dissolved as part of the linguistic reorganization of states and Telangana was merged with the Telugu-speaking Andhra State (part of the Madras Presidency during the British Raj) to form Andhra Pradesh. A peasant-driven movement began to advocate for separation from Andhra Pradesh starting in the early 1950s, and continued until Telangana was granted statehood on 2 June 2014 under the leadership of K. Chandrashekar Rao.
The economy of Telangana is the seventh-largest in India, with a gross state domestic product (GSDP) of ₹13.25 trillion (US$190 billion) and has GSDP per capita of ₹320,000 (US$4,500). Telangana has scored 0.705 human development index. The state has emerged as a major focus for robust IT software, industry and services sector. The state is also the main administrative Centre of many Indian defence aerospace and research labs like Bharat Dynamics Limited, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Defense Research and Development Organization and Defence Research and Development Laboratory.
Hyderabadi cuisine and Kakatiya architecture both from Telangana, are on the list of creativity UNESCO creative city of gastronomy and UNESCO World Heritage Site. The cultural centers of Telangana, Hyderabad and Warangal, are noted for their wealth and renowned historical structures – Ramappa Temple (UNESCO World Heritage Site), Charminar, Qutb Shahi Tombs, Falaknuma Palace, Chowmahalla Palace, Warangal Fort, Kakatiya Kala Thoranam, Thousand Pillar Temple and the Bhongir Fort in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district. The historic city Golconda in Hyderabad established itself as a diamond trading Centre and, until the end of the 19th century, the Golconda market was the primary source of the finest and largest diamonds in the world. Thus, the legendary name Golconda Diamonds became synonymous with Golconda itself. Religious edifices like the Lakshmi Narasimha Temple in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district, Makkah Masjid in Hyderabad, the ancient Bhadrakali Temple and Govinda Rajula Gutta in Warangal, Alampur Jogulamba Temple in Jogulamba Gadwal district and Medak Cathedral, Kondagattu Anjaneya Swamy Temple, Kothakonda Veerabhadra Swamy Temple, Lord Shiva temple in Vemulawada of Rajanna-Sircilla district are several of its most famous places of worship. Buddhism also flourished in the region and many Aramams can be found.
A popular etymology derives the word "Telangana" from Trilinga desha ("land of three lingas"), a region so-called because three important Shaivite shrines were located here: Kaleshwaram (in present day Telangana), Srisailam and Draksharama (in present day Andhra Pradesh). According to Jayadhir Thirumala Rao, a former director of Andhra Pradesh Oriental Manuscripts Library and Research Centre, the name Telangana is of Gondi origin. Rao asserts that it is derived from "Telangadh", which according to him, means "south" in Gondi and has been referred to in "Gond script dating back to about 2000 years".
One of the earliest uses of a word similar to Telangana can also be seen in a name of Malik Maqbul (14th century CE), who was called the Tilangani, which implies that he was from Telangana. He was the commander of the Warangal Fort (Kataka Pāludu).
A 16th-century travel writer, Firishta, recorded in his book:
During the just reign of Ibrahim Kootb Shah, Tulingana, like Egypt, became the mart of the whole world. Merchants from Toorkistan, Arabia, and Persia resorted to it; and they met with such encouragement that they found in it inducements to return frequently. The greatest luxuries from foreign parts daily abounded at the king's hospitable board.
The word "Telinga" changed over time to "Telangana" and the name "Telangana" was designated to distinguish the predominantly Telugu-speaking region of the erstwhile Hyderabad State from its predominantly Marathi-speaking one, Marathwada. After Asaf Jahis ceded the Seemandhra region to the British, the rest of the Telugu region retained the name Telangana and the other parts were called Madras Presidency's Circars and Ceded.
Telangana was governed by many rulers, including the:
- Maurya Empire (320 BCE–180 BCE)
- Satavahana dynasty (180 BCE–220 CE)
- Vakataka dynasty (250 CE–500 CE)
- Vishnukundina dynasty (420 CE–624 CE)
- Chalukya dynasty (543 CE–753 CE)
- Rashtrakuta dynasty (753 CE–982 CE)
- Kakatiya dynasty (1083 CE–1323 CE)
- Delhi Sultanate (1323 CE–1326 CE)
- Musunuri Nayaks (1326 CE–1356 CE)
- Recherla Nayaks (1356 CE–1424 CE)
- Bahmani Sultanate (1347 CE–1512 CE)
- Vijayanagara Empire (1336 CE–1646 CE)
- Qutb Shahi dynasty (1512 CE–1687 CE)
- Mughal Empire (1687 CE–1724 CE)
- Asaf Jahi Dynasty (1724 CE–1948 CE)
The Satavahana dynasty (230 BCE–220 CE) became the dominant power in this region. It originated from the lands between the Godavari and Krishna rivers and was based at Amaravathi and Dharanikota. After the decline of the Satavahanas, various dynasties, such as the Vakataka, Vishnukundina, Chalukya, Rashtrakuta and Western Chalukya, ruled the area.
The Telangana area experienced its golden age during the reign of the Kakatiya dynasty, which ruled most parts of the present-day Andhra Pradesh and Telangana from 1083 to 1323 CE. Rudrama Devi and Prataparudra II were prominent rulers from the Kakatiya dynasty. The dynasty weakened with the attack of Malik Kafur in 1309 and was dissolved after the defeat of Prataparudra by the forces of Muhammad bin Tughluq in 1323.
Qutb Shahi and Asaf Jahi Dynasties
The area came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate in the 14th century, followed by the Bahmani Sultanate. Quli Qutb Mulk, a governor of Golconda, revolted against the Bahmani Sultanate and established the Qutb Shahi dynasty in 1518. On 21 September 1687, the Golconda Sultanate came under the rule of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb after a year-long siege of the Golconda fort.
During the early seventeenth century a strong cotton-weaving industry existed in Telangana. Large quantities of cotton were produced for domestic and exports consumption. High quality plain and patterned cloth made of muslin and calico was produced.
In 1712, Qamar-ud-din Khan was appointed by emperor Farrukhsiyar as the viceroy of Deccan with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk (meaning "Administrator of the Realm"). He was later recalled to Delhi, with Mubariz Khan appointed as the viceroy. In 1724, Qamar-ud-din Khan defeated Mubariz Khan to reclaim the Deccan suba, establishing it as an autonomous province of the Mughal empire. He took the name Asif Jah, starting what came to be known as the Asaf Jahi dynasty. He named the area Hyderabad Deccan. Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were called Asif Jahi Nizams or nizams of Hyderabad. The Medak and Warangal divisions of Telangana were part of their realm.
When Asif Jah I died in 1748, there was political unrest due to contention for the throne among his sons, who were aided by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces. In 1769, Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the Nizams. The Nizam Nasir-ud-dawlah, Asaf Jah IV signed the subsidiary alliance with the British in 1799 and lost its control over the state's defence and foreign affairs. Hyderabad State became a princely state among the presidencies and provinces of British India.
In 1787, heavy flooding killed over 20,000 causing a plague which killed about 10,656,000 Telugus again in Telangana.
When India became independent from the British Empire in 1947, the Nizam of Hyderabad did not want to merge with the Indian Union and wanted to remain independent. The Government of India annexed Hyderabad State on 17 September 1948 after a military operation called Operation Polo. It appointed a civil servant, M. K. Vellodi, as first chief minister of Hyderabad State on 26 January 1950. He administered the state with the help of English-educated bureaucrats from the Madras and Bombay states, who were familiar with British systems of administration unlike the bureaucrats of Hyderabad State who used a completely different administrative system. The official language of the state was switched from Urdu to English.
In 1952, Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected chief minister of the Hyderabad State in its first democratic election. During this time, there were violent agitations by some Telanganites to send the Madras state bureaucrats back and implement a rule by the natives (mulkis) of Hyderabad (Syed Alam Sharjil) was elected chief minister of Hyderabad after (Dr. Burgula Ramakrishana Rao) for one year after he resigned from the post.
The Telangana Rebellion was a peasant revolt supported by the communists. It originated in the Telangana regions of the Hyderabad State between 1946 and 1951, led by the Communist Party of India (CPI).
The revolt began in the Nalgonda district against the feudal lords of Reddy and Velama castes. It quickly spread to the Warangal and Bidar districts. Peasant farmers and labourers revolted against the local feudal landlords (jagirdars and deshmukhs) and later against the Nizam Osman Ali Khan. The violent phase of the movement ended after the government of India's Operation Polo. Starting in 1951, the CPI shifted to a more moderate strategy of seeking to bring communism to India within the framework of Indian democracy.
States Reorganisation Commission
In December 1953, the States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) was appointed to form states on a linguistic basis. An agreement was reached between Telangana leaders and Andhra leaders on 20 February 1956 to merge Telangana and Andhra with promises to safeguard Telangana's interests. After reorganisation in 1956, the region of Telangana was merged with Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh.
Following this Gentlemen's agreement, the central government established the unified state of Andhra Pradesh on 1 November 1956. G.O 553 of 1959 from the united Andhra Pradesh state moved two revenue divisions of Bhadrachalam from East Godavari and Aswaraopeta from West Godavari to Khammam for administrative convenience.
There have been several movements to revoke the merger of Telangana and Andhra, major ones occurring in 1969, 1972, and 2009. The movement for a new state of Telangana gained momentum in the 21st century by an initiative of Kalvakuntla Chandrashekhar Rao from Bharat Rashtra Samithi later joined by Telangana Political Joint Action Committee, TJAC including political leadership representing the Telangana area. On 9 December 2009 the government of India announced the process of formation of the Telangana state. Violent protests led by people in the Coastal Andhra and Rayalseema regions occurred immediately after the announcement, and the decision was put on hold on 23 December 2009.
The movement continued in Hyderabad and other districts of Telangana. There have been hundreds of claimed suicides, strikes, protests and disturbances to public life demanding separate statehood.
Formation of Telangana state in 2014
On 30 July 2013, the Congress Working Committee unanimously passed a resolution to recommend the formation of a separate Telangana state. After various stages the bill was placed in the Parliament of India in February 2014. In February 2014, Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was passed by the Parliament of India for the formation of Telangana state, comprising ten districts from north-western Andhra Pradesh. The bill received the assent of the president and was published in the Gazette on 1 March 2014.
The state of Telangana was officially formed on 2 June 2014. Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao was elected as the first chief minister of Telangana, following elections in which the Bharat Rashtra Samithi party secured majority. Hyderabad will remain as the joint capital of both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh for a period, not more than ten years after that period Hyderabad shall be the capital of the state of Telangana and there shall be a new capital for the state of Andhra Pradesh. Andhra Pradesh picked Amaravati as its capital and relocated its secretariat in 2016 and its legislature in 2017.
Telangana is situated on the Deccan Plateau, in the central stretch of the eastern seaboard of the Indian Peninsula. It covers 112,077 square kilometres (43,273 sq mi). The region is drained by two major rivers, with about 79% of the Godavari River catchment area and about 69% of the Krishna River catchment area, but most of the land is arid. Telangana is also drained by several minor rivers such as the Bhima, the Maner, the Manjira, the Musi, and the Tungabhadra
The annual rainfall is between 900 and 1500mm in northern Telangana and 700 to 900mm in southern Telangana, from the southwest monsoons. Telangana contains various soil types, some of which are red sandy loams (Chalaka), Red loamy sands (Dubba), lateritic soils, salt-affected soils, alluvial soils, shallow to medium black soils and very deep black cotton soils. These soil types allow the planting of a variety of fruits and vegetable crops such as mangoes, oranges, coconut, sugarcane, paddy, banana and flower crops.
Telangana is a semi-arid area and has a predominantly hot and dry climate. Summers start in March, and peak in May with average high temperatures in the 46 °C (115 °F) range. The monsoon arrives in June and lasts until September with about 755 mm (29.7 inches) of precipitation. A dry, mild winter starts in late November and lasts until early February with little humidity and average temperatures in the 22–23 °C (72–73 °F) range.
The Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests ecoregion covers much of the state, including Hyderabad. The characteristic vegetation is woodlands of Hardwickia binata and Albizia amara. Over 80% of the original forest cover has been cleared for agriculture, timber harvesting, or cattle grazing, but large blocks of forest can be found in Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve and elsewhere. The more humid Eastern Highlands moist deciduous forests cover the Eastern Ghats in the eastern part of the state.
National parks and sanctuaries
Wildlife Sanctuaries in Telangana include Eturunagaram Wildlife Sanctuary and Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary in Warangal District, Kawal Tiger Reserve and Pranahita Wildlife Sanctuary in Adilabad district, Kinnerasani Wildlife Sanctuary in Khammam district, Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary in Medak district, Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve in Nalgonda and Mahbubnagar districts, Pocharam Wildlife Sanctuary in Medak and Nizamabad districts, Shivaram Wildlife Sanctuary in Karimnagar district.
Sacred groves are small areas of forest preserved by local people. Sacred groves provide sanctuary to the local flora and fauna. Some are included within other protected areas, like Kadalivanam in Nagarjunsagar–Srisailam Tiger Reserve, but most stand alone. There are 65 sacred groves in Telangana—two in Adilabad district, thirteen in Hyderabad district, four in Karimnagar district, four in Khammam district, nine in Mahbubnagar district, four in Medak district, nine in Nalgonda district, ten in Ranga Reddy district, and three in Warangal district.
Telugu one of the classical languages of India is the official language of Telangana and Urdu is the second official language of the state. About 75% of the population of Telangana speak Telugu and 12% speak Urdu. Before 1948, Urdu was the official language of Hyderabad State, and due to a lack of Telugu-language educational institutions, Urdu was the language of the educated elite of Telangana. After 1948, once Hyderabad State joined the new Republic of India, Telugu became the language of government, and as Telugu was introduced as the medium of instruction in schools and colleges, the use of Urdu among non-Hyderabadi Muslims decreased. Both Telugu and Urdu are used in services across the state, such as the Telangana Legislature website, with Telugu and Urdu versions of the website available, as well as the Hyderabad metro, wherein both languages are used on station names and signs along with English and Hindi. The Urdu spoken in Telangana is called Hyderabadi Urdu, which in itself is a dialect of the larger Dakhini Urdu dialects of South India. Although the language is spoken by most Hyderabadi Muslims, the language in a literary context has long been lost, and standard Urdu is used. Hindi is spoken mainly in Hyderabad, as well as some other urban areas like Warangal. Lambadi, a language related to Rajasthani dialects, is spoken throughout the state. Marathi is predominant in regions bordering Maharashtra, especially in the old Adilabad district, while Kannada is spoken by significant minorities along some parts of the Karnataka border. The old Adilabad district has a large number of speakers of tribal languages such as Gondi and Kolami, while Koya is a language spoken by significant numbers in Bhadradi Kothagudem district and along the Chhattisgarh border.
According to the 2011 census, Telangana's literacy rate is 66.46%. Male literacy and female literacy are 74.95% and 57.92%, respectively. Hyderabad district has the highest literacy rate with 80.96% and Mahabubnagar district has the lowest with 56.06%.
In a 2019 report, the Key Indicators of Household Social Consumption on Education in India, by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Telangana has a literacy rate of 72.8% which is the fourth lowest among large states. It also has the second lowest literacy rate among rural women at 53.7%. 37.1% of the population aged 3–35 years received free education at pre-primary and higher levels in Telangana.
The state is divided into 33 districts. The latest two new districts, Mulugu and Narayanpet, were formed on 17 February 2019. The districts are divided into 70 revenue divisions which are further divided into 584 mandals. There are a total of 10,909 revenue villages and 12,769 gram panchayats in the state.
The districts in the state are:
Government and politics
Telangana is governed by a parliamentary system of representative democracy, a feature the state shares with other Indian states. Universal suffrage is granted to residents. There are three branches of government.
- Executive authority is vested in the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister, although the titular head of government is the Governor. The governor is the head of state appointed by the President of India. The leader of the party or coalition with a majority in the Legislative Assembly is appointed as the chief minister by the governor, and the Council of Ministers are appointed by the governor on the advice of the chief minister. The Council of Ministers reports to the Legislative Assembly.
- The legislature, the Telangana Legislative Assembly and the Telangana Legislative Council, consists of elected members and special office bearers such as the Speaker and Deputy Speaker, that are elected by the members. Assembly meetings are presided over by the speaker or the deputy speaker in the speaker's absence. The Assembly is bicameral with 119 Members of the Legislative Assembly and 40 Member of the Legislative Council. Terms of office run for five years unless the Assembly is dissolved prior to the completion of the term. The Legislative Council is a permanent body with one-third of members retiring every two years.
- The judiciary is composed of the High Court of Judicature at Hyderabad and a system of lower courts.
The main political parties in the regional politics are the Bharat Rashtra Samithi, All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen, Bharatiya Janata Party and Indian National Congress. Following the Telangana Legislative Assembly Election in 2014, the Bharat Rashtra Samithi under Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao was elected to power.
The economy of Telangana is mainly driven by agriculture. Two important rivers of India, the Godavari and Krishna, flow through the state, providing irrigation. Farmers in Telangana mainly depend on rain-fed water sources for irrigation. Rice is the major food crop. Other important crops are cotton, sugar cane, mango, and tobacco. Recently, crops used for vegetable oil production such as sunflower and peanuts have gained favour. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, the world's highest masonry dam.
The state has also started to focus on the fields of information technology and biotechnology. Telangana is one of top IT-exporting states of India. There are 68 Special Economic Zones in the state.
Telangana is a mineral-rich state, with coal reserves at Singareni Collieries Company. The Golconda region has produced some of the world's most famous diamonds, including the colourless Koh-i-Noor (United Kingdom), the blue Hope (United States), the pink Daria-i-Noor (Iran), the white Regent (France), the Dresden Green (Germany), and the colourless Orlov (Russia), Nizam and Jacob (India), as well as the now-lost diamonds Florentine Yellow, Akbar Shah and Great Mogul.
Rice is the major food crop and staple food of the state. Other important crops are maize, tobacco, mango, cotton and sugar cane. Agriculture has been the chief source of income for the state's economy. The Godavari and Krishna rivers flow through the state, providing irrigation. Apart from major rivers, there are small rivers like Tunga Bhadra, Bima, Dindi, Kinnerasani, Manjeera, Manair, Penganga, Pranahitha, peddavagu and Taliperu. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, the world's highest masonry dam.
- Gherkins: Mahabubnagar, Rangareddy, Medak, Karimnagar, Warangal
- Mangoes and grapes: Hyderabad, Rangareddy, Medak, Mahabubnagar
In 2019, environmental anthropologist Andrew Flachs raised concerns regarding the financial and social pressures experienced by small cotton farmers in Telangana.
Several major manufacturing and services industries are in operation mainly around Hyderabad. Automobiles and auto components, spices, mines and minerals, textiles and apparels, pharmaceutical, horticulture, and poultry farming are the main industries in Telangana.
In terms of services, Hyderabad is nicknamed "Cyberabad" due to the location of major software industries in the city. Prior to secession, it contributed 10% to India's and 98% to Andhra Pradesh's exports in the IT and ITES sectors in 2013 With Hyderabad in the front line of Telangana's goal to promote information technology in India, the city boasts the HITEC City as its premier hub. IT companies/hubs have also been set up in Warangal, Karimnagar, and Khammam.
The state government is in the process of developing industrial parks at different places, for specific groups of industries. The existing parks are Software Park at Hyderabad, HITEC City for software units, Apparel Park at Gundlapochampalli, Export Promotion Park at Pashamylaram, Biotechnology park at Turkapally.
Hyderabad is also a major site for healthcare-related industries including hospitals and pharmaceutical organisations such as Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Yashoda Hospitals, LV Prasad Eye Care, Akruti Institute of cosmetic and plastic surgery, Fever Hospital, Durgabai Deshmukh, Continental Hospitals and Apollo Hospitals. Many pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical-related companies like Dr. Reddy's Laboratories, Shantha Biotechnics and Aragen (Formerly GVK BIO) are based out of Hyderabad.
Telangana State Tourism Development Corporation (TSTDC) is a state government agency which promotes tourism in Telangana. Telangana has a variety of tourist attractions including historical places, monuments, forts, waterfalls, forests and temples.
- Kuntala Waterfall (45 metres (148 ft)) located in Kuntala, Adilabad district.
- Bogatha Waterfall is waterfall located in Koyaveerapuram G, Wazeedu Mandal, Jayashankar Bhupalpally district, Telangana.
- Savatula Gundam Waterfalls in Adilabad district
Telangana state has won CNBC-TV18's Promising State of the Year Award for the year of 2015. The Jury for the India Business Leader Awards (IBLA) has collectively chosen Telangana for the award. The AIPH in the 2022 World Green City Awards awarded Telangana the World Green City Award 2022
The print media mainly consists of Telugu and English newspapers. Nava Telangana, Sakshi, Andhra Jyothi, Eenadu and Namaste Telangana are all Telugu newspapers. Mainly in English newspapers are Deccan Chronicle, The Times Of India, The Hindu, Telangana Today and The Hans India. Notable Urdu newspapers include Etemaad Daily, The Munsif Daily, and The Siasat Daily.
Hydel and thermal power projects in the state meet the power requirements of the state. A number of new power projects are coming up in the State which is expected to generate additional power capacity in the state.
The state is well connected with other states by means of road, rail and airways. The Telangana State Road Transport Corporation (TSRTC) is the major public transport corporation that connects all the cities and villages. Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station (M.G.B.S) in Hyderabad is one of the largest bus stand in Asia. Jubilee Bus Station in Secunderabad serves inter city bus services.
The history of railways in this region dates back to the time of Nizam of Hyderabad in 1874. The Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway, which had its beginnings in a line built privately by the HEH the Nizam. Much to the dismay of the British authorities, The Nizam bore all the expenses for the construction of the line.
It operates under the auspices of the South Central Railway founded in 1966. The landmark building Rail Nilayam in Secunderabad is the Zonal Headquarters office of South Central Railway. Secunderabad and Hyderabad are the main divisions of the South Central Railway that fall in the state.
Rajiv Gandhi International Airport at Shamshabad is an international airport serving the city of Hyderabad. It is the largest airport in the state and one of the busiest airports in the country. The government has plans to upgrade Warangal Airport, Nizamabad Airport and Ramagundam Airport. It also plans to construct airports in Ramagundam and Kothagudem.
Warangal has a domestic airport in Mamunooru which was established in the year 1930 during the Nizam period. All the exports and imports of Azam Jahi Mills, Warangal were done through the Warangal Airport.
The state has a rich tradition in classical music, painting and folk arts such as Burra Katha, shadow puppet show, and Perini Shivatandavam,Gusadi Dance, Kolatam and Bathukamma.
Badami Chalukya architecture is spread across the state, notable temple is Alampur Jogulamba Temple. Chalukyas of Vemulavada built many Temples in Vemulawada, Bheemeshvara temple, Raja Rajeswara Temple, Vemulawada.
Medieval forts such as the Bhongir Fort, Khammam Fort, and Rachakonda Fort are spread across the state. Among the notable ones is the Warangal Fort, which served as the capital of the Kakatiya dynasty. The Kakatiya Kala Thoranam within the fort has become a symbol of Telangana, and features on the state emblem. Ramappa Temple is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The fort complex, and Thousand Pillar Temple are on the tentative list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
There are religious worship centres of different religions in the state.
Hindu worship destinations include Bhadrachalam Temple, Gnana Saraswati Temple, Yadagirigutta Temple, Ramappa Temple, Vemulawada Raja Rajeshwara temple, the Thousand Pillar Temple, Statue of Equality (Ramanuja).
Christian worship centres include the Diocese of Dornakal of the Church of South India, Bahe Church of South India, and Medak Cathedral. There are also some Buddhist destinations, such as Nelakondapalli, Dhulikatta, Phanigiri and Kolanpaka.
Telugu cinema, also known by its sobriquet as Tollywood, is a part of Indian cinema producing films in the Telugu language, and is centred in the Hyderabad, Telangana neighbourhood of Film Nagar. In the early 1990s, the Telugu film industry had largely shifted from Chennai to Hyderabad. The Telugu film industry is the second-largest film industry in India next to Bollywood. In the years 2005, 2006 and 2008 the Telugu film industry produced the largest number of films in India, exceeding the number of films produced in Bollywood. The industry holds the Guinness World Record for the largest film production facility in the world.
Telangana cuisine is a unique and delicious cuisine that is influenced by the region's rich history of deccan and Telugu culture. The cuisine is known for its use of spices, millets, and rotis. Telangana cuisine also features a variety of other dishes, including biryani, haleem, and kebabs.
Indigenous art forms of Telangana include the Cheriyal scroll painting, Nirmal paintings, and Karimnagar Silver Filigree. A distinctive Persianate style of painting, called Deccan painting developed in the region during the medieval period.
Notable museums in the state include the Salar Jung Museum in Hyderabad, which is one of the largest in India. Other museums include the Telangana State Archeology Museum, City Museum, and Nizam Museum in Hyderabad, Warangal Museum in Warangal, and Alampur Museum in Alampur.
Telangana has multiple institutes of higher education universities along with numerous primary and secondary schools. The Department of Higher Education deals with matters relating to education at various levels in the state of Telangana.
According to a 2019 report, the state has a literacy rate of 72.8%, which is one of the lowest in India. Schools in Telangana are run by the state government or private organisations, which include religious institutions. Some specialized schools such as the Kendriya Vidyalayas and Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas are run by agencies of the central government. As of 2017[update], there are 41,337 schools in the state, with about 70% of them being government schools.
Telangana is home to 27 universities, which include 3 central universities, 17 state universities, 2 deemed universities, and 5 private universities. The Osmania University in Hyderabad, established in 1918, is the oldest modern university in the state, and one of the largest university systems in the world. The University of Hyderabad consistently ranks among the top universities in the country. Apart from these, specialised institutes of national importance in the state include AIIMS Bibinagar, IIT Hyderabad, and NIT Warangal.
Other notable institutions include Indian School of Business, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, Kakatiya University, International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad, NALSAR University of Law, Kaloji Narayana Rao University of Health Sciences, National Institute of Fashion Technology Hyderabad, Footwear Design and Development Institute, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hyderabad, and Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies, Basar, among others.
The Hyderabad FC is a professional football club based in Hyderabad and plays in top-tier league of India, the Indian Super League. The home ground of the club is G.M.C Balayogi Athletic Stadium, in Gachibowli.
The Hyderabad cricket team is represented in the Ranji Trophy and has won twice. The Sunrisers Hyderabad, an Indian Premier League franchise, is based in Hyderabad and has won the trophy once. Deccan Chargers, a currently defunct franchise from Hyderabad, also won the Indian Premier League once. The Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium is the home ground of both Hyderabad cricket team and Sunrisers Hyderabad. It hosts international as well as domestic matches.
The Hyderabad Hunters, a Premier Badminton League franchise; the Telugu Titans, a Pro Kabaddi League franchise; the Hyderabad Sky, a UBA Pro Basketball League franchise and the Telugu Tigers, a Premier Futsal franchise are also based in Hyderabad. Hyderabad Hunters have won the Premier Badminton League title.
- Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb
- Hyderabad State
- Hyderabad State (1948–1956)
- List of people from Telangana
- Telangana Language Day
- List of Cities and Towns in Telangana
- "We have no State song, clarifies Telangana CM KCR". The New Indian Express. 18 March 2021. Retrieved 25 June 2023.
- "New Governors Appointed in 5 States, Tamil Nadu BJP Chief Gets Telangana". NDTV.com. 1 September 2019. Archived from the original on 10 October 2020. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- "Administrative and Geographical Profile" (PDF). Telangana State Portal. Archived from the original on 14 February 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
- "Telangana State Wind Power Profile" (PDF).
- "Doli Gutta (965m) - Telangana Chhattisgarh border. Possibly highest point in Telangana". wikimapia.org. Retrieved 24 March 2023.
- "Urdu is Telangana's second official language". The Indian Express. 16 November 2017. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
- "Urdu is second official language in Telangana as state passes Bill". The News Minute. 17 November 2017. Archived from the original on 3 June 2018. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
- "Telangana State Finance Portal". finance.telangana.gov.in. Retrieved 23 February 2023.
- "Sub-national HDI – Area Database". Global Data Lab. Institute for Management Research, Radboud University. Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
- "Telangana literacy rate fourth-lowest among big states". The New Indian Express. 25 November 2019. Archived from the original on 18 February 2021. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
- "Telangana State Symbols". Telangana State Portal. Archived from the original on 19 May 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- "Telangana | History, Map, Population, Capital, & Government". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 11 April 2021.
- "Population". Government of Telangana. Archived from the original on 9 December 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
- "Telangana State Portal Language & Culture". telangana.gov.in. Archived from the original on 14 February 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2018.
- "KCR vows to get 'Ganga Jamuni tehzeeb' back". The Hindu. The Hindu Group. 13 July 2015. Archived from the original on 23 February 2018. Retrieved 23 February 2018.
- Liam D. Anderson (2013). Federal Solutions to Ethnic Problems: Accommodating Diversity. Routledge. pp. 173–. ISBN 978-0-415-78161-9. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
- P. N. Chopra, B.N. Puri & M.N. Das, A Comprehensive History of India, Volume 3. pg. 298
- "Notification" (PDF). The Gazette of India. Government of India. 4 March 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- "Telangana Socio Economic Outlook 2023" (PDF). Government of Telangana. pp. 10–25.
- "Per Capita Net State Domestic Product - State-wise (At Current Prices)". Reserve Bank of India. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
- "Efforts on to transform Hyderabad into a hub for defence electronics". Business Line. The Hindu Group. 3 August 2017. Archived from the original on 30 November 2020.
- Phillip B. Wagoner (1986). Mode and meaning in the architecture of early medieval Telangana (C. 1000–1300). University of Wisconsin-Madison.
- Akbar, Syed; Mungara, Sunil (13 December 2017). "Earliest reference to Telangana found not in Telugu, but Gond language". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 13 December 2017. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
- Sri Marana Markandeya Puranamu, ed. [clarification needed] G. V. Subrahmanyam, 1984, Andhra Pradesh Sahitya Academy, Hyderabad.
- John Norman Holister (1953). The Shia of India (PDF). p. 123. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 October 2018. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
- "India Today • An encyclopedia of life in the Republic" • Vol. 1. Arnold P. Kaminsky and Roger D. Long, editors. Archived 8 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine ABC ‑ CLIO.
- The Rough Guide to India. Penguin. 2011. Rise of the south section.
- Ratnakar Sadasyula (4 March 2014). "A brief history of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh". DNA. Archived from the original on 7 March 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
- A Social History of the Deccan: 1300–1761, R. M. Eaton, 2005, Cambridge University Press, pp. 15–26, ISBN 0-521-25484-1
- Telugu Vignana Sarvaswamu, volume 2, History, Telugu University, Hyderabad
- Richards, J. F. (1975). "The Hyderabad Karnatik, 1687–1707". Modern Asian Studies. Cambridge University Press. 9 (2): 241–260. doi:10.1017/S0026749X00004996. S2CID 142989123.
- Moreland, T.H. (1931). Relation of Golconda in the Early Seventeenth Century. Halyukt Society. pp. XVIII, XIX, XX.
- "Asif Jahi Dynasty (1724–1948)". mahabubnagar.tripod.com. Archived from the original on 6 June 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
- Hyderabad, 400 Glorious Years. p. 116.
While the floods drowned 20000 people in hours, plague killed another 10,656,000 of the total population of the State.
- "Post-Independence Era". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
- "1952: Hyderabad incidents". The Hindu. 6 September 2002. Archived from the original on 16 July 2014. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
- Elliot, Carolyn M. (November 1974). "Decline of a Patrimonial Regime: The Telangana Rebellion in India, 1946–51". Journal of Asian Studies. 34 (1): 24–47. doi:10.2307/2052408. JSTOR 2052408. S2CID 59483193. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012.
- "Declassify report on the 1948 Hyderabad massacre". 25 November 2012. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
- "India • Communist Parties". Country Studies, US. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- "History of India". Indian Saga. Archived from the original on 4 June 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- "SRC sub-committee said no decision on Visalandhra taken". The Indian Express. 1 February 1956. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- "Post-Independence Era". Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2010.
- "Andhra Pradesh to be formed with safeguards to Telangana". The Hindu. 7 March 2006. Archived from the original on 6 September 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- "Andhra Pradesh formed". The Hindu. 2 November 2006. Archived from the original on 6 September 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- "How Telangana movement has sparked political turf war in Andhra". Rediff. 5 October 2011. Archived from the original on 23 January 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "Pro-Telangana AP govt employees threaten agitation". The Economic Times. 10 February 2012. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- "Telangana Protests, Student Suicides Increase in Hyderabad During Budget Sessions". Politics Daily. Archived from the original on 22 February 2015. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
- "Telangana bill passed in Lok Sabha; Congress, BJP come together in favour of new state". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 18 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- "Telangana bill passed by upper house". The Times of India. 20 February 2014. Archived from the original on 20 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- "The Andhra Pradesh reorganisation act, 2014" (PDF). Ministry of law and justice, government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- Amarnath K Menon (1 June 2014). "Telangana is born, KCR to take oath as its first CM". THE INDIA TODAY GROUP. Hyderabad. Archived from the original on 11 November 2014. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
- Amid chaos and slogans, Rajya Sabha clears Telangana bill Archived 6 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine – NDTV, 20 February 2014
- "Andhra Pradesh Secretariat starts functioning from interim government complex at Amaravati". 3 October 2016. Archived from the original on 2 August 2017. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
- "Chief Minister Chandrababu Naidu inaugurates new Andhra Pradesh Assembly". Archived from the original on 19 June 2017. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
- "Soils of telangana and water management". 16 February 2017.
- "Soil of Telangana for Telangana PSC". 24 October 2017.
- "Characterization and Classification of Soils of Northern Telangana". Journal of Tropical Agriculture. p. 24. Archived from the original on 11 March 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
- "Hyderabad Weather". The Hans India.
- Wikramanayake, Eric; Eric Dinerstein; Colby J. Loucks; et al. (2002). Terrestrial Ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific: a Conservation Assessment. Island Press; Washington, DC. pp. 324–326
- Kailash C. Malhotra; Yogesh Gokhale; Sudipto Chatterjee; Sanjeev Srivastava (2001). "Cultural and Ecological Dimensions of Sacred Groves in India" (PDF). Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, and Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalaya, Bhopal. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
- "C-16 Population By Mother Tongue". Census of India 2011. Office of the Registrar General. Retrieved 30 May 2021. (Excludes mandals transferred to Andhra Pradesh, but includes census towns not transferred with mandals - Bhadrachalam and Sarapaka). It was assumed area of Burgampahad mandal transferred to Andhra Pradesh had same proportion of languages as rural areas of the mandal as a whole.
- "Urdu is Telangana's second official language". The Indian Express. 16 November 2017. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
- "Region-wise distribution of religious groups 2001" (PDF). Table 7.3 in page 393 of SKC report. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 September 2018. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- "Urdu in Andhra Pradesh". Language in India. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- "Census of India 1921, Hyderabad state, Part II" (PDF). Hyderabad state Census. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 October 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
- "Census of India – Distributions of 10,000 persons by language". censusindia.gov.in. Archived from the original on 11 October 2012. Retrieved 14 September 2010.
- PTI (7 March 2017). "Telangana Legislature website to be available in Telgu, Urdu". The Hans India. Archived from the original on 28 February 2018. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
- "No Language Wars Here, Hyderabad Metro to Use 4 Languages". News18. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
- Kulakarṇī, A. Rā (1 January 1996). Mediaeval Deccan History: Commemoration Volume in Honour of Purshottam Mahadeo Joshi. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 9788171545797.
- "Language – India, States and Union Territories" (PDF). Census of India 2011. Office of the Registrar General. pp. 13–14. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 November 2018. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
- "Population by Religion - Andhra Pradesh". censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
- "Literacy of Rural – Urban (Andhra Pradesh)" (PDF). Government of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 February 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- "Telangana to have 33 districts from tomorrow". The Hans India. 16 February 2019. Archived from the original on 17 February 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "TSDR-Portal". newdistrictsformation.telangana.gov.in. Archived from the original on 25 August 2016. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- Kurmanath, K V (22 August 2016). "Telangana govt to create 21 new districts in Oct". Archived from the original on 23 August 2016. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- "Telangana State Statistical Abstract 2021" (PDF). Government of Telangana. Retrieved 2 May 2023.
- "Agriculture dept. of Telangana". Archived from the original on 9 July 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- "Key Sectors of Telangana". Archived from the original on 21 February 2009.
- "TG Special Economic Zones" (PDF). sezindia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2009. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- "The Singareni Collieries Company Limited". scclmines. Archived from the original on 25 June 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- K. V. Kurmanath. "Telangana will show its might in cotton, maize". Business Line. Archived from the original on 22 June 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
- "WELCOME TO GUNTUR DISTRICT OFFICIAL WEBSITE". guntur.nic.in. Archived from the original on 24 March 2015. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
- "Agri Export Zones". pib.gov.in.
- Flachs, A., 2019. Planting and performing: Anxiety, aspiration, and "scripts" in Telangana cotton farming. American Anthropologist, 121(1), pp.48-61.
- Shankar, B V Shiva (6 June 2014). "Telangana government plans big IT push to rebuild brand Hyderabad". Archived from the original on 14 February 2015. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
- Roy, Ananya; Aihwa, Ong (2011). Worlding cities: Asian experiments and the art of being global. John Wiley & Sons. p. 253. ISBN 978-1-4051-9277-4.
- Chand, Swati Bharadwaj (13 October 2011). "An Amazon shot for city". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 26 February 2015. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "Special governance for Hyderabad needed for growth". The Times of India. 25 June 2013. Archived from the original on 10 September 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- Sharma, E Kumar (8 January 2020). "Telangana pushes for investment in Tier II cities; Tech Mahindra, Cyient open centres in Warangal". Business Today. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
- "IT product companies to set up base in Khammam". The Hindu. 7 December 2020. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
- "Indian Heart Association". Indian Heart Association Webpage. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
- "Huge challenges ahead for new Telangana tourism corporation". The Times of India. 9 May 2014. Archived from the original on 12 May 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
- Reddy, AuthorP Laxma (6 July 2019). "Telangana's Niagara, the Bogatha waterfall offers feast to eyes". Telangana Today. Archived from the original on 16 January 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
- "Telangana starts one-day tours to Bogatha waterfalls". The New Indian Express. 28 July 2019. Archived from the original on 31 August 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
- "Telangana Awarded as Most Promising State of the Year". Country, India. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- "TS Bags Promising State of Year Award". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 29 October 2015. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- "Hyderabad bags 'World Green City Award 2022'". The Economic Times. Retrieved 10 January 2023.
- "Ministry of Information & broadcasting - Publications on DAVP Panel as on 05 March 2021". davp.nic.in. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
- "It will be TGSRTC from June 2". The Hindu. 16 May 2014. Archived from the original on 6 June 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
- "citi-Charter". apsrtc.gov.in. Archived from the original on 17 September 2010. Retrieved 19 August 2010.
- "Andhra Pradesh • Natural Advantages". Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 3 April 2009. Retrieved 3 March 2009.
- "National Highways in Telangana State" (PDF). Roads and Buildings Department – Government of Telangana. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 March 2018. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
- "History". South Central railway. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
- "History". South Central Railway. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
- "More land required for airport at Jakranpally". The Hindu. 7 June 2013. Archived from the original on 13 July 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- "About Andhra Pradesh". Hyderabadi search. Archived from the original on 7 June 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
- "The Glorious Kakatiya Temples and Gateways". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
- "Telangana State Emblem Looks Simple Yet Profound". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
- "The Qutb Shahi Monuments of Hyderabad Golconda Fort, Qutb Shahi Tombs, Charminar". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
- "The Templenet Encyclopedia – Temples of Andhra Pradesh". Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2009.
- "Year of success for tinsel town". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 26 December 2007. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
- Shafeeq, Mohammed. "Telugu films with Rs 2,000 cr production value stuck due to lockdown". Outlook. Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
- "Tollywood loses to Bollywood on numbers". The Times of India. 2 October 2010. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "Telugu film industry enters new era". Business Line. 6 November 2007. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "Largest film studio". Guinnessworldrecords.com. Archived from the original on 19 January 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- Today, Telangana (6 June 2022). "A taste of Telangana cuisine". Telangana Today. Retrieved 14 July 2023.
- Puskuri, Janaki Srinath (April 2021). "Understanding the Food culture and Native foods of Telangana State -a step towards healthy dietary diversity". researchgate.
- "Essence of Telangana cuisine: Keeping it simple and rustic". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 14 July 2023.
- Das, Arti. "Moving from scrolls to key chains, an art form from Telangana fights to stay relevant". Scroll.in. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
- K.m.dayashankar (5 June 2015). "Silver filigree art cries for promotion". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
- Sardar, Marika. "Islamic Art of the Deccan". Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
- IANS (20 January 2019). "Salar Jung museum: How one man's art collection became a national treasure". Business Standard India. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
- parasa, Rajeswari (11 March 2019). "Centre sanctions 50 Kendriya Vidyalayas, but Telangana gets none". Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
- Jeyaranjan, J. "Aspects of Education in Telangana" (PDF).
- Today, Telangana (8 June 2021). "UoH retains high position in QS Global Ranking 2022". Telangana Today. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
- Reddy, R. Ravikanth (14 June 2020). "IIT-H, NIT-W set new benchmarks in rankings". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
- "Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies". Rgukt.in. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
- "Hyderabad FC replace struggling FC Pune City as new ISL franchise". The Times of India. 27 August 2020. Archived from the original on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
- Template:Country study (Direct link.)
- Virendra Kumar (1975). "Committee on Telangana surpluses, 1969 – Report by Justice Bhargava". Committees and commissions in India, 1947–1973. 9. New Delhi: D. K. Publishing House. p. 175. ISBN 978-8170221975. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
- Sarojini Regani (1986). Nizam – British Relations 1724–1857. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 978-8170221951. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
- Duncan B. Forrester (Spring 1970). "Subregionalism in India: The Case of Telangana". Pacific Affairs. University of British Columbia. 43 (1): 5–21. doi:10.2307/2753831. JSTOR 2753831.
- Karen Leonard (May 1971). "The Hyderabad Political System and its Participants". The Journal of Asian Studies. Association for Asian Studies. 30 (3): 569–582. doi:10.1017/s0021911800154841. JSTOR 2052461.
- "ReInventing Telangana – First Steps- Socio Economic Outlook 2105". Planning Department, Govt of Telangana. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- Narayan, B. K. (1960). "Agricultural Development in Hyderabad State, 1900–1956: A Study in Economic History". Keshav Prakashan. Retrieved 5 July 2019.