Punjab, India

From Bharatpedia, an open encyclopedia

State of Punjab
Golden Temple, Amritsar, Punjab UNAG.jpg
Panorama of Jallianwala Bagh-IMG 6348 (cropped).jpg
Fateh Burj , Banda Singh Baahadur memorial ,Chapadchidi, Punjab ,India.jpg
Punjabi Dance - Opening Ceremony - Wiki Conference India - CGC - Mohali 2016-08-05 6405.JPG
Zamzama - Front View- Gobindgarh Fort, Amritsar.jpg
Khalsa Heritage Memorial 176 Edit.jpg
Qila Mubarak, Patiala (Cropped).jpg
Etymology: Land of five rivers
Satyameva Jayate
("Truth alone triumphs")
The map of India showing Punjab
Location of Punjab in India
Coordinates: 30°47′N 75°50′E / 30.79°N 75.84°E / 30.79; 75.84Coordinates: 30°47′N 75°50′E / 30.79°N 75.84°E / 30.79; 75.84
Country India
RegionNorth India
Before wasEast Punjab
Formation26 January 1950
Largest cityLudhiana
 • BodyGovernment of Punjab
 • GovernorBanwarilal Purohit
 • Chief ministerBhagwant Mann (AAP)
State LegislatureUnicameral
 • AssemblyPunjab Legislative Assembly (117 seats)
National ParliamentParliament of India
 • Rajya Sabha7 seats
 • Lok Sabha13 seats
High CourtPunjab and Haryana High Court
 • Total50,362 km2 (19,445 sq mi)
 • Rank20th
Elevation300 m (1,000 ft)
Highest elevation
(Naina Devi Range)
1,000 m (3,000 ft)
Lowest elevation
(South Western side)
105 m (344 ft)
 • TotalNeutral increase 27,743,338
 • Rank16th
 • Density550/km2 (1,400/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Rural
 • OfficialPunjabi[3]
 • Official scriptGurmukhi script
 • Total (2023-24)Increase6.98 trillion (US$98 billion)
 • Rank16th
 • Per capitaNeutral increase151,367 (US$2,100) (17th)
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-PB
Vehicle registrationPB
HDI (2019)Neutral increase 0.724 High[5] (9th)
Literacy (2011)Increase 75.84% (21st)
Sex ratio (2021)938/1000 [6] (25th)
Symbols of Punjab
MammalBlackbuck, Indus river dolphin
BirdNorthern goshawk[7]
State highway mark
SH IN-PB.png
State highway of Punjab
PB SH1 - PB SH41
List of Indian state symbols

Punjab (/pʌnˈɑːb/ (About this soundlisten);[8] Punjabi: [pənˈdʒɑːb]) is a state in northern India. Forming part of the larger Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, the state is bordered by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh to the north and northeast, Haryana to the south and southeast, and Rajasthan to the southwest; by the Indian union territories of Chandigarh to the east and Jammu and Kashmir to the north. It shares an international border with Punjab, a province of Pakistan to the west.[9] The state covers an area of 50,362 square kilometres (19,445 square miles), which is 1.53% of India's total geographical area,[10] making it the 19th-largest Indian state by area out of 28 Indian states (20th largest, if Union Territories are considered). With over 27 million inhabitants, Punjab is the 16th-largest Indian state by population, comprising 23 districts.[2] Punjabi, written in the Gurmukhi script, is the most widely spoken and the official language of the state.[11] The main ethnic groups are the Punjabis, with Sikhs (57.7%) and Hindus (38.5%) as the dominant religious groups.[12] The state capital is Chandigarh, a union territory and also the capital of the neighbouring state of Haryana. Three tributaries of the Indus, viz., Sutlej, Beas, and Ravi, flow through Punjab.[13]

The history of Punjab has witnessed the migration and settlement of different tribes of people with different cultures and ideas, forming a melting pot of Punjabi civilisation. The Indus Valley civilization flourished in antiquity before recorded history until their decline around 1900 BCE.[14] Punjab was enriched during the height of the Vedic period, but declined in predominance with the rise of the Mahajanapadas.[15] The region formed the frontier of initial empires during antiquity including the Alexander's and Maurya empires.[16][17] It was subsequently conquered by the Kushan Empire, Gupta Empire,[18] and then Harsha's Empire.[19] Punjab continued to be settled by nomadic people; including the Huna, Turkic and the Mongols. c. 1000 CE, the Punjab came under the rule of Muslims[20] and was part of the Delhi Sultanate, Mughal Empire, and Durrani Empire.[21] Sikhism was founded in the 15th to 17th centuries by the Sikh Gurus in Punjab and resulted in the formation of the Sikh Confederacy after the fall of the Mughal Empire and ensuing conflict with the Durrani Empire.[22] This confederacy was united into the Sikh Empire in 1801 by Maharaja Ranjit Singh.[23]

The greater Punjab region was annexed by the British East India Company from the Sikh Empire in 1849.[24] Following widespread religious violence in 1947, Undivided Punjab was partitioned along religious lines into the provinces of West Punjab and East Punjab.[25] West Punjab became part of a Muslim-majority Pakistan, while East Punjab remained a part of a Hindu-majority India. After the Punjabi Suba movement, Indian Punjab was reorganised on the basis of language on 1 November 1966.[26] Haryanvi and Hindi-speaking southern and eastern areas were carved out as Haryana, while Pahari-speaking northern hilly regions were attached to Himachal Pradesh. The remaining, mostly Punjabi-speaking areas became the current state of Punjab. A separatist insurgency occurred in Punjab during the 1980s.[27] At present, the economy of Punjab is the 15th-largest state economy in India with 5.29 trillion (US$74 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of 151,367 (US$2,100), ranking 17th amongst Indian states.[4] Since independence, Punjab is predominantly an agrarian society. It is the ninth-highest ranking among Indian states in human development index.[5] Punjab has bustling tourism, music, culinary, and film industries.[28]



Ancient period[edit]

The Punjab region is noted as the site of one of the earliest urban societies, the Indus Valley Civilization that flourished from about 3000 B.C. and declined rapidly 1,000 years later, following the Indo-Aryan migrations that overran the region in waves between 1500 and 500 B.C.[29] Frequent intertribal wars stimulated the growth of larger groupings ruled by chieftains and kings, who ruled local kingdoms known as Mahajanapadas.[29] The rise of kingdoms and dynasties in Punjab is chronicled in the ancient Hindu epics, particularly the Mahabharata.[29] The epic battles described in the Mahabharata are chronicled as being fought in what is now the state of Haryana and historic Punjab. The Gandharas, Kambojas, Trigartas, Andhra, Pauravas, Bahlikas (Bactrian settlers of the Punjab), Yaudheyas, and others sided with the Kauravas in the great battle fought at Kurukshetra.[30] According to Dr Fauja Singh and Dr. L. M. Joshi: "There is no doubt that the Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Andhra, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas, Saindhavas, and Kurus had jointly contributed to the heroic tradition and composite culture of ancient Punjab."[31] The bulk of the Rigveda was composed in the Punjab region between circa 1500 and 1200 BC,[32] while later Vedic scriptures were composed more eastwards, between the Yamuna and Ganges rivers. The historical Vedic religion constituted the religious ideas and practices in Punjab during the Vedic period (1500–500 BCE), centred primarily in the worship of Indra.[33][34][35]Template:Efn-lr

Rig Veda is the oldest Hindu text that originated in the Punjab region.

The earliest known notable local king of this region was known as King Porus, who fought the famous Battle of the Hydaspes against Alexander the Great. His kingdom spanned between rivers Hydaspes (Jhelum) and Acesines (Chenab); Strabo had held the territory to contain almost 300 cities.[36] He (alongside Abisares) had a hostile relationship with the Kingdom of Taxila which was ruled by his extended family.[36] When the armies of Alexander crossed Indus in its eastward migration, probably in Udabhandapura, he was greeted by the-then ruler of Taxila, Omphis.[36] Omphis had hoped to force both Porus and Abisares into submission leveraging the might of Alexander's forces and diplomatic missions were mounted, but while Abisares accepted the submission, Porus refused.[36] This led Alexander to seek a face-off with Porus.[36] Thus began the Battle of the Hydaspes in 326 BC; the exact site remains unknown.[36] The battle is thought to have resulted in a decisive Greek victory; however, A. B. Bosworth warns against an uncritical reading of Greek sources who were obviously exaggerative.[36]

Alexander later founded two cities—Nicaea at the site of victory and Bucephalous at the battle-ground, in memory of his horse, who died soon after the battle.[36][lower-alpha 1] Later, tetradrachms would be minted depicting Alexander on horseback, armed with a sarissa and attacking a pair of Indians on an elephant.[36][37] Porus refused to surrender and wandered about atop an elephant, until he was wounded and his force routed.[36] When asked by Alexander how he wished to be treated, Porus replied "Treat me as a king would treat another king".[38] Despite the apparently one-sided results, Alexander was impressed by Porus and chose to not depose him.[39][40][41] Not only was his territory reinstated but also expanded with Alexander's forces annexing the territories of Glausaes, who ruled the area northeast of Porus' kingdom.[39]

After Alexander's death in 323 BCE, Perdiccas became the regent of his empire, and after Perdiccas's murder in 321 BCE, Antipater became the new regent.[42] According to Diodorus, Antipater recognized Porus's authority over the territories along the Indus River. However, Eudemus, who had served as Alexander's satrap in the Punjab region, treacherously killed Porus.[43] The battle is historically significant because it resulted in the syncretism of ancient Greek political and cultural influences to the Indian subcontinent, yielding works such as Greco-Buddhist art, which continued to have an impact for the ensuing centuries. The region was then divided between the Maurya Empire and the Greco-Bactrian kingdom in 302 B.C.E. Menander I Soter conquered Punjab and made Sagala (present-day Sialkot) the capital of the Indo-Greek Kingdom.[44][45] Menander is noted for having become a patron and convert to Greco-Buddhism and he is widely regarded as the greatest of the Indo-Greek kings.[46] Greek influence in the region ended around 12 B.C.E. when the Punjab fell under the Sassanids.

Medieval period[edit]

Following the muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent at the beginning of the 8th century, Arab armies of the Umayyad Caliphate penetrated into South Asia introducing Islam into Punjab.[47][48] In mid of the 8th century Shankarvarman a Chamar[49] king of the Utpala dynasty, which ruled over the Pakistan, Afghanistan and other territories of India invaded in punjab and rule over it.[50]In the ninth century, the Hindu Shahi dynasty emerged in the Punjab, ruling much of Punjab and eastern Afghanistan.[29]The Turkic Ghaznavids in the tenth century overthrew the Hindu Shahis and consequently ruled for 157 years, gradually declining as a power until the Ghurid conquest of Lahore by Muhammad of Ghor in 1186, deposing the last Ghaznavid ruler Khusrau Malik.[51] Following the death of Muhammad of Ghor in 1206, the Ghurid state fragmented and was replaced in northern India by the Delhi Sultanate. The Delhi Sultanate ruled the Punjab for the next three hundred years, led by five unrelated dynasties, the Mamluks, Khalajis, Tughlaqs, Sayyids and Lodis. A significant event in the late 15th century Punjab was the formation of Sikhism by Guru Nanak.[lower-roman 1][52][53] The history of the Sikh faith is closely associated with the history of Punjab and the socio-political situation in the north-west of the Indian subcontinent in the 17th century.[54][55][56][57]

Maharaja Ranjit Singh listening to Guru Granth Sahib being recited near the Akal Takht and Golden Temple, Amritsar. Painting by August Schoefft (1850)

The hymns composed by Guru Nanak were later collected in the Guru Granth Sahib, the central religious scripture of the Sikhs.[58] The religion developed and evolved in times of religious persecution, gaining converts from both Hinduism and Islam.[59] Mughal rulers of India tortured and executed two of the Sikh gurus—Guru Arjan (1563–1605) and Guru Tegh Bahadur (1621–1675)—after they refused to convert to Islam.[60][61][62][63][64] The persecution of Sikhs triggered the founding of the Khalsa by Guru Gobind Singh in 1699 as an order to protect the freedom of conscience and religion,[60][65] with members expressing the qualities of a Sant-Sipāhī ('saint-soldier').[66][67] The lifetime of Guru Nanak coincided with the conquest of northern India by Babur and establishment of the Mughal Empire. Jahangir ordered the execution of Guru Arjun Dev, whilst in Mughal custody, for supporting his son Khusrau Mirza's rival claim to the throne.[68] Guru Arjan Dev's death led to the sixth Guru Guru Hargobind to declare sovereignty in the creation of the Akal Takht and the establishment of a fort to defend Amritsar. Jahangir then jailed Guru Hargobind at Gwalior, but released him after a number of years when he no longer felt threatened. The succeeding son of Jahangir, Shah Jahan, took offence at Guru Hargobind's declaration and after a series of assaults on Amritsar, forced the Sikhs to retreat to the Sivalik Hills.[69] The ninth Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur, moved the Sikh community to Anandpur and travelled extensively to visit and preach in defiance of Aurangzeb, who attempted to install Ram Rai as new guru.

Modern period[edit]

The Mughals came to power in the early sixteenth century and gradually expanded to control all of the Punjab from their capital at Lahore. As Mughal power weakened, Afghan rulers took control of the region.[29] Contested by Marathas and Afghans, the region was the center of the growing influence of the Sikhs, who expanded and established the Sikh empire in 1799 as the Mughals and Afghans weakened.[70] The Cis-Sutlej states were a group of states in modern Punjab and Haryana states lying between the Sutlej River on the north, the Himalayas on the east, the Yamuna River and Delhi District on the south, and Sirsa District on the west. These states were ruled by the Sikh Misls.[71] The empire existed from 1799, when Ranjit Singh captured Lahore, to 1849, when it was defeated and conquered in the Second Anglo-Sikh War. It was forged on the foundations of the Khalsa from a collection of autonomous Sikh misls.[72][73] At its peak in the 19th century, the Empire extended from the Khyber Pass in the west to western Tibet in the east, and from Mithankot in the south to Kashmir in the north. It was divided into four provinces: Lahore, in Punjab, which became the Sikh capital; Multan, also in Punjab; Peshawar; and Kashmir from 1799 to 1849. Religiously diverse, with an estimated population of 3.5 million in 1831 (making it the 19th most populous country at the time),[74] it was the last major region of the Indian subcontinent to be annexed by the British Empire. The Sikh Empire spanned a total of over 200,000 sq mi (520,000 km2) at its zenith.[75][76][77]

After Ranjit Singh's death in 1839, the empire was severely weakened by internal divisions and political mismanagement. This opportunity was used by the East India Company to launch the First and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars. The country was finally annexed and dissolved at the end of the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849 into separate princely states and the province of Punjab. Eventually, a Lieutenant Governorship was established in Lahore as a direct representative of the Crown.[78]:221

Colonial era[edit]

The Punjab was annexed by the East India Company in 1849. Although nominally part of the Bengal Presidency it was administratively independent. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, apart from Revolt led by Ahmed Khan Kharal and Murree rebellion of 1857, the Punjab remained relatively peaceful.[79] In 1858, under the terms of the Queen's Proclamation issued by Queen Victoria, the Punjab came under the direct rule of Britain. Colonial rule had a profound impact on all areas of Punjabi life. Economically it transformed the Punjab into the richest farming area of India, socially it sustained the power of large landowners and politically it encouraged cross-communal co-operation amongst land owning groups.[80] The Punjab also became the major centre of recruitment into the Indian Army. By patronising influential local allies and focusing administrative, economic and constitutional policies on the rural population, the British ensured the loyalty of its large rural population.[80] Administratively, colonial rule instated a system of bureaucracy and measure of the law. The 'paternal' system of the ruling elite was replaced by 'machine rule' with a system of laws, codes, and procedures. For purposes of control, the British established new forms of communication and transportation, including post systems, railways, roads, and telegraphs. The creation of Canal Colonies in western Punjab between 1860 and 1947 brought 14 million acres of land under cultivation, and revolutionised agricultural practices in the region.[80] To the agrarian and commercial class was added a professional middle class that had risen the social ladder through the use of the English education, which opened up new professions in law, government, and medicine.[81] Despite these developments, colonial rule was marked by exploitation of resources. For the purpose of exports, the majority of external trade was controlled by British export banks. The Imperial government exercised control over the finances of Punjab and took the majority of the income for itself.[82]

In 1919 a British officer ordered his troops to fire on a crowd of demonstrators, mostly Sikhs in Amritsar. The Jallianwala massacre fueled the indian independence movement.[29] Nationalists declared the independence of India from Lahore in 1930 but were quickly suppressed.[29] The struggle for Indian independence witnessed competing and conflicting interests in the Punjab. When the Second World War broke out, nationalism in British India had already divided into religious movements.[29] The landed elites of the Muslim, Hindu and Sikh communities had loyally collaborated with the British since annexation, supported the Unionist Party and were hostile to the Congress party led independence movement.[83] Amongst the peasantry and urban middle classes, the Hindus were the most active National Congress supporters, the Sikhs flocked to the Akali movement whilst the Muslims eventually supported the Muslim League.[83] Many Sikhs and other minorities supported the Hindus, who promised a secular multicultural and multireligious society. In March 1940, the All-India Muslim League passed the Lahore Resolution, demanding the creation of a separate state from Muslim majority areas in British India. This triggered bitter protests by the Hindus and Sikhs in Punjab, who could not accept living in a Muslim Islamic state.[84]

After the partition of the sub-continent had been decided, special meetings of the Western and Eastern Section of the Legislative Assembly were held on 23 June 1947 to decide whether or not the Province of the Punjab be partitioned. After voting on both sides, partition was decided and the existing Punjab Legislative Assembly was also divided into West Punjab Legislative Assembly and the East Punjab Legislative Assembly. This last Assembly before independence, held its last sitting on 4 July 1947.[85] During this period, the British granted separate independence to India and Pakistan, setting off massive communal violence as Punjabi Muslims fled to Pakistan and Hindu and Sikh Punjabis fled east to India.[29] The Sikhs later demanded a Punjabi-speaking Punjab state with an autonomous Sikh government.[29]

Post-colonial era[edit]

During the colonial era, the various districts and princely states that made up Punjab Province were religiously eclectic, each containing significant populations of Punjabi Muslims, Punjabi Hindus, Punjabi Sikhs, Punjabi Christians, along with other ethnic and religious minorities. However, a major consequence of independence and the partition of Punjab Province in 1947 was the sudden shift towards religious homogeneity occurred in all districts across province and region owing to the new international border that cut through the subdivision.

The demographic shift was captured when comparing decadal census data taken in 1941 and 1951 respectively, and was primarily due to wide scale migration but also caused by large-scale religious cleansing riots which were witnessed across the region at the time. According to historical demographer Tim Dyson, in the eastern regions of Punjab that ultimately became Indian Punjab following independence, districts that were 66% Hindu in 1941 became 80% Hindu in 1951; those that were 20% Sikh became 50% Sikh in 1951. Conversely, in the western regions of Punjab that ultimately became Pakistani Punjab, all districts became almost exclusively Muslim by 1951.[86]

Wagah Border is situated between Amritsar and Lahore, became the main border crossing after partition of Punjab and is known for its elaborate ceremony

Following independence, several small Punjabi princely states, including Patiala, acceded to the Union of India and were united into the PEPSU. In 1956 this was integrated with the state of East Punjab to create a new, enlarged Indian state called simply "Punjab". Punjab Day is celebrated across the state on 1 November every year marking the formation of a Punjabi language speaking state under the Punjab Reorganisation Act (1966).[87][88]

In 1966, following Hindu and Sikh Punjabi demands, the Indian government divided Punjab into the state of Punjab and the Hindi majority-speaking states of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.[29]

During the 1960s, Punjab was known for its prosperity within India, largely due to its fertile lands and industrious inhabitants. However, a significant portion of the Sikh community felt a sense of disparity from the central government of India. The roots of such grievances stretched back several decades, with the primary issue revolving around the distribution of water from the trio of rivers — Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej — that flowed across the Punjabi territory. [89]

Although Punjab was blessed with these waterways running across its lands, it was lawfully granted only a quarter of the water, precisely 24%, as per the Inter-State Water Disputes Act. The rest, a staggering 76%, was assigned to Rajasthan and Haryana. To many Punjabis, especially the farming community who heavily depended on these waters for irrigation, this allocation seemed inequitable. The water distribution was a significant contributing factor to the growing sense of disgruntlement against the central government. [89]

The seeds of discontent further sprouted with the advent of the Green Revolution during the 1960s. This initiative sought to boost agricultural output by introducing high-yield seed varieties, and enhancing the use of fertilisers and irrigation. In the midst of this transformative phase, Punjab became known as India's "food basket", contributing considerably to the nation's agricultural production. Yet, the financial profits garnered from this agricultural surge weren't fairly distributed. [90]

The majority of the gains were hoarded by landowners, who typically owned large plots and were best positioned to exploit the emerging technologies and farming practices. The working class and economically underprivileged segments of society, who often toiled as labourers on these farms, were left with only minor benefits. This uneven distribution of wealth conflicted sharply with Sikh religious customs, which preached economic justice and fair wealth distribution. [91]

The Green Revolution dealt a severe blow to Punjab's small farmers. The larger landowners, with their access to abundant resources and capital, were well-suited to adopt the agricultural innovations brought by the Revolution. This situation sparked further resentment among small farmers, many of whom were forced to relinquish their lands, unable to compete, thereby intensifying the economic chasm. [89]

Beyond the farming sector, Punjab lacked substantial employment opportunities. An excessive focus on agriculture resulted in the state's industrial sector's neglect, leaving it notably underdeveloped. This skewed concentration on agriculture meant that many economically challenged peasants, without feasible employment alternatives, felt cornered and disgruntled. [90]

Even the affluent landowners, the initial beneficiaries of the Green Revolution, felt the economic pinch due to soaring prices of farming inputs like fertilisers and pesticides, and the dearth of essential resources like electricity and water. [91]

Although the Green Revolution was primarily conceived to amplify productivity, it couldn't sustain this increased output over a prolonged period. The introduction of novel crop varieties led to a decline in genetic diversity, thus introducing a new ecological risk. Furthermore, these new crops demanded more water and were highly dependent on chemical fertilisers, both of which had deleterious environmental consequences. Overuse of water led to groundwater resource depletion, and heavy chemical usage adversely affected soil and water systems, further undermining long-term productivity. [89]

From 1981 to 1995 the state suffered a 14-year-long insurgency. Problems began due to disputes between Punjabi Sikhs and the central government of the Republic of India. Tensions escalated throughout the early 1980s and eventually culminated with Operation Blue Star in 1984; an Indian Army operation aimed at the dissident Sikh community of Punjab. Shortly thereafter, Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated by two of her Sikh bodyguards. The decade that followed was noted for widespread inter-communal violence and accusations of genocide on the part of the Sikh community by the Indian government.[92]


Punjab is in northwestern India and has a total area of 50,362 square kilometres (19,445 sq mi). Punjab is bordered by Pakistan's Punjab province on the west, Jammu and Kashmir on the north, Himachal Pradesh on the northeast and Haryana and Rajasthan on the south.[9] Most of Punjab lies in a fertile, alluvial plain with perennial rivers and an extensive irrigation canal system.[93] A belt of undulating hills extends along the northeastern part of the state at the foot of the Himalayas. Its average elevation is 300 metres (980 ft) above sea level, with a range from 180 metres (590 ft) in the southwest to more than 500 metres (1,600 ft) around the northeast border. The southwest of the state is semi-arid, eventually merging into the Thar Desert. Of the five Punjab rivers, three—Sutlej, Beas and Ravi—flow through the Indian state. The Sutlej and Ravi define parts of the international border with Pakistan.

The soil characteristics are influenced to a limited extent by the topography, vegetation and parent rock. The variation in soil profile characteristics are much more pronounced because of the regional climatic differences.[94] Punjab is divided into three distinct regions on the basis of soil types: southwestern, central, and eastern. Punjab falls under seismic zones II, III, and IV. Zone II is considered a low-damage risk zone; zone III is considered a moderate-damage risk zone; and zone IV is considered a high-damage risk zone.[95]


Agricultural fields of Punjab during the monsoon

The geography and subtropical latitudinal location of Punjab lead to large variations in temperature from month to month. Even though only limited regions experience temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F), ground frost is commonly found in the majority of Punjab during the winter season. The temperature rises gradually with high humidity and overcast skies. However, the rise in temperature is steep when the sky is clear and humidity is low.[96]

The maximum temperatures usually occur in mid-May and June. The temperature remains above 40 °C (104 °F) in the entire region during this period. Ludhiana recorded the highest maximum temperature at 46.1 °C (115.0 °F) with Patiala and Amritsar recording 45.5 °C (113.9 °F). The maximum temperature during the summer in Ludhiana remains above 41 °C (106 °F) for a duration of one and a half months. These areas experience the lowest temperatures in January. The sun rays are oblique during these months and the cold winds control the temperature at daytime.[96]

Punjab experiences its minimum temperature from December to February. The lowest temperature was recorded at Amritsar (0.2 °C (32.4 °F)) and Ludhiana stood second with 0.5 °C (32.9 °F). The minimum temperature of the region remains below 5 °C (41 °F) for almost two months during the winter season. The highest minimum temperature of these regions in June is more than the daytime maximum temperatures experienced in January and February. Ludhiana experiences minimum temperatures above 27 °C (81 °F) for more than two months. The annual average temperature in the entire state is approximately 21 °C (70 °F). Further, the mean monthly temperature range varies between 9 °C (48 °F) in July to approximately 18 °C (64 °F) in November.[96] Template:Amritsar weatherbox Template:Ludhiana weatherbox


Punjab experiences three main seasons. They are:

  • Summer (mid-April to the end of June)
  • Monsoon (early July to the end of September)
  • Winter (early December to the end of February).[96]

Apart from these three, the state experiences transitional seasons like:

  • Pre-summer season (March to mid-April): This is the period of transition between winter and summer.
  • Post-monsoon season (September to end of November): This is the period of transition between monsoon and winter seasons.[96]

Punjab starts experiencing mildly hot temperatures in February. The actual summer season commences in mid-April and the heat continues till the end of August. High temperatures between May and August hover between 40 and 47 °C. The area experiences atmospheric pressure variations during the summer months. The atmospheric pressure of the region remains around 987 millibar during February and it reaches 970 millibar in June.[96]


Punjab's rainy season begins in the first week of July as monsoon currents generated in the Bay of Bengal bring rain to the region. The monsoon lasts up to mid-September.[96]


Temperature variation is minimal in January. The mean night and day temperatures fall to 5 °C (41 °F) and 12 °C (54 °F), respectively.[96]

Post-Monsoon transitional season[edit]

The monsoon begins to reduce by the second week of September. This brings a gradual change in climate and temperature. The time between October and November is the transitional period between monsoon and winter seasons. Weather during this period is generally temperate and dry.[96]

Post-Winter transitional season[edit]

The effects of winter diminish by the first week of March. The hot summer season commences in mid-April. This period is marked by occasional showers with hail storms and squalls that cause extensive damage to crops. The winds remain dry and warm during the last week of March, commencing the harvest period.[96]


  • Monsoon Rainfall

Monsoon season provides most of the rainfall for the region. Punjab receives rainfall from the monsoon current of the Bay of Bengal. This monsoon current enters the state from the southeast in the first week of July.[96]

  • Winter Rainfall

The winter season remains very cool with temperatures falling below freezing at some places. Winter also brings in some western disturbances.[96] Rainfall in the winter provides relief to the farmers as some of the winter crops in the region of Shivalik Hills are entirely dependent on this rainfall. As per meteorological statistics, the sub-Shivalik area receives more than 100 millimetres (3.9 in) of rainfall in the winter months.[96]


Agriculture in Punjab

The fauna of the area is rich, with 396 types of birds, 214 kinds of Lepidoptera, 55 varieties of fish, 20 types of reptiles, and 19 kinds of mammals. The state of Punjab has large wetland areas, bird sanctuaries that house numerous species of birds, and many zoological parks. Wetlands include the national wetland Hari-Ke-Pattan, the wetland of Kanjli, and the wetlands of Kapurthala Sutlej. Wildlife sanctuaries include the Harike in the district of Tarn Taran Sahib, the Zoological Park in Rupnagar, Chhatbir Bansar Garden in Sangrur, Aam Khas Bagh in Sirhind, Amritsar's famous Ram Bagh Palace, Shalimar Garden in Kapurthala, and the famous Baradari Garden in the city of Patiala.[97]


Punjab has the lowest forest cover as a percentage of land area of any Indian state, with 3.6% of its total area under forest cover as of 2017.[98] During the Green Revolution, large tracts of jungles were cut-down in the state to make room for agriculture and forested areas were also cleared for road infrastructure and residential homes.[98] Various NGOs are working towards afforestation and reforestation of the state by launching educational drives, planting saplings, working towards regulatory changes, and pressuring organizations to follow environmental laws.[98] One NGO, EcoSikh, has planted over 100 forests, composed of native plant species, in the state using the Japanese Miyawaki methodology that are named 'Guru Nanak Sacred Forests'.[99][100][101] Native plant species are facing the risk of extirpation from the state but planting mini-forests throughout the land can help prevent this from occurring.[102] Prior to the Green Revolution, Butea monosperma (known as 'dhak' in Punjabi) trees were found in abundance in the state.[103]


Inlaid stone art (jaratkari) from the walls of the Golden Temple shrine in Amritsar depicting a predatory cat hunting a blackbuck antelope

A few of the rivers in Punjab have crocodiles, including reintroduced gharials in the Beas River after half a century of their extirpation from the state.[104][105][106] Indus river dolphins can be found in the Harike Wetland.[107] The extraction of silk from silkworms is another industry that flourishes in the state. Production of bee honey is done in some parts of Punjab. The southern plains are desert land; hence, camels can be seen. Buffaloes graze around the banks of rivers. The northeastern part is home to animals like horses. Wildlife sanctuaries have many more species of wild animals like the otter, wild boar, wildcat, fruit bat, hog deer, flying fox, squirrel, and mongoose. Naturally formed forests can be seen in the Shivalik ranges in the districts of Ropar, Gurdaspur and Hoshiarpur. Patiala is home to the Bir forest while the wetlands area in Punjab is home to the Mand forest.[108] The local subspecies of blackbuck, A. c. rajputanae, is facing the risk of extirpation from the state.[109][110][111]

Botanical gardens exist throughout Punjab. There is a zoological park and a tiger safari park, as well as three parks dedicated to deer.[108]

The state bird is the northern goshawk (baz) (Accipiter gentilis),[112] the state animal is the blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), the state aquatic animal is Indus river dolphin (Platanista minor), and the state tree is the shisham (Dalbergia sissoo).[113]

Government and politics[edit]

Punjab is governed through a parliamentary system of representative democracy. Each of the states of India possesses a parliamentary system of government, with a ceremonial state Governor, appointed by the President of India on the advice of the central government. The head of government is an indirectly elected Chief Minister who is vested with most of the executive powers. The term length of the government is five years. The state legislature, the Vidhan Sabha, is the unicameral Punjab Legislative Assembly, with 117 members elected from single-seat constituencies.[114] The current government was elected in the 2022 Assembly elections as Aam Aadmi Party won 92 out of 117 Assembly seats and Bhagwant Mann is the current Chief Minister. The state of Punjab is divided into five administrative divisions and twenty-three districts.

The capital of Punjab is Chandigarh, which also serves as the capital of Haryana and is thus administered separately as a Union Territory of India. The judicial branch of the state government is provided by the Punjab and Haryana High Court in Chandigarh.[115]

The three major political parties in the state are the Aam Aadmi Party, a centrist to left wing party, the Shiromani Akali Dal, a Sikh right-wing Punjabiyat party and the Indian National Congress, a centrist catch all party.[116] President's rule has been imposed in Punjab eight times so far, since 1950, for different reasons. In terms of the absolute number of days, Punjab was under the President's rule for 3,510 days, which is approximately 10 years. Much of this was in the 80s during the height of militancy in Punjab. Punjab was under the President's rule for five continuous years from 1987 to 1992.

Punjab state law and order is maintained by Punjab Police. Punjab police is headed by its DGP, Dinkar Gupta,[117] and has 70,000 employees. It manages state affairs through 22 district heads known as SSP.

Administrative set-up[edit]

Districts of Punjab along with their headquarters
Administrative divisions of Punjab

Punjab has 23 districts, which are geographically classified into Majha, Malwa, Doaba and Puadh regions, as under: –

These districts are officially divided among 5 administrative divisions: Faridkot, Ferozepur, Jalandhar, Patiala and Ropar(created on 31 December 2010, which was a part of Patiala Division earlier).[118]

Administrative Divisions and Corresponding Districts of Punjab
S. No. Name of the Division No. of districts Name of the Districts
1 Faridkot 3 Bathinda, Faridkot, Mansa
2 Ferozepur 4 Fazilka, Ferozepur, Moga, Sri Muktsar Sahib
3 Jalandhar 7 Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar, Kapurthala, Pathankot, Tarn Taran
4 Patiala 6 Barnala, Fatehgarh Sahib, Ludhiana, Malerkotla, Patiala, Sangrur
5 Ropar 3 Rupnagar, SAS Nagar, SBS Nagar

Each district is under the administrative control of a District Collector. The districts are subdivided into 93 tehsils, which have fiscal and administrative powers over settlements within their borders, including maintenance of local land records comes under the administrative control of a Tehsildar. Each Tehsil consists of blocks which are total 150 in number. These blocks consist of revenue villages. There are total number of revenue villages in the state is 12,278. There are 23 Zila Parishads, 136 Municipal Committees and 22 Improvement Trusts looking after 143 towns and 14 cities of Punjab.

The capital city of the state is Chandigarh and largest city of the state is Ludhiana. Out of total population of Punjab, 37.48% people live in urban regions. The absolute urban population living in urban areas is 10,399,146 of which 5,545,989 are males and while remaining 4,853,157 are females. The urban population in the last 10 years has increased by 37.48%. The major cities are Ludhiana, Amritsar, Jalandhar, Mohali, Patiala and Bathinda.


Hall Gate of Amritsar

Punjab's GDP is 5.42 trillion (US$76 billion).[4] Punjab is one of the most fertile regions in India. The region is ideal for wheat-growing. Rice, sugar cane, fruits and vegetables are also grown. Indian Punjab is called the "Granary of India" or "India's bread-basket".[119] It produces 10.26% of India's cotton, 19.5% of India's wheat, and 11% of India's rice. The Firozpur and Fazilka Districts are the largest producers of wheat and rice in the state. In worldwide terms, Indian Punjab produces 2% of the world's cotton, 2% of its wheat and 1% of its rice.[119]

Punjab ranked first in GDP per capita amongst Indian states in 1981 and fourth in 2001, but has experienced slower growth than the rest of India, having the second-slowest GDP per capita growth rate of all Indian states and UTs between 2000 and 2010, behind only Manipur.[120][121][122][123][124][125][126]


Punjab's economy has been primarily agriculture-based since the Green Revolution due to the presence of abundant water sources and fertile soils;[127] most of the state lies in a fertile alluvial plain with many rivers and an extensive irrigation canal system.[93] The largest cultivated crop is wheat. Other important crops are rice, cotton, sugarcane, pearl millet, maize, barley and fruit. Rice and wheat are doublecropped in Punjab with rice stalks being burned off over millions of acres prior to the planting of wheat. This widespread practice is polluting and wasteful.[128] Despite covering only 1.53%[10] of its geographical area, Punjab makes up for about 15–20%[129][130][131][132] of India's wheat production, around 12%[133][134][135][136] of its rice production, and around 5%[129][137][138][139] of its milk production, being known as India's breadbasket.[140][141] About 80%[142]-95%[143] of Punjab's agricultural land is owned by its Jat Sikh community despite it only forming 21%[144] of the state's population. About 10% of Punjab's population is made up of migrants from poorer states to the southeast such as Uttar Pradesh and Bihar who work as farm labourers.[145]

In Punjab the consumption of fertiliser per hectare is 223.46 kg as compared to 90 kg nationally. The state has been awarded the National Productivity Award for agriculture extension services for ten years, from 1991 to 1992 to 1998–99 and from 2001 to 2003–04. In recent years a drop in productivity has been observed, mainly due to falling fertility of the soil. This is believed to be due to excessive use of fertilisers and pesticides over the years. Another worry is the rapidly falling water table on which almost 90% of the agriculture depends; alarming drops have been witnessed in recent years. By some estimates, groundwater is falling by a meter or more per year.[146][147]

According to the India State Hunger Index, Punjab has the lowest level of hunger in India.[148]


Other major industries include financial services, the manufacturing of scientific instruments, agricultural goods, electrical goods, machine tools, textiles, sewing machines, sports goods, starch, fertilisers, bicycles, garments, and the processing of pine oil and sugar.[141] Minerals and energy resources also contribute to Punjab's economy to a much lesser extent. Punjab has the largest number of steel rolling mill plants in India, which are in "Steel Town"—Mandi Gobindgarh in the Fatehgarh Sahib district.


Punjab also has a large diaspora that is mostly settled in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada, numbers about 3 million, and sends back billions of USD in remittances to the state, playing a major role in its economy.[149]



Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport in Amritsar, is the Primary Hub Airport and Gateway to Punjab, as the airport serves direct connectivity to key cities around the world, including London, Singapore, Moscow, Dubai, Birmingham among others.

Punjab has six civil airports including two international airports: Amritsar International Airport and Chandigarh International Airport at Mohali; and four domestic airports: Bathinda Airport, Pathankot Airport, Adampur Airport (Jalandhar) and Sahnewal Airport (Ludhiana). Apart from these 6 airports, there are 2 airfields at Beas (Amritsar) and Patiala which do not serve any commercial flight operations, as of now.


View of Ludhiana Railway Station

The Indian Railways' Northern Railway line runs through the state connecting most of the major towns and cities. The Shatabdi Express, India's fastest series of train connects Amritsar to New Delhi covering total distance of 449 km. Amritsar Junction Railway Station is the busiest junction of the state. Bathinda Junction holds the record of maximum railway lines from a railway junction in Asia. Punjab's major railway stations are Amritsar Junction (ASR), Ludhiana Junction (LDH), Jalandhar Cantonment (JRC), Firozpur Cantonment (FZR), Jalandhar City Junction (JUC), Pathankot Junction (PTK) and Patiala railway station (PTA). The railway stations of Amritsar is included in the Indian Railways list of 50 world-class railway stations.[150]


Punjab Government have signed a MoU ( Memorendum of Understanding) with Virgin Hyperloop One to explore the feasibility of running a Hyperloop between Amritsar and Chandigarh which could decrease the travel time between 2 cities from five hours by road to less than 30 minutes. It will have stops in Ludhiana and Jalandhar.[151]


Amritsar Inter State Bus Stand

All the cities and towns of Punjab are connected by four-lane national highways. The Grand Trunk Road, also known as "NH1", connects Kolkata to Peshawar, passing through Amritsar and Jalandhar. National highways passing through the state are ranked the best in the country[by whom?] with widespread road networks that serve isolated towns as well as the border region. Amritsar and Ludhiana are among several Indian cities that have the highest accident rates in India.[152]

The following expressways will pass through Punjab:

The following national highways connect major towns, cities and villages:

Urban Rapid Transit System[edit]

There are also a bus rapid transit system Amritsar BRTS in the holy city of Amritsar, popularly known as 'Amritsar MetroBus'[153]


Population Growth
source:Census of India[154]

Punjab is home to 2.3% of India's population; with a density of 551 persons per km2. According to the provisional results of the 2011 national census, Punjab has a population of 27,743,338, making it the 16th most populated state in India. Of which male and female are 14,639,465 and 13,103,873 respectively.[155] 32% of Punjab's population consists of Dalits.[156] In the state, the rate of population growth is 13.9% (2011), lower than national average. According to the nation family health survey 2019-21, total fertility rate of Punjab was 1.6 children per women.[157][158]

Out of total population, 37.5% people live in urban regions. The total figure of population living in urban areas is 10,399,146 of which 5,545,989 are males and while remaining 4,853,157 are females. The urban population in the last 10 years has increased by 37.5%.

Percentage of rural and urban population in Punjab[159]
Year Rural % Urban %
2011 62.51% 37.49%
2001 66.08% 33.92%
1991 70.45% 29.55%
1981 72.32% 27.68%
1971 76.27% 23.73%
Numbers of rural and urban population in Punjab [160]
Year Rural (in millions) Urban (in millions) Total (in millions)
2011 17.32 10.3 27.70
2001 16.10 8.26 24.36
1991 14.29 5.99 20.28
1981 12.14 4.65 16.79
1971 10.33 3.22 13.55


There has been a constant decline in the sex ratio of the state. The sex ratio in Punjab was 895 females per 1000 males, which was below the national average of 940. In June 2023, state government under Aam Aadmi party announced that all women on the birth of a second girl child will receive 6000 rupees.[161]

The table below shows the sex ratio of the districts in 2011, in descending order.[162]

Sex ratio by districts (2011)
Sr. No. District Sex ratio
1 Hoshiarpur 961
2 Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar 954
3 Jalandhar 915
4 Rupnagar 915
5 Kapurthala 912
6 Tarn Taran 900
7 Muktsar 896
8 Gurdaspur 895
9 Moga 893
10 Firozpur 893
11 Patiala 891
12 Faridkot 890
13 Amritsar 889
14 Sangrur 885
15 Mansa 883
16 Mohali 879
17 Barnala 876
18 Ludhiana 873
19 Fatehgarh Sahib 871
20 Bathinda 868


The literacy rate rose to 75.84% as per 2011 population census, which was only slightly higher than the national average of 74.04%. Of that, male literacy stands at 80.4% while female literacy is at 70.7%. In actual numbers, total literates in Punjab stands at 18,707,137 of which males were 10,436,056 and females were 8,271,081.

The median number of years of schooling completed in the state was 6.5 for females and 7.8 for males, as of 2011.[163]

The table given below shows the literacy rate by district for year 2011 in descending order.[164][165]

Literacy rate by districts
Sr. No. District Percentage
1 Hoshiarpur 84.59%
2 Mohali 83.80%
3 Jalandhar 82.48%
4 Ludhiana 82.20%
5 Rupnagar 82.19%
6 Gurdaspur 79.95%
7 Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar 79.78%
8 Fatehgarh Sahib 79.35%
9 Kapurthala 79.07%
10 Amritsar 76.27%
11 Patiala 75.28%
12 Moga 70.68%
13 Faridkot 69.55%
14 Firozpur 68.92%
15 Bathinda 68.28%
16 Sangrur 67.99%
17 Barnala 67.82%
18 Tarn Taran 67.81%
19 Muktsar 65.81%
20 Mansa 61.83%


Languages of Punjab, India
(First Language) (2011)[166]

  Punjabi (89.8%)
  Hindi (7.9%)
  Others (2.3%)

Punjabi is the sole official language of Punjab[3] and as of the 2011 census, is spoken as a first language by 24.9 million people, or roughly 90% of the state's population. Hindi is natively spoken by 2.18 million, or 7.9% of the population, Bagri has 234,000 speakers (or 0.8%), while the remaining 413,000 (or 1.5%) spoke other languages.[167]


Castes of Punjab (2011)

  Scheduled Castes (Dalits) (31.9%)
  Upper castes (UC) (30%)
  Other Backward Classes (OBC or BC) (31.3%)
  religious minorities (3.8%)
  Rai Sikhs (3%)

The 2011 Census of India found Scheduled Castes to account for 31.9% of the state's population.[168] The Other Backward Classes have 31.3% population in Punjab.[169] The exact population of Forward castes is not known as their data from Socio Economic and Caste Census 2011 is not made public as of 2019.[170]

According to the 2011 census, 73.33% of scheduled caste people reside in rural areas and 26.67% in urban areas of Punjab. Punjab accounts for 4.3% of the SC population of the country, despite having only 2.3% of the total population. The population growth rate of SC population between 2001 and 2011 was 26.06%, compared to 13.89% for the state as a whole. Literacy rate among SCs was 64.81%, compared to 75.84% of the state as a whole.[171]

As per National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4, 2015-16), the infant mortality rate was 40 per 1000 live births before the age of one year, compared to 29 per 1000 births for the state as a whole. The infant mortality rate for other backward castes (OBC) was 21 per 1000 live births and 22 per 1000 for those who are not from SC and OBC classes. Although the prevalence of anemia (low levels of hemoglobin in the blood) has been found quite high amongst all population groups in Punjab, it was still higher among the SC population than other groups. For the women between the ages of 15-49 years, the prevalence of anemia among SC women was 56.9%, compared to 53.5% for the state as a whole. Among the children between the ages of 6-59 months, the rate of anemia for SC children was 60%, compared to 56.9% for the state as a whole. [172]

Below is the list of districts with more than 30% SC population in 2011.[173]

Scheduled Caste population by district (2011)
Sr. No. District Percentage
1 Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar 42.51%
2 Muktsar 42.31%
3 Firozpur (including Fazilka) 42.17%
4 Jalandhar 38.95%
5 Faridkot 38.92%
6 Moga 36.50%
7 Hoshiarpur 35.14%
8 Kapurthala 33.94%
9 Tarn Taran 33.71%
10 Mansa 33.63%
11 Bathinda 32.44%
12 Barnala 32.24%
13 Fatehgarh Sahib 32.07%
14 Amritsar 30.95%


Religion in Punjab, India (2011)[12]

  Sikhism (57.7%)
  Hinduism (38.5%)
  Islam (1.9%)
  Christianity (1.3%)
  Others (0.6%)

Punjab has the largest population of Sikhs in India and is the only state where Sikhs form a majority, numbering around 16 million forming 57.7% of the state population.[12] Hinduism is the second largest religion in the Indian state of Punjab numbering around 10.68 million and forming 38.5% of the state's population and a majority in Doaba region. Islam is followed by 535,489 accounting 1.9% of the population and are mainly concentrated in Malerkotla and Qadian. Other smaller segments of religions existing in Punjab are Christianity practised by 1.3%, Jainism practised by 0.2%, Buddhism practised by 0.1% and others 0.3%. Sikhs form a majority in 17 districts out of the total 23 districts while Hindus form the majority in 5 districts, namely, Pathankot, Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur, Fazilka and Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar districts.[174]

The Sikh shrine, Golden Temple (Harmandir Sahib), is in the city of Amritsar, which houses the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, the topmost Sikh religious body. The Sri Akal Takht Sahib, which is within the Golden Temple complex, is the highest temporal seat of Sikhs. Of the five Takhts (Temporal Seats of religious authority) of Sikhism, three are in Punjab. These are Sri Akal Takht Sahib, Damdama Sahib and Anandpur Sahib. At least one Sikh Gurdwara can be found in almost every village in the state, as well as in the towns and cities (in various architectural styles and sizes).

Hindu Mandirs can be found all over Punjab with the Shri Durgiana Mandir in Amritsar, and the Shri Devi Talab Mandir in Jalandhar visited by many pilgrims every year. Due to the open nature of their religion, a segment of Punjabis who are Punjabi Hindus continue heterogeneous religious practices in spiritual kinship with Sikhism. This not only includes veneration of the Sikh Gurus in private practice but also visit to Sikh Gurdwaras in addition to Hindu Mandirs.[175]


Primary and Secondary education is mainly affiliated to Punjab School Education Board. Punjab is served by several institutions of higher education, including 23 universities that provide undergraduate and postgraduate courses in all the major arts, humanities, science, engineering, law, medicine, veterinary science, and business. Reading and writing Punjabi language is compulsory till matriculation for every student[176] failing which the schools attract fine or cancellation of licence.[177]

Punjab Agricultural University is a leading institution globally for the study of agriculture and played a significant role in Punjab's Green Revolution in the 1960s–70s. Alumni of the Panjab University, Chandigarh include Manmohan Singh, the former Prime Minister of India, and Har Gobind Khorana, a biochemistry nobel laureate. One of the oldest institutions of medical education is the Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, which has existed since 1894.[178] There is an existing gap in education between men and women, particularly in rural areas of Punjab. Of a total of 1 million 300 thousand students enrolled in grades five to eight, only 44% are women.[179]

Punjab has 23 universities, of which ten are private, 9 are state, one is central and three are deemed universities. Punjab has 104,000 (104,000) engineering seats.[180]

Punjab is also increasingly becoming known for education of yoga and naturopathy, with its student slowly adopting these as their career. The Board of Naturopathy and Yoga Science (BNYS) is located in the state.[181] Regional College Dinanagar is the first college to be opened in Dinanagar Town.[182]


Daily Ajit, Jagbani and Punjabi Tribune are the largest-selling Punjabi newspapers while The Tribune is most selling English newspaper. A vast number of weekly, biweekly and monthly magazines are under publication in Punjabi. Other main newspapers are Daily Punjab Times, Rozana Spokesman, Nawan Zamana, etc.

Doordarshan is the broadcaster of the Government of India and its channel DD Punjabi is dedicated to Punjabi. Prominent private Punjabi channels include news channels like BBC Punjabi,[183] ABP Sanjha,[184] Global Punjab TV,[185] News18 Punjab-Haryana-Himachal,[186] Zee Punjab Haryana Himachal, PTC News and entertainment channels like Zee Punjabi, GET Punjabi, ETC Punjabi, Chardikla Time TV, PTC Punjabi, Colours Punjabi, JUS Punjabi, MH1 and 9x Tashan.[187]

Punjab has witnessed a growth in FM radio channels, mainly in the cities of Jalandhar, Patiala and Amritsar, which has become hugely popular. There are government radio channels like All India Radio, Jalandhar, All India Radio, Bathinda and FM Gold Ludhiana.[188] Private radio channels include Radio Mirchi, BIG FM 92.7, 94.3 My FM, Radio Mantra and many more.


Punjabi jutti

The culture of Punjab has many elements including music such as bhangra, an extensive religious and non-religious dance tradition, a long history of poetry in the Punjabi language, a significant Punjabi film industry that dates back to before Partition, a vast range of cuisine, which has become widely popular abroad, and a number of seasonal and harvest festivals such as Lohri,[189] Basant, Vaisakhi and Teeyan,[190][191][192] all of which are celebrated in addition to the religious festivals of India.

A kissa is a Punjabi language oral story-telling tradition that has a mixture of origins ranging from the Arabian peninsula to Iran and Afghanistan.[193]

Punjabi wedding traditions and ceremonies are a strong reflection of Punjabi culture. Marriage ceremonies are known for their rich rituals, songs, dances, food and dresses, which have evolved over many centuries.[194][195]



Bhangra (Punjabi: ਭੰਗੜਾ (Gurmukhi); pronounced [pɑ̀ŋɡɾɑ̀ː]) and Giddha are forms of dance and music that originated in the Punjab region.[196]

Bhangra dance began as a folk dance conducted by Punjabi farmers to celebrate the coming of the harvest season. The specific moves of Bhangra reflect the manner in which villagers farmed their land. This hybrid dance became Bhangra. The folk dance has been popularised in the western world by Punjabis in England, Canada and the USA where competitions are held.[197] It is seen in the West as an expression of South Asian culture as a whole.[198] Today, Bhangra dance survives in different forms and styles all over the globe – including pop music, film soundtracks, collegiate competitions and cultural shows.

Punjabi folklore[edit]

The folk heritage of the Punjab reflects its thousands of years of history. While Majhi is considered to be the standard dialect of Punjabi language, there are a number of Punjabi dialects through which the people communicate. These include Malwai, Doabi and Puadhi. The songs, ballads, epics and romances are generally written and sung in these dialects.

There are a number of folk tales that are popular in Punjab. These are the folk tales of Mirza Sahiban, Heer Ranjha, Sohni Mahiwal, Sassi Punnun, Jagga Jatt, Dulla Bhatti, Puran Bhagat, Jeona Maud etc. The mystic folk songs and religious songs include the Shalooks of Sikh gurus, Baba Farid and others.[199]

The most famous of the romantic love songs are Mayhiah, Dhola and Boliyan.[200] Punjabi romantic dances include Dhamaal, Bhangra, Giddha, Dhola, and Sammi and some other local folk dances.[201]


Most early Punjabi literary works are in verse form, with prose not becoming more common until later periods. Throughout its history, Punjabi literature has sought to inform and inspire, educate and entertain. The Punjabi language is written in several different scripts, of which the Shahmukhi, the Gurmukhī scripts are the most commonly used.[202]


Punjabi Folk Music is the traditional music on the traditional musical instruments of Punjab region.[203][204][205]

Bhangra music of Punjab is famous throughout the world.[28]

Punjabi music has a diverse style of music, ranging from folk and Sufi to classical, notably the Punjab gharana and Patiala gharana.[206][207]

Film industry[edit]

Punjab is home to the Punjabi film industry, often colloquially referred to as 'Pollywood'.[208] It is known for being the fastest growing film industry in India. It is based mainly around Mohali city. According to MP Manish Tewari, the government is planning to build a film city in Mohali.[209]

The first Punjabi film was made in 1936. Since the 2000s Punjabi cinema has seen a revival with more releases every year with bigger budgets, homegrown stars, and Bollywood actors of Punjabi descent taking part.[citation needed]


File:Punjabi culture.jpg
Punjabi women using a traditional method of spinning

The city of Amritsar is home to the craft of brass and copper metalwork done by the Thatheras of Jandiala Guru, which is enlisted on the UNESCO's List of Intangible Cultural Heritage.[210] Years of neglect had caused this craft to die out, and the listing prompted the Government of Punjab to undertake a craft revival effort under Project Virasat.[211][212]


Vegetarian Punjabi Thaali

One of the main features of Punjabi cuisine is its diverse range of dishes.[213][214] Home cooked and restaurant cuisine sometimes vary in taste. Restaurant style uses large amounts of ghee. Some food items are eaten on a daily basis while some delicacies are cooked only on special occasions.[215]

There are many regional dishes that are famous in some regions only. Many dishes are exclusive to Punjab, including Sarson Da Saag, Tandoori chicken, Shami kebab, makki di roti, etc.[216]

Festivals and traditions[edit]

Punjabis celebrate a number of festivals, which have taken a semi-secular meaning and are regarded as cultural festivals by people of all religions. Some of the festivals are Bandi Chhor Divas (Diwali),[217][218] Mela Maghi,[219] Hola Mohalla,[220][221] Rakhri, Vaisakhi, Lohri, Gurpurb, Guru Ravidass Jayanti, Teeyan and Basant Kite Festival.


PCA Stadium under lights at Mohali

Kabbadi (Circle Style), a team contact sport originated in rural Punjab is recognised as the state game.[222][223] Field hockey is also a popular sport in the state.[224] Kila Raipur Sports Festival, popularly known as the Rural Olympics, is held annually in Kila Raipur (near Ludhiana). Competition is held for major Punjabi rural sports, include cart-race, rope pulling. Punjab government organises World Kabaddi League,[225][226]

Punjab Games and annual Kabaddi World Cup for Circle Style Kabbadi in which teams from countries like Argentina, Canada, Denmark, England, India, Iran, Kenya, Pakistan, Scotland, Sierra Leone, Spain and United States participated. A major C.B.S.E event C.B.S.E Cluster Athlectics also held in Punjab at Sant Baba Bhag Singh University.[227]

The Punjab state basketball team won the National Basketball Championship on many occasions, most recently in 2019 and 2020.[228][229]


Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar is a major pilgrimage site in Punjab and is also widely visited for its unique architecture

Tourism in Indian Punjab centres around the historic palaces, battle sites, and the great Sikh architecture of the state and the surrounding region.[230] Examples include various sites of the Indus Valley civilization, the ancient fort of Bathinda, the architectural monuments of Kapurthala, Patiala, and Chandigarh, the modern capital designed by Le Corbusier.[231]

The Golden Temple in Amritsar is one of the major tourist destinations of Punjab and indeed India, attracting more visitors than the Taj Mahal. Lonely Planet Bluelist 2008 has voted the Harmandir Sahib as one of the world's best spiritual sites.[232] Moreover, there is a rapidly expanding array of international hotels in the holy city at Heritage Walk Amritsar that can be booked for overnight stays. Devi Talab Mandir is a Hindu temple located in Jalandhar. This temple is devoted to Goddess Durga[233] and is believed to be at least 200 years old. Another main tourist destination is religious and historic city of Sri Anandpur Sahib where large number of tourists come to see the Virasat-e-Khalsa (Khalsa Heritage Memorial Complex) and also take part in Hola Mohalla festival. Kila Raipur Sports Festival is also popular tourist attraction in Kila Raipur near Ludhiana.[234][235][236] Shahpur kandi fort, Ranjit Sagar lake and Sikh Temple in Sri Muktsar Sahib are also popular attractions in Punjab. Punjab also has the world's first museum based on the Indian Partition of 1947, in Amritsar, called the Partition Museum.[237]

See also[edit]


  1. "Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikh originated in India."Moreno, Luis; Colino, César (2010). Diversity and Unity in Federal Countries. McGill Queen University Press. p. 207. ISBN 978-0-7735-9087-8.


  1. Craterus supervised the construction. These cities are yet to be identified.


  1. "Know Punjab – Government of Punjab, India". Retrieved 24 March 2023.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Area, population, decennial growth rate and density for 2001 and 2011 at a glance for Punjab and the districts: provisional population totals paper 1 of 2011: Punjab". Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 7 January 2012. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Handbook of Statistics of Indian States" (PDF). Reserve Bank of India. pp. 37–42. Retrieved 11 February 2022.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Sub-national HDI – Area Database". Global Data Lab. Institute for Management Research, Radboud University. Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  6. "Sex ratio of State and Union Territories of India as per National Health survey (2019–2021)". Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, India.
  7. "State Bird is BAAZ". Archived from the original on 14 July 2014.
  8. Also /ˈpʌnæb/ and other variants
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Border Area Development Programmes in Punjab" (PDF). Department of Planning Punjab. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 September 2016. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Official site of the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, India". Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  11. "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
    "Language – India, States and Union Territories" (PDF). Census of India 2011. Office of the Registrar General. pp. 13–14. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
    "C-16 Population By Mother Tongue – Punjab". censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 "Population by religion community – 2011". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015.
  13. Encyclopædia Britannica, ninth ed., vol. 20, Punjab, p.107
  14. Singh, Mohinder (1988). History and Culture of Panjab. Atlantic Publishers. pp. 1, 12.
  15. Chattopadhyaya, Brajadulal (2003). Studying Early India: Archaeology, Texts, and Historical Issues. Permanent Black Publishers. ISBN 81-7824-143-9.
  16. Romm, James S. (2012). The Landmark Arrian: The Campaigns of Alexander. Anchor Books. ISBN 978-1-4000-7967-4.
  17. Thorpe, Showick; Thorpe, Edgar (2009). The Pearson General Studies Manual 2009. Pearson. ISBN 978-81-317-2133-9.
  18. Daniélou, Alain (2003). A Brief History of India. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-89281-923-2.
  19. Majumdar, R. C. (1977). Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0436-4.
  20. Mohan, R. T. (2010). Afghanistan Revisited: The Brahmana Hindu Shahis of Afghanistan and the Punjab ( C.840.-1026 CE). MLBD.
  21. Lapidus, I. M. (2014). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-99150-6.
    Jayapalan, N. (2001). History of India. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors (P) Limited. ISBN 978-81-7156-928-1.
    The Islamic World to 1600: Rise of the Great Islamic Empires (The Mughal Empire) Archived 27 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
    "Mughal Dynasty". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Britannica. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
    Potdar, Datto Vaman (1938). All India Modern History Congress.
  22. Melton, J. G. (2014). Faiths Across Time: 5,000 Years of Religious History. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-61069-026-3.[full citation needed]
    Jestice, Phyllis (2004). Holy people of the world : a cross-cultural encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-355-1. OCLC 57407318.
    Latif, Syad Muhammad (1964). The History of Punjab from the Remotest Antiquity to the Present Time. Eurasia Publishing House (Pvt.) Ltd. p. 283.
    Bhatia, Sardar Singh (1998). The Encyclopedia of Sikhism, Volume IV. Punjabi University. p. 396.
  23. Grewal, J. S.; Johnson, Gordon (1990). The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-26884-4.
  24. Cunningham, Joseph (1853). Cunningham's history of the Sikhs. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  25. Talbot, Ian (2009). "Partition of India: The Human Dimension". Cultural and Social History. 6 (4): 403–410. doi:10.2752/147800409X466254. S2CID 147110854. The number of casualties remains a matter of dispute, with figures being claimed that range from 200,000 to 2 million victims.
    D'Costa, Bina (2011). Nationbuilding, Gender and War Crimes in South Asia. Routledge. p. 53. ISBN 978-0415565660.
    Butalia, Urvashi (2000). The Other Side of Silence: Voices From the Partition of India. Duke University Press.
    Sikand, Yoginder (2004). Muslims in India Since 1947: Islamic Perspectives on Inter-Faith Relations. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 978-1134378258.
    "A heritage all but erased". The Friday Times. 25 December 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  26. Brass, Paul R. (2005). Language, Religion and Politics in North India. iUniverse. p. 326. ISBN 978-0-595-34394-2.
  27. Mahmood, Cynthia Keppley (1996). Fighting for Faith and Nation: Dialogues with Sikh Militants. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 77. ISBN 9780812215922. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
  28. 28.0 28.1 "How Punjab became home to India's largest non-film music industry". The Economic Times. 8 July 2018. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
    "Why Punjabi music is so euphonic". Business Standard. 3 May 2020. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
    "Everyone's a rockstar in Mohali, the city at the heart of a Punjabi music boom". Hindustan Times. 8 January 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
    "Indian Films by Language" (PDF). Film Federation of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 July 2021. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
    "Kirron Kher tries to get film city for Chandigarh". Archived from the original on 13 November 2014.
    "Kirron Kher is trying to bring a film city to Chandigarh". Archived from the original on 31 October 2015.
    "The Globalisation of Bhangra Music". Archived from the original on 10 September 2015.
    "The Bhangra Breakdown – June 2014 Edition". June 2014. Archived from the original on 28 January 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  29. 29.00 29.01 29.02 29.03 29.04 29.05 29.06 29.07 29.08 29.09 29.10 Minahan, James (2012). Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 257–259. ISBN 978-1-59884-659-1.
  30. Buddha Parkash, Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Panjab, p 36.
  31. Joshi, L. M., and Fauja Singh. History of Panjab, Vol I. p. 4.
  32. Flood, Gavin (13 July 1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0.
  33. Wheeler, James Talboys (1874). The History of India from the Earliest Ages: Hindu Buddhist Brahmanical revival. N. Trübner. p. 330. The Punjab, to say the least, was less Brahmanical. It was an ancient centre of the worship of Indra, who was always regarded as an enemy by the Bráhmans; and it was also a stronghold of Buddhism.
  34. Hunter, W. W. (5 November 2013). The Indian Empire: Its People, History and Products. Routledge. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-136-38301-4. In the settlements of the Punjab, Indra thus advanced to the first place among the Vedic divinities.
  35. Virdee, Pippa (February 2018). From the Ashes of 1947. Cambridge University Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-108-42811-8. The Rig Veda and the Upanishads, which belonged to the Vedic religion, were a precursor of Hinduism, both of which were composed in Punjab.
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3 36.4 36.5 36.6 36.7 36.8 36.9 Bosworth, Albert Brian (1993). "The campaign of the Hydaspes". Conquest and Empire: The Reign of Alexander the Great. Cambridge University Press. pp. 125–130.
  37. Holt, Frank Lee (2003). Alexander the Great and the mystery of the elephant medallions. University of California Press.
  38. Rogers, p.200
  39. 39.0 39.1 Bosworth, Albert Brian (1993). "From the Hydaspes to the Southern Ocean". Conquest and Empire: The Reign of Alexander the Great. Cambridge University Press.
  40. Anson, Edward M. (2013). Alexander the Great: Themes and Issues. Bloomsbury. p. 151. ISBN 9781441193797.
  41. Roy 2004, pp. 23–28.
  42. Heckel, Waldemar (2006). Who's Who in the Age of Alexander the Great: Prosopography of Alexander's Empire. Wiley. ISBN 9781405112109.
  43. Irfan Habib; Vivekanand Jha (2004). Mauryan India. A People's History of India. Aligarh Historians Society / Tulika Books. p. 16. ISBN 978-81-85229-92-8.
  44. Hazel, John (2013). Who's Who in the Greek World. Routledge. p. 155. ISBN 9781134802241. Menander king in India, known locally as Milinda, born at a village named Kalasi near Alasanda (Alexandria-in-the-Caucasus), and who was himself the son of a king. After conquering the Punjab, where he made Sagala his capital, he made an expedition across northern India and visited Patna, the capital of the Mauraya empire, though he did not succeed in conquering this land as he appears to have been overtaken by wars on the north-west frontier with Eucratides.
  45. Ahir, D. C. (1971). Buddhism in the Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh. Maha Bodhi Society of India. p. 31. OCLC 1288206. Demetrius died in 166 B.C., and Apollodotus, who was a near relation of the King died in 161 B.C. After his death, Menander carved out a kingdom in Punjab. Thus from 161 B.C. onward Menander was the ruler of Punjab till his death in 145 B.C. or 130 B.C.
  46. "Menander | Indo-Greek king". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 6 September 2021.
  47. Rambo, Lewis R.; Farhadian, Charles E. (6 March 2014). The Oxford Handbook of Religious Conversion. Oxford University Press. pp. 489–491. ISBN 978-0-19-971354-7. First, Islam was introduced into the southern Punjab in the opening decades of the eighth century. By the sixteenth century, Muslims were the majority in the region and an elaborate network of mosques and mausoleums marked the landscape. Local converts constituted the majority of this Muslim community, and as far for the mechanisms of conversion, the sources of the period emphasize the recitation of the Islamic confession of faith (shahada), the performance of the circumsicion (indri vaddani), and the ingestion of cow-meat (bhas khana).
  48. Chhabra, G. S. (1968). Advanced History of the Punjab: Guru and post-Guru period upto Ranjit Singh. New Academic Publishing Company. p. 37.
  49. "The Ain-i-Akbari Vol II". INDIAN CULTURE. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
  50. Sen, Sailendra Nath (1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. ISBN 978-81-224-1198-0.
  51. Mehta, Jaswant Lal (1979). Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. 76. ISBN 978-81-207-0617-0.
  52. Singh 2006, pp. 12–13.
  53. Grewal 1998, p. 6.
  54. Almasy, Steve. 2018 [2012]. "Who are Sikhs and what do they believe?" CNN International. US: Turner Broadcasting System.
  55. Nesbitt, Eleanor M. (2005). Sikhism: a very short introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 21–23. ISBN 978-0-19-280601-7.
  56. Singh, Nirbhai (1990). Philosophy of Sikhi: Reality and Its Manifestations. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. pp. 1–3.
  57. Takhar, Opinderjit Kaur (2016). Sikh Identity: An Exploration of Groups Among Sikhs. Abingdon-on-Thames, England: Taylor & Francis. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-351-90010-2.
  58. Singh, Khushwant (1991). A History of the Sikhs: Vol. 1. 1469–1839. Oxford University Press. p. 46.
  59. Singh, Pritam (2008). Federalism, Nationalism and Development: India and the Punjab Economy. Abingdon-on-Thames, England: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-04945-5. A large number of Hindu and Muslim peasants converted to Sikhism from conviction, fear, economic motives, or a combination of the three (Khushwant Singh 1999: 106; Ganda Singh 1935: 73).
  60. 60.0 60.1 Pashaura Singh (2005), Understanding the Martyrdom of Guru Arjan, Journal of Punjab Studies, 12(1), pp. 29–62
  61. Singh, Pashaura; Fenech, Louis E. (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 236–238. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
  62. Fenech, Louis E. (2001). "Martyrdom and the Execution of Guru Arjan in Early Sikh Sources". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 121 (1): 20–31. doi:10.2307/606726. JSTOR 606726.
  63. Fenech, Louis E. (1997). "Martyrdom and the Sikh Tradition". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 117 (4): 623–642. doi:10.2307/606445. JSTOR 606445.
  64. McLeod, Hew (1999). "Sikhs and Muslims in the Punjab". South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies. 22 (sup001): 155–165. doi:10.1080/00856408708723379.
  65. Gandhi, Surjit Singh (1 February 2008). History of Sikh Gurus Retold: 1606–1708. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. pp. 676–677. ISBN 978-81-269-0857-8.
  66. Chanchreek, Jain (2007). Encyclopaedia of Great Festivals. Shree Publishers. p. 142. ISBN 978-81-8329-191-0.
  67. Dugga, Kartar (2001). Maharaja Ranjit Singh: The Last to Lay Arms. Abhinav Publications. p. 33. ISBN 978-81-7017-410-3.
  68. Fenech, Louis E; McLeod, W.H. (11 June 2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism (3 ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 162. ISBN 978-1442236011.
  69. Jestice 2004, pp. 345—346.
  70. "Ranjit Singh: A Secular Sikh Sovereign by K.S. Duggal. (Date:1989. ISBN 8170172446)". Exoticindiaart.com. 3 September 2015. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
  71. Gupta, Hari Ram (14 August 2014). "History of Sikhs 1739–1768".
  72. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ranjit Singh" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 892.
  73. Grewal, J. S. (1990). The Sikhs of the Punjab, Chapter 6: The Sikh empire (1799–1849). The New Cambridge History of India. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-63764-3.
  74. Amarinder Singh's The Last Sunset: The Rise and Fall of the Lahore Durbar
  75. Manning, Stephen (30 September 2020). Bayonet to Barrage Weaponry on the Victorian Battlefield. Pen & Sword Books Limited. ISBN 9781526777249. The Sikh kingdom expanded from Tibet in the east to Kashmir in the west and from Sind in the south to the Khyber Pass in the north, an area of 200,000 square miles
  76. Barczewski, Stephanie (22 March 2016). Heroic Failure and the British. Yale University Press. p. 89. ISBN 9780300186819. ..the Sikh state encompassed over 200,000 square miles (518,000 sq km)
  77. Khilani, N. M. (1972). British power in the Punjab, 1839–1858. Asia Publishing House. p. 251. ISBN 9780210271872. ..into existence a kingdom of the Punjab of over 200,000 square miles
  78. Hibbert, Christopher (1980). The great mutiny: India 1857. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-004752-3.
  79. Arielli, N.; Collins, B. (28 November 2012). Transnational Soldiers: Foreign Military Enlistment in the Modern Era. Springer. ISBN 978-1137296634.
  80. 80.0 80.1 80.2 Talbot, Ian (1988). Punjab and the Raj, 1849–1947. Riverdale Company. ISBN 0913215287.
  81. Grewal 1990, p. 131.
  82. Grewal 1990, pp. 128—129.
  83. 83.0 83.1 Pritam Singh, Federalism, Nationalism and Development: India and the Punjab Economy, Routledge, 19 February 2008, p.54
  84. Tan, Tai Yong; Kudaisya, Gyanesh (2005) [First published in 2000]. The Aftermath of Partition in South Asia. Routledge. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-415-28908-5. Archived from the original on 28 January 2016. In March 1930 the All-India Muslim League passed its famous Lahore Resolution, demanding the creation of a separate state from Muslim majority areas in India ... [it] sparked off an enormous furore amongst the Sikhs in the Punjab ... the professed intention of the Muslim League to impose a Muslim state on the Punjab (a Muslim majority province) was anathema to the Sikhs ... Sikhs launched a virulent campaign against the Lahore Resolution.
  85. http://www.pap.gov.pk/uploads/previous_members/S-1946-1947.htm Provincial Assembly of the Punjab
  86. Dyson 2018, pp. 188–189.
  87. The Tribune News (2 November 2018). "Punjab Day celebrated". The Tribune. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
  88. Rao, Madhu (1 November 2019). "Formation day: These Indian states were formed on November 1". India TV. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
  89. 89.0 89.1 89.2 89.3 Jetly, Rajshree (2008). "THE KHALISTAN MOVEMENT IN INDIA: The Interplay of Politics and State Power". International Review of Modern Sociology. 34 (1): 61–75. ISSN 0973-2047. JSTOR 41421658.
  90. 90.0 90.1 Jodhka, Surinder S. (2001). Purewal, Shinder; Puri, H. K.; Judge, P. S.; Shekhon, J. S.; Singh, Gurharpal; Singh, Pritam; Thandi, Shinder Singh (eds.). "Looking Back at the Khalistan Movement: Some Recent Researches on Its Rise and Decline". Economic and Political Weekly. 36 (16): 1311–1318. ISSN 0012-9976. JSTOR 4410511.
  91. 91.0 91.1 Siraj, Dr Uzma; Dashti, Dr Asghar Ali; Ahmad, Dr Mamnoon (19 January 2023). "The Transformation Of Ethno-Nationalist Movements Into Secessionist Movements: A Case Study Of The Khalistan Movement". Journal of Positive School Psychology: 743–752. ISSN 2717-7564.
  92. "Sikh separatism". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  93. 93.0 93.1 "State Profile – About Punjab". Punjab Government. Archived from the original on 6 November 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  94. "Status of Environment & Related Issues". ENVIS Centre : Punjab. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  95. Pragati Infosoft Pvt. Ltd. "Punjab Geography, Geography of Punjab, Punjab Location, Punjab Climate". Punjabonline.in. Archived from the original on 18 October 2007. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  96. 96.00 96.01 96.02 96.03 96.04 96.05 96.06 96.07 96.08 96.09 96.10 96.11 96.12 "Weather & Climate Of Punjab". Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  97. "Flora And Fauna Of Punjab". Archived from the original on 10 December 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  98. 98.0 98.1 98.2 "In agri-rich Punjab, a fight to reclaim forest cover". The Times of India. 22 August 2022. ISSN 0971-8257. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  99. Zutshi, Minna (26 October 2020). "EcoSikh's Guru Nanak Sacred Forests: A reason to cheer for Ludhiana district". The Tribune, India.
  100. Singh, Gurjot (15 March 2022). "EcoSikh Completes Planting 400 Sacred Forests all across the globe on Sikh Environment Day 2022". SikhNet. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  101. Banerji, Aparna (1 July 2019). "'Nanak jungles' to increase state's green cover". The Tribune.
  102. Sharma, Seema (22 March 2019). "Punjab's native tree species disappearing from forest areas: Expert". The Times of India. ISSN 0971-8257. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  103. Zutshi, Minna (23 May 2018). "Ludhiana's Dhak Forest a treat for nature lovers". The Tribune.
  104. "24 gharials released into Beas". The Tribune. 6 December 2021.
  105. Gupta, Vivek (7 December 2020). "Gharials bounce back in Punjab but the real test is breeding". Mongabay-India. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  106. Vasudeva, Vikas (18 December 2021). "Reintroduced gharials thriving in Beas reserve: experts". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  107. Puri, Gurbax (16 April 2022). "Tarn Taran diary: Harike, an abode for birds, rare Indus dolphins". The Tribune.
  108. 108.0 108.1 "Animals and Birds in Punjab". Archived from the original on 10 December 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  109. Srinivasulu, C. (2012). South Asian mammals : their diversity, distribution, and status. Bhargavi Srinivasulu. New York, NY: Springer. p. 364. ISBN 978-1-4614-3449-8. OCLC 794056010.
  110. Biodiversity and environment. B. N. Pandey, G. K. Kulkarni, National Symposium on Recent Advances in Animal Research with Special Emphasis on Invertebrates. New Delhi: A P H Pub. Corp. 2006. p. 172. ISBN 81-313-0042-0. OCLC 297209812.CS1 maint: others (link)
  111. Vasudeva, Vikas (17 February 2019). "Caught down the wire: Punjab's blackbuck fight for existence". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 13 March 2023.
  112. "Lost in flight: State bird of Punjab missing from the state!". Hindustan Times. 14 September 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  113. "State Profile – About Punjab". Punjab Government. Archived from the original on 6 November 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  114. "About Vidhan Sabha". punjabassembly.nic.in. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  115. "Jurisdiction and Seats of Indian High Courts". Eastern Book Company. Archived from the original on 10 May 2008. Retrieved 12 May 2008.
  116. Kumar, Ashutosh (2004). "Electoral Politics in Punjab: Study of Akali Dal". Economic and Political Weekly. 39 (14/15): 1515–1520. ISSN 0012-9976. JSTOR 4414869.
  117. Verma, Sanjeev (7 February 2019). "DGP Punjab: Dinkar Gupta appointed new DGP of Punjab | Chandigarh News – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2 November 2019.
  118. "Punjab District Map". Maps of India. Archived from the original on 13 June 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
  119. 119.0 119.1 Welcome to Official Web site of Punjab, India Archived 17 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  120. "How Punjab [sic] economy can be revived". Tribune India. 31 August 2018. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  121. "What's in store for India's Punjab?". Brookings Institution. 3 March 2017. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  122. Tripathi, Manoj (3 February 2017). "Punjab's Slowing Economy". Bw Businessworld. Business World. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  123. "Punjab, a state in decline". LiveMint. 14 October 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  124. "Punjab, Star of India's Rise, Faces Steep Fall". Wall Street Journal. 15 May 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  125. Guruswamy, Mohan; Baitha, Ramnis Attar; Mohanty, Jeevan Prakash (15 June 2004). "Centrally Planned Inequality: The Tale of Two States – Punjab and Bihar" (PDF). New Delhi, India: Centre for Policy Alternatives. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 17 August 2015.
  126. "MOSPI Net State Domestic Product, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India". Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  127. "Punjab". Overseas Indian Facilitation Centre. Archived from the original on 10 October 2011. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
  128. "Fields on fire: making farming more sustainable in India – in pictures". The Guardian. London. 7 December 2012. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
  129. 129.0 129.1 "Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of India – Agricultural Statistics at a glance 2018" (PDF). eands.dacnet.nic.in. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  130. "India production of Wheat". agriexchange.apeda.gov.in. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  131. "Top 5 wheat producing states in India: Facts and Figures". India Today. 23 October 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  132. "States with highest and lowest production of wheat in last four years". Zee News. 18 March 2019. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  133. "Indian Production of Rice". Agricultural & Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA), Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Govt. of India. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  134. "A status note on Rice in India" (PDF). National Food Security Mission (NFSM), Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare, Govt. of India. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  135. "State-wise Production of Rice from 2010–11 to 2014–15". National Informatics Centre (NIC), Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology, Govt. of India. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  136. "Top 10 rice producing states in India: Rice production and area under cultivation". India Today. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  137. "Ministry of Food Processing Industries, Government of India – Opportunities in Dairy Sector in India" (PDF). mofpi.nic.in. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  138. "India – milk production by state 2019". Statista. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  139. "Nation Dairy Development Board, Government of India – Milk Production by States/UTs". nddb.coop.
  140. Jayan, T. V. (12 January 2018). "India's bread basket has no dough". @businessline. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  141. 141.0 141.1 "Know Punjab". Government of Punjab, India. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  142. Taylor, S., Singh, M., Booth, D. (2007) Migration, development and inequality: Eastern Punjabi transnationalism. School of Social Sciences and Law, University of Teesside, Middlesbrough, UK; Department of Sociology, Punjab University, Chandigarh, India.
  143. Ratan Saldi (6 June 2009). "Caste System Among Sikhs in Punjab". Asian Tribune. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  144. "The Jats in Punjab comprise only 21% population of the total 60% Sikhs, yet they have been ruling and dominating politics in Punjab for decades". India Today. 16 January 2012. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  145. Simmering discontent: Sikhs in Punjab are fighting many wars. 8 March 2008, 0000 hrs IST,Praveen S Thampi, Times of India.
  146. J. Carl Ganter (4 June 2010). "Q&A: Upmanu Lall on India's Nexus of Energy, Food and Water". Circle of Blue. Archived from the original on 8 June 2010. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
  147. Lall, Upmanu (28 July 2009). "Punjab: A tale of prosperity and decline". Columbia Water Center. Archived from the original on 8 October 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2009.
  148. "India fares badly on global hunger index". The Times of India. 15 October 2008. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011.
  149. "NRIs beat FDI, keep the money coming". Hindustan Times. 8 October 2012. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
  150. "List of 50 world-class railway stations" (PDF). Indian Railways. Indian Railways. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 April 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  151. "Punjab government signs pact to study hyperloop transport feasibility". The New Indian Express. 3 December 2019. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
  152. Dipak K Dash (3 September 2015). "Road crash severity highest in Ludhiana, 3rd in Amritsar". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
  153. "BRTS project planned for Amritsar and Ludhiana was the world's most preferred transport system". Archived from the original on 31 October 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  154. "Census of India Website : Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India". censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
  155. "Punjab Profile" (PDF). censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  156. "Dalit icon Bant Singh's shift to AAP in Punjab symbolises the Left's electoral irrelevance". Scroll India. 26 January 2017. Archived from the original on 26 March 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  157. http://rchiips.org/nfhs/NFHS-5_FCTS/Punjab.pdf
  158. https://www.ceicdata.com/en/india/vital-statistics-total-fertility-rate/total-fertility-rate-punjab
  159. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303070794_Structure_and_Pattern_of_Urbanisation_in_Punjab_A_Macro_Level_Analysis
  160. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303070794_Structure_and_Pattern_of_Urbanisation_in_Punjab_A_Macro_Level_Analysis
  161. https://www.punjabnewsexpress.com/punjab/news/financial-assistance-of-rs-6000-will-be-given-to-beneficiary-women-on-the-birth-of-the-second-girl-child-dr-baljit-ka-214486
  162. https://www.census2011.co.in/census/state/districtlist/punjab.html
  163. https://www.mospi.gov.in/sites/default/files/reports_and_publication/statistical_publication/social_statistics/WM17Chapter3.pdf
  164. https://www.indiacensus.net/states/punjab/literacy
  165. https://www.punjabdata.com/Literacy-Rate-In-Punjab.aspx
  166. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. "C-16: Population by mother tongue, Punjab – 2011". Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  167. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. "C-16: Population by mother tongue, Punjab – 2011". Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  168. "How India's Scheduled Castes & Tribes Are Empowering Themselves – IndiaSpend". 13 December 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  169. "Quota will have little impact in Punjab". The Tribune. 11 January 2019. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  170. Tripathi, Rahul (31 July 2019). "Despite promise, no OBC category yet in census 2021". The Economic Times. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  171. https://finance.punjab.gov.in/uploads/05Jul2022/52e95928-fcf0-4ac0-b1d3-f24c151c371f_20220705153029.pdf
  172. https://finance.punjab.gov.in/uploads/05Jul2022/52e95928-fcf0-4ac0-b1d3-f24c151c371f_20220705153029.pdf
  173. https://finance.punjab.gov.in/uploads/05Jul2022/52e95928-fcf0-4ac0-b1d3-f24c151c371f_20220705153029.pdf
  174. "Religion by districts – Punjab". census.gov.in. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  175. Raj, Dhooleka Sarhadi (2003). Where Are You From? Middle-Class Migrants in the Modern World. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 80. ISBN 9780520233836.
  176. "Punjabi language Bill passed – Indian Express". archive.indianexpress.com. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
  177. "Punjab government calls for strict implementation of 2008 Languages Act". The Hindu. PTI. 5 November 2015. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 4 November 2019.CS1 maint: others (link)
  178. An Indian doctor's triumph Archived 13 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine The Telegraph, 15 August 2005
  179. Ministry of Human Resource Development, G. o. (29 August 2013). Department of School Education and Literacy Archived 13 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine, mhrd.gov.in; accessed 9 December 2016.
  180. "Nil admission in MCA at PTU". Tribune India. 11 August 2015. Archived from the original on 13 August 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
  181. "BNYS ONLINE". bnys.online. Archived from the original on 14 August 2018. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  182. "Herci". exam.herci.in. Archived from the original on 7 January 2018. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  183. "BBC launches new Indian services". 2 October 2017. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  184. "ANN's ABP Sanjha, BBC Global News India granted TV channel licences by MIB". Indian Television Dot Com. 10 April 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  185. "About Us". Punjabi News. Archived from the original on 25 December 2015. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  186. "Network18 to launch News18 Bharat". Indian Television Dot Com. 14 April 2018. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  187. "ITV Network readies Punjabi music channel". Indian Television Dot Com. 24 May 2018. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  188. "FM Gold Ludhiana". Archived from the original on 21 January 2017. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  189. "Harvest Festival of Punjab, Harvest Festival Lohri, Cultural Festival of India, Harvest Festival in India". Lohrifestival.org. Archived from the original on 9 July 2010. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  190. "Sikh festival celebrates women and girls". Archived from the original on 14 July 2017. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  191. "Celebrate mothers again". Archived from the original on 28 January 2016.
  192. "Girl power on display at Teeyan da Mela festival". Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  193. Mir, Farina. "Representations of Piety and Community in Late-nineteenth-century Punjabi Qisse". Columbia University. Archived from the original on 12 August 2007. Retrieved 4 July 2008.
  194. "was-it-a-sikh-wedding". Archived from the original on 24 February 2017. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  195. "Sikh groom thrown from horse during wedding procession in Surrey". Archived from the original on 26 December 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  196. Pakistan almanac, Volumes 2001–2002. Royal Book Company. 2007. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2007. Bhangra refers to both a traditional dance and a form of music invented in the 1980s. Bhangra, the Punjabi folk dance that has become popular all over the world. Punjabi folk songs have been integral part of fertile provinces
  197. Bhangra History Archived 17 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Bhangra.org. Retrieved on 18 January 2012.
  198. Social control and deviance: a South Asian community in Scotland. Ashgate. 1 January 2000. ISBN 9781840145885. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2007. The whole institution of the Bhangra and its related processes are clearly an expression of Indian/Pakistan culture in a Western setting.
  199. Pakistan Punjab, Punjabilok.com; retrieved 18 January 2012.
  200. "Talking Punjabi". TNS – The News on Sunday. 28 April 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  201. Roy, AnjaliGera (5 July 2017). Bhangra Moves: From Ludhiana to London and Beyond. Routledge. ISBN 9781351573993.
  202. "Syllables that Bind". The Indian Express. 4 November 2018. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  203. "Punjabi folk mingles with new-age music". Archived from the original on 28 January 2016.
  204. "Revisiting Punjabi classics". Archived from the original on 28 July 2015.
  205. "Tappa – gift to Punjab's classical music". 10 July 2015. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  206. "Strange as it may sound, all art forms need political support to grow. The communal upheaval that engulfed the Punjab region in 1947 forced migration of the well-established Muslim artistes from this region. This resulted in i mpoverishment of the rich traditions of classical music". Archived from the original on 11 July 2015.
  207. "A Classical Rendition you Cannot Miss". Archived from the original on 5 May 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  208. ""Pollywood Directory". The directory has the contact and other details of those related to Punjabi film industry. It is an initiative to organise Punjabi Cinema". Archived from the original on 13 November 2014.
  209. "Mohali to get electronic and film city: MP Manish Tewari". Hindustan Times. 9 January 2020. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  210. "UNESCO – Traditional brass and copper craft of utensil making among the Thatheras of Jandiala Guru, Punjab, India". ich.unesco.org. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  211. Rana, Yudhvir (22 June 2018). "Ignored for years, local craft may soon find place in luxury hotels". The Times of India. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  212. "Alchemy of Art". The Indian Express. 7 April 2019. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  213. "Inside humble trappings, vivid expressions of Punjabi cuisine". Archived from the original on 7 September 2015.
  214. "10 Best Punjabi Recipes". Archived from the original on 24 June 2017.
  215. "13 Best Punjabi Recipes | Easy Punjabi Recipes". NDTV Food. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  216. "Eating Out Park Plaza brings you the hearty Punjabi flavours at its ongoing food festival". Archived from the original on 28 January 2016.
  217. "Bandi Chhor Divas Reflection: A Lesson In Selflessness". Archived from the original on 28 January 2016.
  218. "Sikhs celebrate Diwali and Bandi Chhor Divas at Ilford gurdwara". Archived from the original on 29 October 2015.
  219. "Maghi Mela: Four political parties erect stages to hold conferences". Archived from the original on 21 July 2015.
  220. "Hola Mohalla 2015: Facts, History, Rituals Surrounding The Sikh Festival". Archived from the original on 24 August 2015.
  221. "Thousands converge in Punjab for Hola Mohalla". Archived from the original on 31 July 2015.
  222. "Circle Style Kabaddi in a new avatar – World-wide Kabaddi League". Archived from the original on 28 January 2016.
  223. "Kabaddi player alleges Punjab Police pushed him into drugs". Archived from the original on 19 August 2015.
  224. "Punjab women enter semi-finals of National Hockey Championship". Archived from the original on 2 May 2015.
  225. "World Kabaddi League announces team franchise names and logos". Archived from the original on 29 July 2014.
  226. "the World Kabaddi League (WKL) was launched with the promoters – Punjab Deputy Chief Minister Sukhbir Singh Badal is the president of the league while former India hockey captain Pargat Singh is the league commissioner – unveiling the eight teams, their owners and marquee players". Archived from the original on 28 January 2016.
  227. "Sierra Leone, England win in Kabbadi World Cup". News18. 4 December 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  228. Matange, Yash (21 December 2019). "70th Senior National Basketball Championship, Ludhiana: Groups, Fixtures, and Schedule". NBA.com. Retrieved 3 February 2021.
  229. Naik, Shivani (9 January 2020). "Hoop and the hype: Meet the promising basketball talent knocking on Team India doors". The Indian Express. Retrieved 3 February 2021.
  230. "World Heritage Day: 8 places to visit in Punjab". Archived from the original on 17 July 2015.
  231. Punjab Archived 8 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Mapsofindia.com; retrieved 18 January 2012.
  232. Lonely Planet tips Mumbai as a must-see destination in 2008. ptinews.com, 9 November 2007
  233. "सुदर्शन चक्र ने किए थे देवी सती के 51 टुकड़े, यहां भी कटकर गिरा शरीर का भाग". 12 October 2015. Archived from the original on 14 September 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2016.
  234. "Pictures displayed at media centre attract visitors to 'Kila Raipur' games". Hindustan Times. 2 February 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
  235. "Kila Raipur sports festival begins today". Archived from the original on 20 October 2015.
  236. "Kila Raipur sports festival concludes". Archived from the original on 28 January 2016.
  237. "Amritsar-based Partition Museum to ink pact with Manchester Museum". Hindustan Times. 6 October 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.


  • Radhika Chopra. Militant and Migrant: The Politics and Social History of Punjab (2011)
  • Harnik Deol. Religion and Nationalism in India: The Case of the Punjab (Routledge Studies in the Modern History of Asia) (2000)
  • Harjinder Singh Dilgeer, Encyclopedia of Jalandhar, Sikh University Press, Brussels, Belgium (2005)
  • Harjinder Singh Dilgeer, SIKH HISTORY in 10 volumes, Sikh University Press, Brussels, Belgium (2010–11)
  • J. S. Grewal. The Sikhs of the Punjab (The New Cambridge History of India) (1998)
  • J. S. Grewal. Social and Cultural History of the Punjab: Prehistoric, Ancient and Early Medieval (2004)
  • Nazer Singh. Delhi and Punjab: Essays in history and historiography (1995)
  • Tai Yong Tan. The Garrison State: Military, Government and Society in Colonial Punjab, 1849–1947 (Sage Series in Modern Indian History) (2005)
  • J. C. Aggarwal and S. P. Agrawal, eds. Modern History of Punjab: Relevant Select Documents (1992)
  • R. M. Chopra, The Legacy of The Punjab, 1997, Punjabee Bradree, Calcutta.
  • Zuhair Kashmeri; Brian McAndrew (6 September 2005), Soft Target: The Real Story Behind the Air India Disaster – Second Edition, James Lorimer & Company, ISBN 978-1-55-028904-6

External links[edit]

General information
Information red.svg
Scan the QR code to donate via UPI
Dear reader, We kindly request your support in maintaining the independence of Bharatpedia. As a non-profit organization, we rely heavily on small donations to sustain our operations and provide free access to reliable information to the world. We would greatly appreciate it if you could take a moment to consider donating to our cause, as it would greatly aid us in our mission. Your contribution would demonstrate the importance of reliable and trustworthy knowledge to you and the world. Thank you.

Please select an option below or scan the QR code to donate
₹150 ₹500 ₹1,000 ₹2,000 ₹5,000 ₹10,000 Other