Brahmic scripts

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Template:Writing systems worldwide

Template:Alphabet Template:Officially used writing systems in India

The letters of the official scripts of the Indian Republic of the "Indic/Brahmic family" used by the official languages of India
(top row: Kannada/Telugu, Tamil, Gujarati;
middle row: Meitei, Devanagari, Eastern Nagari;
bottom row: Odia, Malayalam, Gurmukhi)
A Sanskrit phrase in different Brahmic scripts.

The Brahmic scripts, also known as Indic scripts, are a family of abugida writing systems. They are used throughout the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and parts of East Asia. They are descended from the Brahmi script of ancient India and are used by various languages in several language families in South, East and Southeast Asia: Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman, Mongolic, Austroasiatic, Austronesian, and Tai. They were also the source of the dictionary order (gojūon) of Japanese kana.[1]

History

Brahmic scripts descended from the Brahmi script. Brahmi is clearly attested from the 3rd century BCE during the reign of Ashoka, who used the script for imperial edicts, but there are some earlier epigraphy found on pottery in Porunthal in Kongu Nadu and in Sri Lanka. The short Brahmi inscriptions dated to the 6th century BCE from Porunthal[2] in Kongu Nadu and the Sri Lankan Anuradhapura inscription from the 4th century BCE and published by Coningham et al. (1996).[3] Northern Brahmi gave rise to the Gupta script during the Gupta period, which in turn diversified into a number of cursives during the medieval period. Notable examples of such medieval scripts, developed by the 7th or 8th century, include Nagari, Siddham and Sharada.

The Siddhaṃ script was especially important in Buddhism, as many sutras were written in it. The art of Siddham calligraphy survives today in Japan. The tabular presentation and dictionary order of the modern kana system of Japanese writing is believed to be descended from the Indic scripts, most likely through the spread of Buddhism.[1]

Southern Brahmi evolved into the Kadamba, Pallava and Vatteluttu scripts, which in turn diversified into other scripts of South India and Southeast Asia. Brahmic scripts spread in a peaceful manner, Indianization, or the spread of Indian learning. The scripts spread naturally to Southeast Asia, at ports on trading routes.[4] At these trading posts, ancient inscriptions have been found in Sanskrit, using scripts that originated in India. At first, inscriptions were made in Indian languages, but later the scripts were used to write the local Southeast Asian languages. Hereafter, local varieties of the scripts were developed. By the 8th century, the scripts had diverged and separated into regional scripts.[5]

Characteristics

Template:Calligraphy Some characteristics, which are present in most but not all the scripts, are:

Comparison

Below are comparison charts of several of the major Indic scripts, organised on the principle that glyphs in the same column all derive from the same Brahmi glyph. Accordingly:

  • The charts are not comprehensive. Glyphs may be unrepresented if they are later inventions not derived from any Brahmi character.
  • The pronunciations of glyphs in the same column may not be identical. The pronunciation row is only representative; the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) pronunciation is given for Sanskrit where possible, or another language if necessary.

The transliteration is indicated in ISO 15919.

Consonants

ISO[lower-alpha 1] ka kha ga gha ṅa ca cha ja jha ña ṭa ṭha ḍa ḍha ṇa ta tha da dha na ṉa pa pha ba bha ma ya ẏa ra ṟa la ḷa ḻa va śa ṣa sa ha ṯa
Ashoka Brahmi 𑀓 𑀔 𑀕 𑀖 𑀗 𑀘 𑀙 𑀚 𑀛 𑀜 𑀝 𑀞 𑀟 𑀠 𑀡 𑀢 𑀣 𑀤 𑀥 𑀦 𑀧 𑀨 𑀩 𑀪 𑀫 𑀬 𑀭 𑀮 𑀴 𑀯 𑀰 𑀱 𑀲 𑀳  
Devanagari य़  
Bengali-
Assamese
য় র,ৰ  
Gurmukhi ਲ਼ ਸ਼  
Gujarati  
Odia  
Tamil  
Telugu  
Kannada  
Malayalam
Sinhala  
Tibetan གྷ ཛྷ ཌྷ དྷ བྷ [lower-alpha 2]  
ʼPhags-pa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa Template:Phagspa  
Meitei Mayek[lower-alpha 3]  
Lepcha ᰡ᰷  
Limbu  
Tirhuta 𑒏 𑒐 𑒑 𑒒 𑒓 𑒔 𑒕 𑒖 𑒗 𑒘 𑒙 𑒚 𑒛 𑒜 𑒝 𑒞 𑒟 𑒠 𑒡 𑒢 𑒣 𑒤 𑒥 𑒦 𑒧 𑒨 𑒩 𑒪 𑒬 𑒭 𑒮 𑒯  
Kaithi 𑂍 𑂎 𑂏 𑂐 𑂑 𑂒 𑂓 𑂔 𑂕 𑂖 𑂗 𑂘 𑂙 𑂛 𑂝 𑂞 𑂟 𑂠 𑂡 𑂢 𑂣 𑂤 𑂥 𑂦 𑂧 𑂨 𑂩 𑂪 𑂫 𑂬 𑂭 𑂮 𑂯  
Grantham 𑌕 𑌖 𑌗 𑌘 𑌙 𑌚 𑌛 𑌜 𑌝 𑌞 𑌟 𑌠 𑌡 𑌢 𑌣 𑌤 𑌥 𑌦 𑌧 𑌨 𑌪 𑌫 𑌬 𑌭 𑌮 𑌯 𑌰 𑌲 𑌳 𑌵 𑌶 𑌷 𑌸 𑌹  
Sylheti Nagari Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti  
Chakma[lower-alpha 4] 𑄇 𑄈 𑄉 𑄊 𑄋 𑄌 𑄍 𑄎 𑄏 𑄐 𑄑 𑄒 𑄓 𑄔 𑄕 𑄖 𑄗 𑄘 𑄙 𑄚 𑄛 𑄜 𑄝 𑄞 𑄟 𑄠 𑄡 𑄢 𑄣 𑅄 𑄤 𑄥 𑄦  
Burmese က ဉ / ည  
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Thai ข,ฃ[lower-alpha 5] ค,ฅ[lower-alpha 5] ช,ซ[lower-alpha 5] ฎ,[lower-alpha 5] ด,[lower-alpha 5] บ,[lower-alpha 5] ผ,ฝ[lower-alpha 5] พ,ฟ[lower-alpha 5] ห,ฮ[lower-alpha 5]  
Lao [lower-alpha 6] [lower-alpha 6] [lower-alpha 6] [lower-alpha 6] [lower-alpha 6] [lower-alpha 6] [lower-alpha 6] [lower-alpha 6] [lower-alpha 6] ດ,ຕ [lower-alpha 6] ບ,ປ ຜ,ຝ ພ,ຟ [lower-alpha 6] [lower-alpha 6] [lower-alpha 6] [lower-alpha 6]  
Cham  
Kawi 𑼒 𑼓 𑼔 𑼕 𑼖 𑼗 𑼘 𑼙 𑼚 𑼛 𑼜 𑼝 𑼞 𑼟 𑼠 𑼡 𑼢 𑼣 𑼤 𑼥 𑼳 𑼦 𑼧 𑼨 𑼩 𑼪 𑼫 𑼬 𑼭 𑼮 𑼯 𑼰 𑼱 𑼲  
Balinese Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal Template:Bal  
Javanese[lower-alpha 7] Template:Jav Template:Jav[lower-alpha 7] Template:Jav Template:Jav[lower-alpha 7] Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav[lower-alpha 7] Template:Jav Template:Jav[lower-alpha 7] Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav[lower-alpha 7] Template:Jav Template:Jav[lower-alpha 7] Template:Jav[lower-alpha 7] Template:Jav Template:Jav[lower-alpha 7] Template:Jav Template:Jav[lower-alpha 7] Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav[lower-alpha 7] Template:Jav Template:Jav[lower-alpha 7] Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav[lower-alpha 7] Template:Jav[lower-alpha 7] Template:Jav Template:Jav  
Sundanese Template:Sund Template:Sund[lower-alpha 8] Template:Sund Template:Sund Template:Sund Template:Sund Template:Sund Template:Sund Template:Sund Template:Sund Template:Sund Template:Sund Template:Sund[lower-alpha 9] Template:Sund Template:Sund Template:Sund Template:Sund Template:Sund Template:Sund[lower-alpha 10] Template:Sund Template:Sund  
Lontara Template:Script/Lontara Template:Script/Lontara Template:Script/Lontara Template:Script/Lontara Template:Script/Lontara Template:Script/Lontara Template:Script/Lontara Template:Script/Lontara Template:Script/Lontara Template:Script/Lontara Template:Script/Lontara Template:Script/Lontara Template:Script/Lontara Template:Script/Lontara Template:Script/Lontara Template:Script/Lontara Template:Script/Lontara Template:Script/Lontara  
Makasar 𑻠 𑻡 𑻢 𑻩 𑻪 𑻫 𑻦 𑻧 𑻨 𑻣 𑻤 𑻥 𑻬 𑻭 𑻮 𑻯 𑻰 𑻱  
Rejang ꤿ  
Batak (Toba) Template:Script/Batak Template:Script/Batak Template:Script/Batak Template:Script/Batak Template:Script/Batak/Template:Script/Batak Template:Script/Batak Template:Script/Batak Template:Script/Batak Template:Script/Batak Template:Script/Batak Template:Script/Batak Template:Script/Batak Template:Script/Batak Template:Script/Batak Template:Script/Batak Template:Script/Batak  
Baybayin Template:Script/Baybayin   Template:Script/Baybayin   Template:Script/Baybayin                     Template:Script/Baybayin   Template:Script/Baybayin   Template:Script/Baybayin   Template:Script/Baybayin   Template:Script/Baybayin   Template:Script/Baybayin Template:Script/Baybayin Template:Script/Baybayin   Template:Script/Baybayin     Template:Script/Baybayin     Template:Script/Baybayin Template:Script/Baybayin  
Buhid                                              
Hanunuo                                              
Tagbanwa                                                  
ISO ka kha ga gha ṅa ca cha ja jha ña ṭa ṭha ḍa ḍha ṇa ta tha da dha na ṉa pa pha ba bha ma ya ẏa ra ṟa la ḷa ḻa va śa ṣa sa ha ṯa
Notes
  1. This list tries to include characters of same origins, not same sounds. In Bengali র is pronounced as but it is originally va which is still used for wa sound in Mithilakshar and modern Assamese ৱ (wabbô) was derived from middle Assamese র (wô). Compare with জ (ja) য (ya) and য় (ẏ) which are pronounced as , and in Bengali and , and in Assamese respectively. য is related to Devanagari य (ya) and it is still pronounced as "ya" in Mithilakshar. Since their sounds shifted, the dots were added to keep the original sounds.
  2. Letter used in Balti.
  3. includes supplementary consonants not in contemporary use
  4. inherent vowel is ā
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 Modified forms of these letters are or were used for distinctions made in Thai; these distinctions are not made for Sanskrit and Pali in the Thai script.
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 These letters are obsolete, but were used mainly for Sanskrit and Pali in the Lao script.
  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 Letters used in Old Javanese. They are now obsolete, but are used for honorifics in contemporary Javanese.
  8. Invented new character to represent the Arabic letter خ.
  9. Letter used in Old Sundanese. It is now obsolete.
  10. Invented new character. Actually to represent the Arabic letter ش, which has similar pronunciation with śa.

Vowels

Vowels are presented in their independent form on the left of each column, and in their corresponding dependent form (vowel sign) combined with the consonant k on the right. A glyph for ka is an independent consonant letter itself without any vowel sign, where the vowel a is inherent.

ISO a ā ê ô i ī u ū e ē ai o ō au ə r̥̄ [lower-alpha 1] [lower-alpha 1] l̥̄ [lower-alpha 1]
a ka ā ê ô i ki ī u ku ū e ke ē ai kai o ko ō au kau ə kr̥ r̥̄ kr̥̄ kl̥ l̥̄ kl̥̄ kaṁ kaḥ k
Ashoka Brahmi 𑀅 𑀓 𑀆 𑀓𑀸         𑀇 𑀓𑀺 𑀈 𑀓𑀻 𑀉 𑀓𑀼 𑀊 𑀓𑀽     𑀏 𑀓𑁂 𑀐 𑀓𑁃     𑀑 𑀓𑁄 𑀒 𑀓𑁅   𑀋 𑀓𑀾 𑀌 𑀓𑀿 𑀍 𑀓𑁀 𑀎 𑀓𑁁 𑀅𑀁 𑀓𑀁 𑀅𑀂 𑀓𑀂 𑀓𑁆
Devanagari का कॅ कॉ कि की कु कू कॆ के कै कॊ को कौ कऺ कृ कॄ कॢ कॣ अं कं अः कः क्
Bengali-
Assamese
কা অ্য ক্য অ্যা ক্যা কি কী কু কূ     কে কৈ     কো কৌ কৃ কৄ কৢ কৣ অং কং অঃ কঃ ক্
Gujarati કા         કિ કી કુ કૂ     કે કૈ     કો કૌ કૃ કૄ કૢ કૣ અં કં અઃ કઃ ક્,ક્‍
Odia କା         କି କୀ କୁ କୂ     କେ କୈ     କୋ କୌ କୃ କୄ କୢ କୣ କଂ କଃ କ୍
Gurmukhi ਕਾ         ਕਿ ਕੀ ਕੁ ਕੂ     ਕੇ ਕੈ     ਕੋ ਕੌ                 ਅਂ ਕਂ ਅਃ ਕਃ ਕ੍
Meitei Mayek[lower-alpha 2] ꯑꯥ ꯀꯥ         ꯀꯤ ꯑꫫ ꯀꫫ ꯀꯨ ꯑꫬ ꯀꫬ     ꯑꯦ ꯀꯦ ꯑꯩ ꯀꯩ     ꯑꯣ ꯀꯣ ꯑꯧ ꯀꯧ                 ꯑꯪ ꯀꯪ ꯑꫵ ꯀꫵ
Tibetan[lower-alpha 3] ཨཱ ཀཱ         ཨི ཀི ཨཱི ཀཱི ཨུ ཀུ ཨཱུ ཀཱུ     ཨེ ཀེ ཨཻ ཀཻ     ཨོ ཀོ ཨཽ ཀཽ རྀ ཀྲྀ རཱྀ ཀཷ ལྀ ཀླྀ ལཱྀ ཀླཱྀ ཨཾ ཀཾ ཨཿ ཀཿ ཀ྄
Lepcha ᰣᰦ ᰀᰦ         ᰣᰧ ᰀᰧ ᰣᰧᰶ ᰀᰧᰶ ᰣᰪ ᰀᰪ ᰣᰫ ᰀᰫ     ᰣᰬ ᰀᰬ         ᰣᰨ ᰀᰨ ᰣᰩ ᰀᰩ                 ᰣᰴ ᰀᰴ      
Limbu ᤀᤠ ᤁᤠ         ᤀᤡ ᤁᤡ ᤀᤡ᤺ ᤁᤡ᤺ ᤀᤢ ᤁᤢ ᤀ᤺ᤢ ᤁ᤺ᤢ ᤀᤧ ᤁᤧ ᤀᤣ ᤁᤣ ᤀᤤ ᤁᤤ ᤀᤨ ᤁᤨ ᤀᤥ ᤁᤥ ᤀᤦ ᤁᤦ                 ᤀᤲ ᤁᤲ     ᤁ᤻
Tirhuta 𑒁 𑒏 𑒂 𑒏𑒰         𑒃 𑒏𑒱 𑒄 𑒏𑒲 𑒅 𑒏𑒳 𑒆 𑒏𑒴   𑒏𑒺 𑒋 𑒏𑒹 𑒌 𑒏𑒻   𑒏𑒽 𑒍 𑒏𑒼 𑒎 𑒏𑒾 𑒇 𑒏𑒵 𑒈 𑒏𑒶 𑒉 𑒏𑒷 𑒊 𑒏𑒸 𑒁𑓀 𑒏𑓀 𑒁𑓁 𑒏𑓁 𑒏𑓂
Kaithi 𑂃 𑂍 𑂄 𑂍𑂰         𑂅 𑂍𑂱 𑂆 𑂍𑂲 𑂇 𑂍𑂳 𑂈 𑂍𑂴     𑂉 𑂍𑂵 𑂊 𑂍𑂶     𑂋 𑂍𑂷 𑂌 𑂍𑂸                 𑂃𑂁 𑂍𑂁 𑂃𑂂 𑂍𑂂 𑂍𑂹
Sylheti Nagari   Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti         Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti     Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti         Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti     Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti                     Template:Script/Syloti Template:Script/Syloti     Template:Script/Syloti
Tamil கா         கி கீ கு கூ கெ கே கை கொ கோ கௌ                 அஂ கஂ அஃ கஃ க்
Kannada ಕಾ         ಕಿ ಕೀ ಕು ಕೂ ಕೆ ಕೇ ಕೈ ಕೊ ಕೋ ಕೌ ಕೃ ಕೄ ಕೢ ಕೣ అం ಕಂ అః ಕಃ ಕ್
Telugu కా         కి కీ కు కూ కె కే కై కొ కో కౌ కృ కౄ కౢ కౣ అం కం అః కః క్
Sinhala කා කැ කෑ කි කී කු කූ කෙ කේ කෛ කො කෝ කෞ කෘ කෲ කෟ කෳ අං කං අඃ කඃ ක්
Malayalam കാ         കി കീ കു കൂ കെ കേ കൈ കൊ കോ കൗ കൃ കൄ കൢ കൣ അം കം അഃ കഃ ക്,ക്‍
Chakma 𑄃𑄧 𑄇𑄧 𑄃 𑄇 𑄃𑄬𑄬 𑄇𑄬𑄬 𑄃𑅅 𑄇𑅅 𑄄, 𑄃𑄨 𑄇𑄨 𑄃𑄩 𑄇𑄩 𑄅, 𑄃𑄪 𑄇𑄪 𑄃𑄫 𑄇𑄫     𑄆, 𑄃𑄬 𑄇𑄬 𑄃𑄰 𑄇𑄰     𑄃𑄮 𑄇𑄮 𑄃𑄯 𑄇𑄯                 𑄃𑄧𑄁 𑄇𑄧𑄁 𑄃𑄧𑄂 𑄇𑄧𑄂 𑄇𑄴
Burmese က အာ ကာ         ကိ ကီ ကု ကူ     ကေ အဲ ကဲ ကော     အောင် ကောင် ကၖ ကၗ ကၘ ကၙ အံ ကံ အး ကး က်
Khmer[lower-alpha 4] អា កា         កិ កី កុ កូ     កេ កៃ     កោ កៅ ក្ឫ ក្ឬ ក្ឭ ក្ឮ អំ កំ អះ កះ ក៑
Thai[lower-alpha 3] อ (อะ) ก (กะ) อา กา แอ แก (ออ) (กอ) อิ กิ อี กี อุ กุ อู กู (เอะ) (เกะ) เอ เก ไอ,ใอ ไก,ใก (โอะ) (โกะ) โอ โก เอา เกา กฺฤ ฤๅ กฺฤๅ กฺฦ ฦๅ กฺฦๅ อํ กํ อะ (อะฮฺ) กะ (กะฮฺ) กฺ (ก/ก์)
Lao[lower-alpha 3] ອະ ກະ ອາ ກາ ແອ ແກ (ອອ) (ກອ) ອິ ກິ ອີ ກີ ອຸ ກຸ ອູ ກູ (ແອະ) (ແກະ) ເອ ເກ ໄອ,ໃອ ໄກ,ໃກ (ໂອະ) (ໂກະ) ໂອ ໂກ ເອົາ,ອາວ ເກົາ,ກາວ                 ອํ ກํ ອະ ກະ
Cham ꨀꨩ ꨆꨩ         ꨆꨪ ꨁꨩ ꨆꨫ ꨆꨭ ꨂꨩ ꨆꨭꨩ     ꨆꨯꨮ ꨆꨰ     ꨆꨯ ꨀꨯꨱ ꨆꨯꨱ ꨣꨮ ꨆꨴꨮ ꨣꨮꨩ ꨆꨴꨮꨩ ꨤꨮ ꨆꨵꨮ ꨤꨮꨩ ꨆꨵꨮꨩ ꨀꩌ ꨆꩌ ꨀꩍ ꨆꩍ
Kawi 𑼄 𑼒 𑼅 𑼒𑼴 𑼆 𑼒𑼶 𑼇 𑼒𑼷 𑼈 𑼒𑼸 𑼉 𑼒𑼹 𑼎 𑼒𑼾 𑼏 𑼒𑼿 𑼐 𑼒𑼾𑼴 𑼐𑼴 𑼒𑼿𑼴 𑼄𑽀 𑼒𑽀 𑼊 𑼒𑼺 𑼊𑼴 𑼒𑼺𑼴 𑼌 𑼒𑽂𑼌 𑼍 𑼒𑽂𑼭𑽀𑼴 𑼄𑼁 𑼒𑼁 𑼄𑼃 𑼒𑼃 𑼒𑽁
Balinese Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali         Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali     Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali     Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali Template:Script/Bali
Javanese Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav         Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav     Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav     Template:Jav Template:Jav ꦄꦼ ꦏꦼ Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav Template:Jav
Sundanese Template:Sund Template:Sund     Template:Sund Template:Sund     Template:Sund Template:Sund     Template:Sund Template:Sund         Template:Sund Template:Sund         Template:Sund Template:Sund Template:Sund[lower-alpha 5] Template:Sund[lower-alpha 5]     Template:Sund[lower-alpha 5] Template:Sund[lower-alpha 5]     Template:Sund Template:Sund Template:Sund Template:Sund Template:Sund
Lontara Template:Script/Lontara Template:Script/Lontara         Template:Script/Lontara Template:Script/Lontara     Template:Script/Lontara Template:Script/Lontara     Template:Script/Lontara Template:Script/Lontara         Template:Script/Lontara Template:Script/Lontara         Template:Script/Lontara Template:Script/Lontara                          
Makasar 𑻱 𑻠 𑻱𑻳 𑻠𑻳 𑻱𑻴 𑻠𑻴 𑻱𑻵 𑻠𑻵 𑻱𑻶 𑻠𑻶
Rejang     ꥆꥎ ꤰꥎ ꥆꥍ ꤰꥍ ꥆꥇ ꤰꥇ     ꥆꥈ ꤰꥈ     ꥆꥉ ꤰꥉ     ꥆꥊ ꤰꥊ ꥆꥋ ꤰꥋ     ꥆꥌ ꤰꥌ                 ꥆꥏ ꤰꥏ ꥆꥒ ꤰꥒ ꤰ꥓
Batak (Toba) Template:Script/Batak Template:Script/Batak             Template:Script/Batak Template:Script/Batak     Template:Script/Batak Template:Script/Batak       Template:Script/Batak           Template:Script/Batak                         Template:Script/Batak Template:Script/Batak Template:Script/Batak Template:Script/Batak Template:Script/Batak
Baybayin             ᜃᜒ     ᜃᜓ     ᜃᜒ         ᜃᜓ                                 ᜃ᜔
Buhid             ᝃᝒ     ᝃᝓ                                                      
Hanunuo             ᜣᜲ     ᜣᜳ                                                     ᜣ᜴
Tagbanwa             ᝣᝲ     ᝣᝳ                                                      
ISO a ka ā ê ô i ki ī u ku ū e ke ē ai kai o ko ō au kau ə kr̥ r̥̄ kr̥̄ kl̥ l̥̄ kl̥̄ kṁ kḥ k
a ā ê ô i ī u ū e ē ai o ō au ə r̥̄ l̥̄

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Letters for r̥̄, , l̥̄ and a few others are obsolete or very rarely used.
  2. includes supplementary vowels not in contemporary use
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Tibetan, Thai and Lao scripts do not have independent vowel forms. For syllables starting with a vowel sound, a "zero" consonant (ཨ, อ or ອ respectively) is used to represent the glottal stop /ʔ/.
  4. When used to write their own languages, Khmer can have either an a or an o as the inherent vowel, following the rules of its orthography.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Letters used in Old Sundanese. They are now obsolete.

Numerals

Hindu-Arabic 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Brahmi numbers 𑁒 𑁓 𑁔 𑁕 𑁖 𑁗 𑁘 𑁙 𑁚
Brahmi digits 𑁦 𑁧 𑁨 𑁩 𑁪 𑁫 𑁬 𑁭 𑁮 𑁯
Bengali- Assamese
Tirhuta 𑓐 𑓑 𑓒 𑓓 𑓔 𑓕 𑓖 𑓗 𑓘 𑓙
Odia
Devanagari
Gujarati
Modi 𑙐‎ 𑙑‎ 𑙒 𑙓‎ 𑙔‎ 𑙕 𑙖‎ 𑙗 𑙘‎ 𑙙
Sharada 𑇐 𑇑 𑇒 𑇓 𑇔 𑇕 𑇖 𑇗 𑇘 𑇙
Takri 𑛀 𑛁 𑛂 𑛃 𑛄 𑛅 𑛆 𑛇 𑛈 𑛉
Gurmukhi
Khudabadi 𑋰 𑋱 𑋲 𑋳 𑋴 𑋵 𑋶 𑋷 𑋸 𑋹
Meitei (Manipuri)
Pracalit 𑑐‎ 𑑑‎ 𑑒‎ 𑑓‎ 𑑔‎ 𑑕‎ 𑑖‎ 𑑗‎ 𑑘‎ 𑑙
Tibetan
Mongolian[lower-alpha 1]
Lepcha
Limbu
Sinhala astrological numbers
Sinhala archaic numbers 𑇡 𑇢 𑇣 𑇤 𑇥 𑇦 𑇧 𑇨 𑇩
Tamil
Telugu
Kannada
Malayalam
Saurashtra
Ahom 𑜰 𑜱 𑜲 𑜳 𑜴 𑜵 𑜶 𑜷 𑜸 𑜹
Chakma 𑄶 𑄷 𑄸 𑄹 𑄺 𑄻 𑄼 𑄽 𑄾 𑄿
Burmese
Shan
Khmer
Thai
Lao
Cham
Tai Tham[lower-alpha 2]
Tai Tham Astrological Numbers[lower-alpha 3]
New Tai Lue
Balinese
Javanese
Sundanese
Hindu-Arabic 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Notes

  1. Mongolian numerals are derived from Tibetan numerals and used in conjunction with the Mongolian and Clear script
  2. for liturgical use
  3. for everyday use

List of Brahmic scripts

Historical

The Brahmi script was already divided into regional variants at the time of the earliest surviving epigraphy around the 3rd century BC. Cursives of the Brahmi script began to diversify further from around the 5th century AD and continued to give rise to new scripts throughout the Middle Ages. The main division in antiquity was between northern and southern Brahmi. In the northern group, the Gupta script was very influential, and in the southern group the Vatteluttu and Kadamba/Pallava scripts with the spread of Buddhism sent Brahmic scripts throughout Southeast Asia.[citation needed]

Early Brahmic scripts
IAST Ashoka Girnar Chandra
-gupta
Gujarat Allahabad Narbada Kistna
a Brahmi a.svg Gupta girnar a.svg Gupta ashoka a.svg Gupta gujarat a.svg Gupta allahabad a.svg Narbada a.svg Kistna a.svg
ā Brahmi aa.svg Gupta girnar aa.svg Gupta ashoka aa.svg Gupta gujarat aa.svg Gupta allahabad aa.svg Narbada aa.svg Kistna aa.svg
i Brahmi i.svg Gupta girnar i.svg Gupta ashoka i.svg Gupta gujarat i.svg Gupta allahabad i.svg Narbada i.svg Kistna i.svg
ī Brahmi ii.svg Gupta gujarat ii.svg Narbada ii.svg
u Brahmi u.svg Gupta girnar u.svg Gupta ashoka u.svg Gupta gujarat u.svg Gupta allahabad u.svg
ū Brahmi uu.svg Gupta gujarat uu.svg
Gupta girnar ri.svg Gupta ashoka ri.svg Gupta gujarat ri.svg Gupta allahabad ri.svg
e Brahmi e.svg Gupta girnar e.svg Gupta ashoka e.svg Gupta gujarat e.svg Gupta allahabad e.svg
ai Brahmi ai.svg Gupta girnar ai.svg
o Brahmi o1.svg Gupta girnar o.svg Gupta ashoka o.svg Gupta gujarat o.svg Gupta allahabad o.svg
au Gupta ashoka au.svg Gupta gujarat au.svg Gupta allahabad au.svg
k Brahmi k.svg Gupta girnar k.svg Gupta ashoka k.svg Gupta gujarat k.svg Gupta allahabad k.svg Narbada k.svg Kistna k.svg
kh Brahmi kh.svg Gupta girnar kh.svg Gupta ashoka kh.svg Gupta gujarat kh.svg Gupta allahabad kh.svg Narbada kh.svg Kistna kh.svg
g Brahmi g.svg Gupta girnar g.svg Gupta ashoka g.svg Gupta gujarat g.svg Gupta allahabad g.svg Narbada g.svg Kistna g.svg
gh Brahmi gh.svg Gupta girnar gh.svg Gupta ashoka gh.svg Gupta gujarat gh.svg Gupta allahabad gh.svg Narbada gh.svg Kistna gh.svg
Brahmi ng.svg Gupta ashoka ng.svg Gupta gujarat ng.svg Gupta allahabad ng.svg Narbada ng.svg Kistna ng.svg
c Brahmi c.svg Gupta girnar c.svg Gupta ashoka c.svg Gupta gujarat c.svg Gupta allahabad c.svg Narbada c.svg Kistna v.svg
ch Brahmi ch.svg Gupta girnar ch.svg Gupta ashoka ch.svg Gupta gujarat ch.svg Gupta allahabad ch.svg Narbada ch.svg
j Brahmi j.svg Gupta girnar j.svg Gupta ashoka j.svg Gupta gujarat j.svg Gupta allahabad j.svg Narbada j.svg Kistna j.svg
jh Brahmi jh.svg Gupta ashoka jh.svg
ñ Brahmi ny.svg Gupta girnar ny.svg Gupta ashoka ny.svg Gupta gujarat ny.svg Gupta allahabad ny.svg Narbada ny.svg Kistna ny.svg
Brahmi tt.svg Gupta girnar tt.svg Gupta ashoka tt.svg Gupta gujarat tt.svg Gupta allahabad tt.svg Narbada tt.svg Kistna tt.svg
ṭh Brahmi tth.svg Gupta girnar tth.svg Gupta ashoka tth.svg Gupta gujarat tth.svg Gupta allahabad tth.svg Narbada tth.svg Kistna tth.svg
Brahmi dd.svg Gupta girnar dd.svg Gupta ashoka dd.svg Gupta gujarat dd.svg Gupta allahabad dd.svg Narbada dd.svg Kistna dd.svg
ḍh Brahmi ddh.svg Gupta girnar ddh.svg Gupta ashoka ddh.svg Gupta gujarat ddh.svg Gupta allahabad ddh.svg Narbada ddh.svg Kistna ddh.svg
Brahmi nn.svg Gupta girnar nn.svg Gupta ashoka nn.svg Gupta gujarat nn.svg Gupta allahabad nn.svg Narbada nn.svg Kistna nn.svg
t Brahmi t.svg Gupta girnar t.svg Gupta ashoka t.svg Gupta gujarat t.svg Gupta allahabad t.svg Narbada t.svg Kistna t.svg
th Brahmi th.svg Gupta girnar th.svg Gupta ashoka th.svg Gupta gujarat th.svg Gupta allahabad th.svg Narbada th.svg Kistna th.svg
d Brahmi d.svg Gupta girnar d.svg Gupta ashoka d.svg Gupta gujarat d.svg Gupta allahabad d.svg Narbada d.svg Kistna d.svg
dh Brahmi dh.svg Gupta girnar dh.svg Gupta ashoka dh.svg Gupta gujarat dh.svg Gupta allahabad dh.svg Narbada dh.svg Kistna dh.svg
n Brahmi n.svg Gupta girnar n.svg Gupta ashoka n.svg Gupta gujarat n.svg Gupta allahabad n.svg Narbada n.svg Kistna n.svg
p Brahmi p.svg Gupta girnar p.svg Gupta ashoka p.svg Gupta gujarat p.svg Gupta allahabad p.svg Narbada p.svg Kistna p.svg
ph Brahmi ph.svg Gupta gujarat ph.svg Gupta allahabad ph.svg Narbada ph.svg Kistna ph.svg
b Brahmi b.svg Gupta girnar b.svg Gupta ashoka b.svg Gupta gujarat b.svg Gupta allahabad b.svg Narbada b.svg Kistna b.svg
bh Brahmi bh.svg Gupta girnar bh.svg Gupta ashoka bh.svg Gupta gujarat bh.svg Gupta allahabad bh.svg Narbada bh.svg Kistna bh.svg
m Brahmi m.svg Gupta girnar m.svg Gupta ashoka m.svg Gupta gujarat m.svg Gupta allahabad m.svg Narbada m.svg Kistna m.svg
y Brahmi y.svg Gupta girnar y.svg Gupta ashoka y.svg Gupta gujarat y.svg Gupta allahabad y.svg Narbada y.svg Kistna y.svg
r Brahmi r.svg Gupta girnar r.svg Gupta ashoka r.svg Gupta gujarat r.svg Gupta allahabad r.svg Narbada r.svg Kistna r.svg
l Brahmi l.svg Gupta girnar l.svg Gupta ashoka l.svg Gupta gujarat l.svg Gupta allahabad l.svg Narbada l.svg Kistna l.svg
v Brahmi v.svg Gupta girnar v.svg Gupta ashoka v.svg Gupta gujarat v.svg Gupta allahabad v.svg Narbada v.svg Kistna v.svg
ś Brahmi sh1.svg Gupta ashoka sh.svg Gupta gujarat sh.svg Gupta allahabad sh.svg Narbada sh.svg Kistna sh.svg
Brahmi ss.svg Gupta ashoka ss.svg Gupta gujarat ss.svg Gupta allahabad ss.svg Narbada ss.svg Kistna ss.svg
s Brahmi s.svg Gupta girnar s.svg Gupta ashoka s.svg Gupta gujarat s.svg Gupta allahabad s.svg Narbada s.svg Kistna s.svg
h Brahmi h.svg Gupta girnar h.svg Gupta ashoka h.svg Gupta gujarat h.svg Gupta allahabad h.svg Narbada h.svg Kistna h.svg

Northern Brahmic

A map of Indo-Aryan languages using their respective Brahmic family scripts (except dark blue colored Khowar, Pashai, Kohistani, and Urdu, not marked here, which use Arabic-derived scripts).

Southern Brahmic

A map of Dravidian languages using their respective Brahmic family scripts (except Brahui, which uses an Arabic-derived script).

Unicode of Brahmic scripts

As of Unicode version 15.0, the following Brahmic scripts have been encoded:

script derivation Period of derivation usage notes ISO 15924 Unicode range(s) sample
Ahom Burmese[7] 13th century Extinct Ahom language Ahom U+11700–U+1174F Template:Script/Ahom
Balinese Kawi 11th century Balinese language Bali U+1B00–U+1B7F ᬅᬓ᭄ᬲᬭᬩᬮᬶ
Batak Pallava 14th century Batak languages Batk U+1BC0–U+1BFF Template:Script/Batak
Baybayin Kawi 14th century Tagalog, other Philippine languages Tglg U+1700–U+171F Template:Script/Baybayin
Bengali-Assamese (Eastern Nagari) Siddhaṃ 11th century Angika, Assamese language (Assamese script variant), Bengali language (Bengali script variant), Bishnupriya, Maithili, Meitei language (constitutionally termed as "Manipuri")[8] Beng U+0980–U+09FF
  • অসমীয়া লিপি
  • বাংলা লিপি
Bhaiksuki Gupta 11th century Was used around the turn of the first millennium for writing Sanskrit Bhks U+11C00–U+11C6F 𑰥𑰹𑰎𑰿𑰬𑰲𑰎𑰱
Buhid Kawi 14th century Buhid language Buhd U+1740–U+175F Template:Script/Buhid
Mon-Burmese Pallava 11th century Burmese language, Mon language, numerous modifications for other languages including Chakma, Eastern and Western Pwo Karen, Geba Karen, Kayah, Rumai Palaung, S'gaw Karen, Shan Mymr U+1000–U+109F, U+A9E0–U+A9FF, U+AA60–U+AA7F Template:Script/Mymr
Chakma Burmese 8th century Chakma language Cakm U+11100–U+1114F 𑄌𑄋𑄴𑄟𑄳𑄦
Cham Pallava 8th century Cham language Cham U+AA00–U+AA5F Template:Script/Cham
Devanagari Nagari 13th century Several Indo-Aryan languages (Konkani, Marathi, Hindi, Sanskrit, Nepali, Bhili, Sindhi, Gujarati etc), Sino-Tibetan languages (Bodo, Nepal Bhasa, Sherpa etc.), Mundari (Austroasiatic language) and others. Deva U+0900–U+097F, U+A8E0–U+A8FF, U+11B00–U+11B5F देवनागरी
Dhives Akuru Gupta Before 6th-8th century Was used to write the Maldivian language up until the 20th century.[9] Diak U+11900–U+1195F 𑤞𑥂𑤧𑤭𑥂
Dogra Takri Was used to write Dogri. Dogra script is closely related to Takri.[10] Dogr U+11800–U+1184F 𑠖𑠵𑠌𑠤𑠬
Grantha Pallava 6th century Restricted use in traditional Vedic schools to write Sanskrit. Was widely used by Tamil speakers for Sanskrit and the classical language Manipravalam. Gran U+11300–U+1137F 𑌗𑍍𑌰𑌨𑍍𑌥
Gujarati Nagari 17th century Gujarati language, Kutchi language Gujr U+0A80–U+0AFF ગુજરાતી લિપિ
Gunjala Gondi 16th century Used for writing the Adilabad dialect of the Gondi language.[11] Gong U+11D60–U+11DAF 𑵶𑶍𑶕𑶀𑵵𑶊 𑵶𑶓𑶕𑶂𑶋
Gurmukhi Sharada 16th century Punjabi language Guru U+0A00–U+0A7F ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ
Hanunó'o Kawi 14th century Hanuno'o language Hano U+1720–U+173F Template:Script/Hanunoo
Javanese Kawi 16th century Javanese language, Sundanese language, Madurese language Java U+A980–U+A9DF Template:Script/Java
Kaithi Nagari 16th century Historically used for writing legal, administrative, and private records. Kthi U+11080–U+110CF Template:Script/Kaithi
Kannada Telugu-Kannada Around 4th-6th century Sanskrit, Kannada, Konkani, Tulu, Badaga, Kodava, Beary, others Knda U+0C80–U+0CFF ಕನ್ನಡ ಅಕ್ಷರಮಾಲೆ
Kawi Pallava 8th century Kawi was found primarily in Java and used across much of Maritime Southeast Asia between the 8th century and the 16th century.[12] Kawi U+11F00–U+11F5F 𑼒𑼮𑼶
Khmer Pallava 11th century Khmer language Khmr U+1780–U+17FF, U+19E0–U+19FF Template:Script/Khmer
Khojki Landa 16th century Some use by Ismaili communities. Was used by the Khoja community for Muslim religious literature. Khoj U+11200–U+1124F 𑈉𑈲𑈐𑈈𑈮
Khudawadi Landa 16th century Was used by Sindhi communities for correspondence and business records. Sind U+112B0–U+112FF 𑊻𑋩𑋣𑋏𑋠𑋔𑋠𑋏𑋢
Lao Khmer 14th century Lao language, others Laoo U+0E80–U+0EFF ອັກສອນລາວ
Lepcha Tibetan 8th century Lepcha language Lepc U+1C00–U+1C4F ᰛᰩᰴ
Limbu Lepcha 9th century Limbu language Limb U+1900–U+194F Template:Script/Limbu
Lontara Kawi 17th century Buginese language, others Bugi U+1A00–U+1A1F Template:Script/Lontara
Mahajani Landa 16th century Historically used in northern India for writing accounts and financial records. Mahj U+11150–U+1117F 𑅬𑅱𑅛𑅧𑅑‎
Makasar Kawi 17th century Was used in South Sulawesi, Indonesia for writing the Makassarese language.[13] Makasar script is also known as "Old Makassarese" or "Makassarese bird script" in English-language scholarly works.[14] Maka U+11EE0–U+11EFF 𑻪𑻢𑻪𑻢
Malayalam Grantha 12th century Malayalam Mlym U+0D00–U+0D7F മലയാളലിപി
Marchen Tibetan 7th century Was used in the Tibetan Bön tradition to write the extinct Zhang-Zhung language Marc U+11C70–U+11CBF 𑱳𑲁𑱽𑱾𑲌𑱵𑲋𑲱𑱴𑱶𑲱𑲅𑲊𑱱
Meetei Mayek TibetanTemplate:Vn 6th century[15] officially used for Meitei language (constitutionally termed as "Manipuri") in accordance to "The Manipur Official Language (Amendment) Act, 2021"[16] Mtei U+AAE0–U+AAFF, U+ABC0–U+ABFF ꯃꯤꯇꯩ ꯃꯌꯦꯛ
Modi Nāgarī 17th century Was used to write the Marathi language Modi U+11600–U+1165F 𑘦𑘻𑘚𑘲
Multani Landa Was used to write the Multani language Mult U+11280–U+112AF 𑊠𑊣𑊖𑊚
Nandinagari Nāgarī 7th century Historically used to write Sanskrit in southern India Nand U+119A0–U+119FF 𑧁𑧞𑦿𑧒𑧁𑧑𑦰𑧈𑧓
New Tai Lue Tai Tham 1950s Tai Lü language Talu U+1980–U+19DF Template:Script/New Tai Lue
Odia Siddhaṃ 13th century Odia language Orya U+0B00–U+0B7F ଓଡ଼ିଆ ଅକ୍ଷର
ʼPhags-pa Tibetan 13th century Historically used during the Mongol Yuan dynasty. Phag U+A840–U+A87F Template:Phagspa
Prachalit (Newa) Nepal Has been used for writing the Sanskrit, Nepali, Hindi, Bengali, and Maithili languages Newa U+11400–U+1147F 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐔𑐮𑐶𑐟
Rejang Kawi 18th century Rejang language, mostly obsolete Rjng U+A930–U+A95F Template:Script/Rejang
Saurashtra Grantha 20th century Saurashtra language, mostly obsolete Saur U+A880–U+A8DF ꢱꣃꢬꢵꢰ꣄ꢜ꣄ꢬꢵ
Sharada Gupta 8th century Was used for writing Sanskrit and Kashmiri Shrd U+11180–U+111DF 𑆯𑆳𑆫𑆢𑆳
Siddham Gupta 7th century Was used for writing Sanskrit Sidd U+11580–U+115FF 𑖭𑖰𑖟𑖿𑖠𑖽
Sinhala Brahmi[17] 4th century[18] Sinhala language Sinh U+0D80–U+0DFF, U+111E0–U+111FF ශුද්ධ සිංහල
Sundanese Kawi 14th century Sundanese language Sund U+1B80–U+1BBF, U+1CC0–U+1CCF Template:Script/Sund
Sylheti Nagari Nagari 16th century Historically used for writing the Sylheti language Sylo U+A800–U+A82F Template:Script/Syloti
Tagbanwa Kawi 14th century Various languages of Palawan, nearly extinct Tagb U+1760–U+177F Template:Script/Tagbanwa
Tai Le Mon 13th century Tai Nüa language Tale U+1950–U+197F ᥖᥭᥰᥖᥬᥳᥑᥨᥒᥰ
Tai Tham Mon 13th century Northern Thai language, Tai Lü language, Khün language Lana U+1A20–U+1AAF Template:Script/Tai Tham
Tai Viet Thai 16th century Tai Dam language Tavt U+AA80–U+AADF Template:Script/Tai Viet
Takri Sharada 16th century Was used for writing Chambeali, and other languages Takr U+11680–U+116CF 𑚔𑚭𑚊𑚤𑚯
Tamil Pallava 2nd century Tamil language Taml U+0B80–U+0BFF, U+11FC0–U+11FFF தமிழ் அரிச்சுவடி
Telugu Telugu-Kannada 5th century Telugu language Telu U+0C00–U+0C7F తెలుగు లిపి
Thai Old Khmer 13th century Thai language Thai U+0E00–U+0E7F อักษรไทย
Tibetan Gupta 8th century Classical Tibetan, Dzongkha, Ladakhi language Tibt U+0F00–U+0FFF བོད་ཡིག་
Tirhuta Siddham 13th century Historically used for the Maithili language Tirh U+11480–U+114DF 𑒞𑒱𑒩𑒯𑒳𑒞𑒰

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Frellesvig, Bjarke (2010). A History of the Japanese Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 177–178. ISBN 978-0-521-65320-6.
  2. "Tamil-Brahmi (Tamili) Pottery Shards of Tamil Nadu A Study". www.researchgate.net.
  3. Coningham, R. A. E.; Allchin, F. R.; Batt, C. M.; Lucy, D. (April 1996). "Passage to India? Anuradhapura and the Early Use of the Brahmi Script". Cambridge Archaeological Journal. 6 (1): 73–97. doi:10.1017/S0959774300001608. S2CID 161465267.
  4. Court, C. (1996). Introduction. In P. T. Daniels & W. Bright (Eds.) The World's Writing Systems (pp. 443). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  5. Court, C. (1996). The spread of Brahmi Script into Southeast Asia. In P. T. Daniels & W. Bright (Eds.) The World's Writing Systems (pp. 445–449). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Sproat, Richard (20 July 2006). "Brahmi-derived scripts, script layout, and segmental awareness". Written Language and Literacy. 9 (1): 45–66. doi:10.1075/wll.9.1.05spr. ISSN 1387-6732.
  7. Terwiel; Khamdaengyodtai (2003). Shan Manuscripts, Part 1. p. 13.
  8. "GAZETTE TITLE: The Manipur Official Language (Amendment) Act, 2021". manipurgovtpress.nic.in.
  9. Pandey, Anshuman (23 January 2018). "L2/18-016R: Proposal to encode Dives Akuru in Unicode" (PDF).
  10. Pandey, Anshuman (4 November 2015). "L2/15-234R: Proposal to encode the Dogra script" (PDF).
  11. "Chapter 13: South and Central Asia-II" (PDF). The Unicode Standard, Version 11.0. Mountain View, California: Unicode, Inc. June 2018. ISBN 978-1-936213-19-1.
  12. Aditya Bayu Perdana and Ilham Nurwansah 2020. Proposal to encode Kawi
  13. "Chapter 17: Indonesia and Oceania" (PDF). The Unicode Standard, Version 11.0. Mountain View, California: Unicode, Inc. June 2018. ISBN 978-1-936213-19-1.
  14. Pandey, Anshuman (2 November 2015). "L2/15-233: Proposal to encode the Makasar script in Unicode" (PDF).
  15. Datta, Amaresh (1987). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. p. 142. ISBN 978-81-260-1803-1. The coins of Urakonthauba (568-653) and Ayangba (821-910) in the Mutua Museum, Imphal bear evidence of early existence of old Manipuri alphabet.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  16. "GAZETTE TITLE: The Manipur Official Language (Amendment) Act, 2021". manipurgovtpress.nic.in.
  17. Daniels (1996), p. 379.
  18. Diringer, David (1948). Alphabet a key to the history of mankind. p. 389.

External links

Template:Writing systems Template:Kawi family