South Korea

From Bharatpedia, an open encyclopedia

Republic of Korea

대한민국 (Korean)
Daehanminguk (RR)
Centered taegeuk on a white rectangle inclusive of four black trigrams
Centered taegeuk on a hibiscus syriacus surrounded by five stylized petals and a ribbon
Anthem: 애국가
"The Patriotic Song"
  Territory controlled   Territory claimed but not controlled (North Korea)
  Territory controlled
  Territory claimed but not controlled (North Korea)
and largest city
37°33′N 126°58′E / 37.550°N 126.967°E / 37.550; 126.967
Official languagesKorean (Pyojuneo)
Korean Sign Language[1]
Official scriptHangul
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Yoon Suk Yeol
Han Duck-soo
Kim Jin-pyo
Kim Myeong-soo
Yoo Nam-seok
LegislatureNational Assembly
Establishment history
• Gojoseon
2333 BCE (mythological)
57 BCE
• Goryeo dynasty
• Joseon dynasty
July 17, 1392
October 12, 1897
August 22, 1910
March 1, 1919
April 11, 1919
September 2, 1945
• US administration of Korea south of the 38th parallel
September 8, 1945
August 15, 1948
February 25, 1988
• Total
100,363 km2 (38,750 sq mi) (107th)
• Water (%)
• 2023 estimate
Neutral increase 51,966,948[4] (28th)
• Density
507/km2 (1,313.1/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $2.924 trillion[5] (14th)
• Per capita
Increase $56,706[5] (28th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.721 trillion[5] (12th)
• Per capita
Increase $33,393[5] (33rd)
Gini (2018)Positive decrease 34.5[6]
HDI (2021)Increase 0.925[7]
very high · 19th
CurrencyKorean Republic won (₩) (KRW)
Time zoneUTC+9 (Korea Standard Time)
Date format
  • yyyy년 m월 d일
  • yyyy. m. d. (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+82
ISO 3166 codeKR
Internet TLD

South Korea,[lower-alpha 1] officially the Republic of Korea (ROK),[lower-alpha 2] is a country in East Asia. It constitutes the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and borders North Korea along the Korean Demilitarized Zone.[lower-alpha 3] The country's western border is formed by the Yellow Sea, while its eastern border is defined by the Sea of Japan. South Korea claims to be the sole legitimate government of the entire peninsula and adjacent islands. It has a population of 51.96 million, of which roughly half live in the Seoul Capital Area, the fourth most populous metropolitan area in the world. Other major cities include Incheon, Busan, and Daegu.

The Korean Peninsula was inhabited as early as the Lower Paleolithic period. Its first kingdom was noted in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE. Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea into Silla and Balhae in the late 7th century, Korea was ruled by the Goryeo dynasty (918–1392) and the Joseon dynasty (1392–1897). The succeeding Korean Empire (1897–1910) was annexed in 1910 into the Empire of Japan. Japanese rule ended following Japan's surrender in World War II, after which Korea was divided into two zones; a northern zone occupied by the Soviet Union and a southern zone occupied by the United States. After negotiations on reunification failed, the southern zone became the Republic of Korea in August 1948 while the northern zone became the communist Democratic People's Republic of Korea the following month.

In 1950, a North Korean invasion began the Korean War, which saw extensive American-led United Nations intervention in support of the South, while China intervened to support the North, with Soviet assistance. After the war's end in 1953, the country entered into a military alliance with the U.S., which continues to this date, and its devastated economy began to soar, recording the fastest rise in average GDP per capita in the world between 1980 and 1990. Despite lacking natural resources, the nation rapidly developed to become one of the Four Asian Tigers based on international trade and economic globalization, integrating itself within the world economy with export-oriented industrialization; currently being one of the largest exporting nations in the world, along with having one of the largest foreign-exchange reserves in the world. The June Democratic Struggle led to the end of authoritarian rule in 1987 and the country is now considered among the most advanced democracies in Asia.

South Korea is a regional power and a developed country, with its economy being ranked as the world's thirteenth-largest by nominal GDP and the fourteenth-largest by GDP (PPP). In recent years, the country has been facing an aging population and the lowest fertility rate in the world. South Korea's citizens enjoy one of the world's fastest Internet connection speeds and the densest high-speed railway network. The country is the world's ninth-largest exporter and ninth-largest importer. Its armed forces are ranked as one of the world's strongest militaries, with the world's second-largest standing army by military and paramilitary personnel. In the 21st century, South Korea has been renowned for its globally influential pop culture, particularly in music (K-pop), TV dramas (K-dramas) and cinema, a phenomenon referred to as the Korean Wave. It is a member of the OECD's Development Assistance Committee, the G20, the IPEF, and the Paris Club.


The name Korea is derived from the shortened form of Goguryeo: Goryeo (Koryŏ)

The name Korea is an exonym, although it was derived from a historical kingdom name, Goryeo (Revised Romanization) or Koryŏ (McCune–Reischauer). Goryeo was the shortened name officially adopted by Goguryeo in the 5th century[8][9][10] and the name of its 10th-century successor state Goryeo.[11][12] Visiting Arab and Persian merchants pronounced its name as "Korea".[13] The modern name of Korea appears in the first Portuguese maps of 1568 by João vaz Dourado as Conrai [14] and later in the late 16th century and early 17th century as Korea (Corea) in the maps of Teixeira Albernaz of 1630.[15]

The Kingdom of Goryeo became first known to Westerners when Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca in 1511 and described the peoples who traded with this part of the world known by the Portuguese as the Gores.[16] Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th-century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardized the spelling of Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically.[17][18]

After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted. The new official name has its origin in the ancient kingdom of Gojoseon (2333 BCE). In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the country's official name from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk (Korean Empire). The name Daehan (Great Han) derives from Samhan (Three Han), referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula.[19][20] However, the name Joseon was still widely used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. Several groups fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea (대한민국 임시정부 / 大韓民國臨時政府).

Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the "Republic of Korea" (대한민국 / 大韓民國, IPA: ˈtɛ̝ːɦa̠nminɡuk̚, lit. 'Great Korean People's State'; About this soundlisten) was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. However, it is not a direct translation of the Korean name.[21] As a result, the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity (or "race") as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state.[22][21] Conversely, the official name of North Korea in English, the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea", is a direct translation of the Korean name.[citation needed]

Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term "South Korea" was coined, becoming increasingly common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han (or Hanguk) to refer to both Koreas collectively, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon instead.[citation needed]


Ancient Korea[edit]

Balhae (violet) and Silla (blue), circa 830 CE
The oldest surviving metal movable type book, the Jikji, was printed in 1377, and Goryeo created the world's first metal-based movable type in 1234.[23]
The Tripitaka Koreana — the Buddhist canon (Tripiṭaka) carved onto roughly 80,000 woodblocks and stored (and still remaining) at Haeinsa, also a UNESCO World Heritage Site

The Korean Peninsula was inhabited as early as the Lower Paleolithic period.[24][25]

According to Korea's founding mythology, the history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon (also known as "Gojoseon", or "Old Joseon", to differentiate it with the 14th century dynasty) in 2333 BCE by the legendary Dangun.[26][27] Gojoseon was noted in Chinese records in the early 7th century.[28] Gojoseon expanded until it controlled the northern Korean Peninsula and parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BCE, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era.[27][29] In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the northern Korean peninsula. Three of the commanderies fell or retreated westward within a few decades. As Lelang Commandery was destroyed and rebuilt around this time, the place gradually moved toward Liaodong.[clarification needed] Thus, its force was diminished and it only served as a trade center until it was conquered by Goguryeo in 313.[30][31][32]

Beginning around 300 BC, the Japonic-speaking Yayoi people from the Korean Peninsula entered the Japanese islands and displaced or intermingled with the original Jōmon inhabitants.[33] The linguistic homeland of Proto-Koreans is located somewhere in Southern Siberia/Manchuria, such the Liao river area or the Amur region. Proto-Koreans arrived in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula at around 300 BC, replacing and assimilating Japonic-speakers and likely causing the Yayoi migration.[34]

Three Kingdoms of Korea[edit]

During the period[clarification needed] known as the Proto–Three Kingdoms of Korea, the states of Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye, and Samhan occupied the whole Korean peninsula and southern Manchuria. From them, the Three Kingdoms of Korea emerged: Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla.

Goguryeo, the largest and most powerful among them, was a highly militaristic state,[35] and competed with various Chinese dynasties during its 700 years of history. Goguryeo experienced a golden age under Gwanggaeto the Great and his son Jangsu,[36][37][38][39] who both subdued Baekje and Silla during their times, achieving a brief unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea and becoming the most dominant power on the Korean Peninsula.[40][41] In addition to contesting for control of the Korean Peninsula, Goguryeo had many military conflicts with various Chinese dynasties, most notably the Goguryeo–Sui War, in which Goguryeo defeated a huge force said to number over a million men.[42]

Baekje was a maritime power,[43] which motivates some[who?] to call it the "Phoenicia of East Asia".[44] Its maritime ability was instrumental in the dissemination of Buddhism throughout East Asia and spreading continental culture to Japan.[45][46] Baekje was once a great military power on the Korean Peninsula, especially during the time of Geunchogo,[47] but was critically defeated by Gwanggaeto the Great and declined.[citation needed] Silla was the smallest and weakest of the three, but used opportunistic pacts and alliances with the more powerful Korean kingdoms, and eventually Tang China, to its advantage.[48][49]

The unification of the Three Kingdoms by Silla in 676 led to the North South States Period, in which Balhae controlled the northern parts of Goguryeo and much of the Korean Peninsula was controlled by Later Silla. Relationships between Korea and China remained relatively peaceful during this time.

Balhae was founded by a Goguryeo general and formed as a successor state to Goguryeo. During its height, Balhae controlled most of Manchuria and parts of the Russian Far East, and was called the "Prosperous Country in the East".[50]

Later Silla was a wealthy country,[51] and its metropolitan capital of Gyeongju[52] was the fourth largest city in the world.[53][54][55][56] It experienced a golden age of art and culture,[57][58][59][60] exemplified by Hwangnyongsa, Seokguram, and the Emille Bell. It also carried on the maritime prowess of Baekje, and during the 8th and 9th centuries dominated the seas of East Asia and the trade between China, Korea and Japan, most notably during the time of Jang Bogo. In addition, Silla people made overseas communities in China on the Shandong Peninsula and the mouth of the Yangtze River.[61][62][63][64] However, Later Silla weakened under internal strife and the revival of Baekje and Goguryeo, which led to the Later Three Kingdoms period in the late ninth century.

Buddhism flourished during this time, and many Korean Buddhists gained great fame among Chinese Buddhists[65] and contributed to Chinese Buddhism.[66] Examples of significant Korean Buddhists from this period include Woncheuk, Wonhyo, Uisang, Musang,[67][68][69][70] and Kim Gyo-gak. Kim was a Silla prince whose influence made Mount Jiuhua one of the Four Sacred Mountains of Chinese Buddhism.[71]

Unified dynasties[edit]

Changdeok Palace, pictured in 2014, one of the Five Grand Palaces of Seoul built during the Joseon Dynasty and a UNESCO World Heritage Site

In 936, the Later Three Kingdoms were united by Wang Geon, a descendant of Goguryeo nobility,[72] who established Goryeo as the successor state of Goguryeo.[11][12][73][74] Balhae had fallen to the Khitan Empire in 926, and a decade later the last crown prince of Balhae fled south to Goryeo, where he was warmly welcomed and included into the ruling family by Wang Geon, thus unifying the two successor nations of Goguryeo.[75] Like Silla, Goryeo was a highly cultural state, and invented the metal movable type printing press.[23] After defeating the Khitan Empire, which was the most powerful empire of its time,[76][77] in the Goryeo–Khitan War, Goryeo experienced a golden age that lasted a century, during which the Tripitaka Koreana was completed and significant developments in printing and publishing occurred. This promoted education and the dispersion of knowledge on philosophy, literature, religion, and science. By 1100, there were 12 universities that produced notable scholars.[78][79] However, the Mongol invasions in the 13th century greatly weakened the kingdom. Goryeo was never conquered by the Mongols, but exhausted after three decades of fighting, the Korean court sent its crown prince to the Yuan capital to swear allegiance to Kublai Khan, who accepted, and married one of his daughters to the Korean crown prince.[80] Henceforth, Goryeo continued to rule Korea, though as a tributary ally to the Mongols for the next 86 years. During this period, the two nations became intertwined as all subsequent Korean kings married Mongol princesses,[80] and the last empress of the Yuan dynasty was a Korean princess. In the mid-14th century, Goryeo drove out the Mongols to regain its northern territories, briefly conquered Liaoyang, and defeated invasions by the Red Turbans. However, in 1392, General Yi Seong-gye, who had been ordered to attack China, turned his army around and staged a coup.

Yi Seong-gye declared the new name of Korea as "Joseon" in reference to Gojoseon, and moved the capital to Hanseong (one of the old names of Seoul).[81] The first 200 years of the Joseon dynasty were marked by peace, and saw great advancements in science[82][83] and education,[84] as well as the creation of Hangul by Sejong the Great to promote literacy among the common people.[85] The prevailing ideology of the time was Neo-Confucianism, which was epitomized by the seonbi class: nobles who passed up positions of wealth and power to lead lives of study and integrity. Between 1592 and 1598, Toyotomi Hideyoshi launched invasions of Korea, but his advance was halted by Korean forces (most notably the Joseon Navy led by Admiral Yi Sun-sin and his renowned "turtle ship") with assistance from Righteous Army militias formed by Korean civilians, and Ming dynasty Chinese troops.[86] Through a series of successful battles of attrition, the Japanese forces were eventually forced to withdraw, and relations between all parties became normalized. However, the Manchus took advantage of Joseon's war-weakened state and invaded in 1627 and 1637, and then went on to conquer the destabilized Ming dynasty. After normalizing relations with the new Qing dynasty, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace. Kings Yeongjo and Jeongjo particularly led a new renaissance of the Joseon dynasty during the 18th century.[87][88]

In the 19th century, Joseon began experiencing economic difficulties and widespread uprisings, including the Donghak Peasant Revolution. The royal in-law families had gained control of the government, leading to mass corruption and weakening of the state.[citation needed] In addition, the strict isolationism of the Joseon government that earned it "the hermit kingdom" became increasing ineffective due to increasing encroachment from powers such as Japan, Russia, and the United States. This is exemplified by the Joseon–United States Treaty of 1882, in which it was compelled to open its borders.

Japanese occupation and World War II[edit]

In the late 19th century, Japan became a significant regional power after winning the First Sino-Japanese War against Qing China and the Russo-Japanese War against the Russian Empire. In 1897, King Gojong, the last king of Korea, proclaimed Joseon as the Korean Empire. However, Japan compelled Korea to become its protectorate in 1905 and formally annexed it in 1910. What followed was a period of forced assimilation, in which Korean language, culture, and history were suppressed.[89] This led to the March 1st Movement protests in 1919, and the subsequent foundation of resistance groups in exile, primarily in China. Among the resistance groups was the formally recognized predecessor to the modern South Korean government: the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.[citation needed]

Towards the end of World War II, the U.S. proposed dividing the Korean peninsula into two occupation zones: a U.S. zone and a Soviet zone. Dean Rusk and Charles H. Bonesteel III suggested the 38th parallel as the dividing line, as it placed Seoul under U.S. control. To the surprise of Rusk and Bonesteel, the Soviets accepted their proposal and agreed to divide Korea.[90]

Modern history[edit]

The War Memorial of Korea, built in remembrance of the Korean War (1950–1953)
Between 1962 and 1994, the South Korean economy grew at an average of 10% annually, fueled by annual export growth of 20%,[91] in a period called the Miracle on the Han River.

Despite intentions to liberate a unified peninsula in the 1943 Cairo Declaration, escalating tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States led to the division of Korea into two political entities in 1948: North Korea and South Korea.

In the South, the United States appointed and supported the former head of the Korean Provisional Government Syngman Rhee as leader. Rhee won the first presidential elections of the newly declared Republic of Korea in May 1948. In the North, the Soviets backed a former anti-Japanese guerrilla and communist activist, Kim Il-sung, who was appointed premier of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in September.[citation needed]

In October, the Soviet Union declared Kim Il-sung's government as sovereign over both parts. The UN declared Rhee's government as "a lawful government having effective control and jurisdiction over that part of Korea where the UN Temporary Commission on Korea was able to observe and consult" and the Government "based on elections which was observed by the Temporary Commission" in addition to a statement that "this is the only such government in Korea."[92] Both leaders engaged in authoritarian repression of political opponents.[93] South Korea requested military support from the United States but was denied,[94] and North Korea's military was heavily reinforced by the Soviet Union.[95][96]

Korean War[edit]

On June 25, 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea, sparking the Korean War, the Cold War's first major conflict, which continued until 1953. At the time, the Soviet Union had boycotted the United Nations (UN), thus forfeiting their veto rights. This allowed the UN to intervene in a civil war when it became apparent that the superior North Korean forces would unify the entire country. The Soviet Union and China backed North Korea, with the later participation of millions of Chinese troops. After an ebb and flow that saw both sides facing defeat with massive losses among Korean civilians in both the north and the south, the war eventually reached a stalemate. During the war, Rhee's party promoted the One-People Principle, an effort to build an obedient citizenry through ethnic homogeneity and authoritarian appeals to nationalism.[97]

The 1953 armistice, never signed by South Korea, split the peninsula along the demilitarized zone near the original demarcation line. No peace treaty was ever signed, resulting in the two countries remaining technically at war. Approximately 3 million people died in the Korean War, with a higher proportional civilian death toll than World War II or the Vietnam War, making it one of the deadliest conflicts of the Cold War era.[98][99] In addition, virtually all of Korea's major cities were destroyed by the war.[100]

Post-Korean War (1960–1990)[edit]

President Park Chung Hee played a pivotal role in rapidly developing South Korea's economy through export-oriented industrialization.

In 1960, a student uprising (the "April 19 Revolution") led to the resignation of the autocratic then-President Syngman Rhee. This was followed by 13 months of political instability as South Korea was led by a weak and ineffectual government. This instability was broken by the May 16, 1961, coup led by General Park Chung Hee. As president, Park oversaw a period of rapid export-led economic growth enforced by political repression. South Korea under Park took an active role in the Vietnam War.[101]

Park was heavily criticized as a ruthless military dictator, who in 1972 extended his rule by creating a new constitution, which gave the president sweeping (almost dictatorial) powers and permitted him to run for an unlimited number of six-year terms. The Korean economy developed significantly during Park's tenure. The government developed the nationwide expressway system, the Seoul subway system, and laid the foundation for economic development during his 17-year tenure, which ended with his assassination in 1979.

The years after Park's assassination were marked again by political turmoil, as the previously suppressed opposition leaders all campaigned to run for president in the sudden political void. In 1979, General Chun Doo-hwan led the coup d'état of December Twelfth. Following the coup d'état, Chun Doo-hwan planned to rise to power through several measures. On May 17, Chun Doo-hwan forced the Cabinet to expand martial law to the whole nation, which had previously not applied to the island of Jejudo. The expanded martial law closed universities, banned political activities, and further curtailed the press. Chun's assumption of the presidency through the events of May 17 triggered nationwide protests demanding democracy; these protests were particularly focused in the city of Gwangju, to which Chun sent special forces to violently suppress the Gwangju Democratization Movement.[102]

Chun subsequently created the National Defense Emergency Policy Committee and took the presidency according to his political plan. Chun and his government held South Korea under a despotic rule until 1987, when a Seoul National University student, Park Jong-chul, was tortured to death.[103] On June 10, the Catholic Priests Association for Justice revealed the incident, igniting the June Democratic Struggle across the country. Eventually, Chun's party, the Democratic Justice Party, and its leader, Roh Tae-woo, announced the June 29 Declaration, which included the direct election of the president. Roh went on to win the election by a narrow margin against the two main opposition leaders, Kim Dae-jung and Kim Young-sam. Seoul hosted the Olympic Games in 1988, widely regarded as successful and a significant boost for South Korea's global image and economy.[104]

South Korea was formally invited to become a member of the United Nations in 1991. The transition of Korea from autocracy to modern democracy was marked in 1997 by the election of Kim Dae-jung, who was sworn in as the eighth president of South Korea, on February 25, 1998. His election was significant given that he had in earlier years been a political prisoner sentenced to death (later commuted to exile). He won against the backdrop of the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, where he took IMF advice to restructure the economy and the nation soon recovered its economic growth, albeit at a slower pace.[105]

Contemporary South Korea[edit]

President Kim Dae-jung, the 2000 Nobel Peace Prize recipient for advancing democracy and human rights in South Korea and East Asia and for reconciliation with North Korea, was sometimes called the "Nelson Mandela of Asia."[105]

In June 2000, as part of president Kim Dae-jung's "Sunshine Policy" of engagement, a North–South summit took place in Pyongyang, the capital of North Korea.[106] Later that year, Kim received the Nobel Peace Prize "for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular".[107] However, because of discontent among the population for fruitless approaches to the North under the previous administrations and, amid North Korean provocations, a conservative government was elected in 2007 led by President Lee Myung-bak, former mayor of Seoul.[108] Meanwhile, South Korea and Japan jointly co-hosted the 2002 FIFA World Cup.[109] However, South Korean and Japanese relations later soured because of conflicting claims of sovereignty over the Liancourt Rocks.[110]

South Korea became the first non-G7 chair of the G-20 when it hosted the 2010 Seoul summit.[111]

In 2010, there was an escalation in attacks by North Korea. In March 2010 the South Korean warship ROKS Cheonan was sunk leading to the death of 46 South Korean sailors, allegedly by a North Korean submarine. In November 2010 Yeonpyeong island was attacked by a significant North Korean artillery barrage, with 4 people dying. The lack of a strong response to these attacks from both South Korea and the international community (the official UN report declined to explicitly name North Korea as the perpetrator for the Cheonan sinking) caused significant anger with the South Korean public.[112]

South Korea saw another milestone in 2012 with the first ever female president Park Geun-hye elected and assuming office. Daughter of another former president, Park Chung Hee, she carried on a conservative brand of politics.[113] President Park Geun-hye's administration was formally accused of corruption, bribery, and influence-peddling for the involvement of close friend Choi Soon-sil in state affairs. There followed a series of massive public demonstrations from November 2016[114] and she was removed from office.[115] After the fallout of President Park's impeachment and dismissal, new elections were held and Moon Jae-in of the Democratic party won the presidency, assuming office on May 10, 2017.[116] His tenure saw an improving political relationship with North Korea, some increasing divergence in the military alliance with the United States, and the successful hosting of the Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang.[117] In April 2018, former president Park Geun-hye was sentenced to 24 years in jail, because of abuse of power and corruption.[118] The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the nation since 2020. That same year, South Korea recorded more deaths than births, resulting in a population decline for the first time on record.[119]

In March 2022, Yoon Suk Yeol, the candidate of conservative opposition People Power Party, won a close election over Democratic Party candidate by the narrowest margin ever. On May 10, 2022, Yoon Suk Yeol was sworn in as South Korea's new president to succeed Moon.[120]

Geography, climate and environment[edit]


Topography of South Korea

South Korea occupies the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula, which extends some 1,100 km (680 mi) from the Asian mainland. This mountainous peninsula is flanked by the Yellow Sea to the west, and the Sea of Japan to the east. Its southern tip lies on the Korea Strait and the East China Sea. The country, including all its islands, lies between latitudes 33° and 39°N, and longitudes 124° and 130°E. Its total area is 100,032 square kilometers (38,622.57 sq mi).[121]

South Korea can be divided into four general regions: an eastern region of high mountain ranges and narrow coastal plains; a western region of broad coastal plains, river basins, and rolling hills; a southwestern region of mountains and valleys; and a southeastern region dominated by the broad basin of the Nakdong River.[122] South Korea is home to three terrestrial ecoregions: Central Korean deciduous forests, Manchurian mixed forests, and Southern Korea evergreen forests.[123]

South Korea's terrain is mostly mountainous, most of which is not arable. Lowlands, located primarily in the west and southeast, make up only 30% of the total land area.

About three thousand islands, mostly small and uninhabited, lie off the western and southern coasts of South Korea. Jeju-do is about 100 kilometers (62 miles) off the southern coast of South Korea. It is the country's largest island, with an area of 1,845 square kilometers (712 square miles). Jeju is also the site of South Korea's highest point: Hallasan, an extinct volcano, reaches 1,950 meters (6,400 feet) above sea level. The easternmost islands of South Korea include Ulleungdo and Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo/Takeshima), while Marado and Socotra Rock are the southernmost islands of South Korea.[122]

South Korea has 20 national parks and popular nature places like the Boseong Tea Fields, Suncheon Bay Ecological Park, and the first national park of Jirisan.[124]


Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [125]

In the Köppen climate classification system, South Korea tends to have a humid continental climate and a humid subtropical climate, and is affected by the East Asian monsoon, with precipitation heavier in summer during a short rainy season called jangma (장마), which begins end of June through the end of July. Winters can be extremely cold with the minimum temperature dropping below −20 °C (−4 °F) in the inland region of the country: in Seoul, the average January temperature range is −7 to 1 °C (19 to 34 °F), and the average August temperature range is 22 to 30 °C (72 to 86 °F). Winter temperatures are higher along the southern coast and considerably lower in the mountainous interior.[126] Summer can be uncomfortably hot and humid, with temperatures exceeding 30 °C (86 °F) in most parts of the country. South Korea has four distinct seasons; spring, summer, autumn and winter. Spring usually lasts from late March to early May, summer from mid-May to early September, autumn from mid-September to early November, and winter from mid-November to mid-March.

Rainfall is concentrated in the summer months of June through September. The southern coast is subject to late summer typhoons that bring strong winds, heavy rains and sometimes floods. The average annual precipitation varies from 1,370 millimeters (54 in) in Seoul to 1,470 millimeters (58 in) in Busan.


Cheonggyecheon river is a modern public recreation space in downtown Seoul.

During the first 20 years of South Korea's growth surge, little effort was made to preserve the environment.[127] Unchecked industrialization and urban development have resulted in deforestation and the ongoing destruction of wetlands such as the Songdo Tidal Flat.[128] However, there have been recent efforts to balance these problems, including a government run $84 billion five-year green growth project that aims to boost energy efficiency and green technology.[129]

The green-based economic strategy is a comprehensive overhaul of South Korea's economy, utilizing nearly two percent of the national GDP. The greening initiative includes such efforts as a nationwide bike network, solar and wind energy, lowering oil dependent vehicles, backing daylight saving time and extensive usage of environmentally friendly technologies such as LEDs in electronics and lighting.[130] The country – already the world's most wired – plans to build a nationwide next-generation network that will be 10 times faster than broadband facilities, in order to reduce energy usage.[130]

The renewable portfolio standard program with renewable energy certificates runs from 2012 to 2022.[131] Quota systems favor large, vertically integrated generators and multinational electric utilities, if only because certificates are generally denominated in units of one megawatt-hour. They are also more difficult to design and implement than a Feed-in tariff.[132] Around 350 residential micro combined heat and power units were installed in 2012.[133]

In 2017, South Korea was the world's seventh largest emitter of carbon emissions and the fifth largest emitter per capita. The president Moon Jae-in pledged to reduce greenhouse gas emissions – which contribute to climate change – to zero in 2050.[134][135]

Seoul's tap water recently became safe to drink, with city officials branding it "Arisu" in a bid to convince the public.[136] Efforts have also been made with afforestation projects. Another multibillion-dollar project was the restoration of Cheonggyecheon, a stream running through downtown Seoul that had earlier been paved over by a motorway.[137] One major challenge is air quality, with acid rain, sulfur oxides, and annual yellow dust storms being particular problems.[127] It is acknowledged that many of these difficulties are a result of South Korea's proximity to China, which is a major air polluter.[127] South Korea had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 6.02/10, ranking it 87th globally out of 172 countries.[138]

South Korea is a member of the Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity Treaty, Kyoto Protocol (forming the Environmental Integrity Group (EIG), regarding UNFCCC,[139] with Mexico and Switzerland), Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (not into force), Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, and Whaling.[140]


Separation of powers and the election system of South Korea
South Korea President Yoon Suk Yeol portrait.jpg Han Duck-soo 2022.jpg
Yoon Suk Yeol
Han Duck-soo
Prime Minister

The South Korean government's structure is determined by the Constitution of the Republic of Korea. Like many democratic states,[141] South Korea has a government divided into three branches: executive, judicial, and legislative. The executive and legislative branches operate primarily at the national level, although various ministries in the executive branch also carry out local functions. The judicial branch operates at both the national and local levels. Local governments are semi-autonomous and contain executive and legislative bodies of their own. South Korea is a constitutional democracy.

The constitution has been revised several times since its first promulgation in 1948 at independence. However, it has retained many broad characteristics and with the exception of the short-lived Second Republic of South Korea, the country has always had a presidential system with an independent chief executive.[142] Under its current constitution the state is sometimes referred to as the Sixth Republic of South Korea. The first direct election was also held in 1948.

Although South Korea experienced a series of military dictatorships from the 1960s until the 1980s, it has since developed into a successful liberal democracy. Today, the CIA World Factbook describes South Korea's democracy as a "fully functioning modern democracy".[143] South Korea is ranked 45th on the Corruption Perceptions Index (9th in the Asia-Pacific region), with a score of 57 out of 100.[144]

Administrative divisions[edit]

The major administrative divisions in South Korea are eight provinces, one special self-governing province, six metropolitan cities (self-governing cities that are not part of any province), one special city and one special self-governing city.

Map Namea Hangul Hanja Populationc
Template:South Korea Provincial level Labelled Map Special city (Teukbyeol-si)a
Seoul 서울특별시 서울特別市b 9,830,452
Metropolitan city (Gwangyeok-si)a
Busan 부산광역시 釜山廣域市 3,460,707
Daegu 대구광역시 大邱廣域市 2,471,136
Incheon 인천광역시 仁川廣域市 2,952,476
Gwangju 광주광역시 光州廣域市 1,460,972
Daejeon 대전광역시 大田廣域市 1,496,123
Ulsan 울산광역시 蔚山廣域市 1,161,303
Special self-governing city (Teukbyeol-jachi-si)a
Sejong 세종특별자치시 世宗特別自治市 295,041
Province (Do)a
Gyeonggi 경기도 京畿道 12,941,604
Gangwon 강원도 江原道 1,545,452
North Chungcheong 충청북도 忠淸北道 1,595,164
South Chungcheong 충청남도 忠淸南道 2,120,666
North Jeolla 전라북도 全羅北道 1,847,089
South Jeolla 전라남도 全羅南道 1,890,412
North Gyeongsang 경상북도 慶尙北道 2,682,897
South Gyeongsang 경상남도 慶尙南道 3,377,126
Special self-governing province (Teukbyeol-jachi-do)a
Jeju 제주특별자치도 濟州特別自治道 661,511

a Revised Romanisation; b See Names of Seoul; c May As of 2018.[145]


Population density of South Korea provinces

In April 2016, South Korea's population was estimated to be around 50.8 million by National Statistical Office, with continuing decline of working age population and total fertility rate.[146][147] In a further indication of South Korea's dramatic decline in fertility, in 2020 the country recorded more deaths than births, resulting in a population decline for the first time since modern records began.[148][149] In 2021, the fertility rate stood at just 0.81 children per woman.[150] The country is noted for its population density, which was an estimated 505 per square kilometer in 2015,[146] more than 10 times the global average. Aside from micro-states and city-states, South Korea is the world's third most densely-populated country.[151] In practice the population density in much of South Korea is higher than the national one, as most of the country's land is uninhabitable due to being used for other purposes such as farming.[151] Most South Koreans live in urban areas, because of rapid migration from the countryside during the country's quick economic expansion in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s.[152] The capital city of Seoul is also the country's largest city and chief industrial center. According to the 2005 census, Seoul had a population of 10 million inhabitants. The Seoul National Capital Area has 24.5 million inhabitants (about half of South Korea's entire population) making it the world's second largest metropolitan area. Other major cities include Busan (3.5 million), Incheon (3.0 million), Daegu (2.5 million), Daejeon (1.4 million), Gwangju (1.4 million) and Ulsan (1.1 million).[153]

Koreans in traditional dress

The population has also been shaped by international migration. After World War II and the division of the Korean Peninsula, about four million people from North Korea crossed the border to South Korea. This trend of net entry reversed over the next 40 years because of emigration, especially to North America through the United States and Canada. South Korea's total population in 1955 was 21.5 million,[154] and has more than doubled, to 50 million, by 2010.[155]

South Korea is considered one of the most ethnically homogeneous societies in the world with ethnic Koreans representing approximately 96% of total population. Precise numbers are difficult to estimate since statistics do not record ethnicity and given many immigrants are ethnically Korean themselves, and some South Korean citizens are not ethnically Korean.[156]

The percentage of foreign nationals has been growing rapidly since late 1990s.[157] As of 2016, South Korea had 1,413,758 foreign residents, 2.75 percent of the population;[156] however, many of them are ethnic Koreans with a foreign citizenship. For example, migrants from China (PRC) make up 56.5 percent of foreign nationals, but approximately 70 percent of the Chinese citizens in Korea are Joseonjok (조선족), PRC citizens of Korean ethnicity.[158] Regardless of the ethnicity, there are 28,500 US military personnel serving in South Korea, most serving a one-year unaccompanied tour (though approximately 10 percent serve longer tours accompanied by family), according to the Korea National Statistical Office.[159][160] In addition, about 43,000 English teachers from English-speaking countries reside temporarily in Korea.[161] Currently, South Korea has one of the highest rates of growth of foreign born population, with about 30,000 foreign born residents obtaining South Korean citizenship every year since 2010.

Large numbers of ethnic Koreans live overseas, sometimes in Korean ethnic neighborhoods also known as Koreatowns. The four largest diaspora populations can be found in China (2.3 million), the United States (1.8 million), Japan (0.85 million), and Canada (0.25 million).

South Korea's birth rate was the world's lowest in 2009,[162] at an annual rate of approximately 9 births per 1000 people.[163] Fertility saw some modest increase afterwards,[164] but dropped to a new global low in 2017,[165] with fewer than 30,000 births per month for the first time since records began[166] and less than 1 child per woman in 2018.[167] The average life expectancy in 2008 was 79.10 years,[168] (which was 34th in the world[169]) but by 2015 it had increased to around 81.[170] South Korea has the steepest decline in working age population of the OECD nations.[171] In 2015, National Statistical Office estimated that the population of the country will have reached its peak by 2035.[146][147]

Template:Largest cities of South Korea


Seoul National University is considered to be the most prestigious university in South Korea.

A centralized administration in South Korea oversees the process for the education of children from kindergarten to the third and final year of high school. The school year is divided into two semesters, the first of which begins at the beginning of March and ends in mid-July, the second of which begins in late August and ends in mid-February. The schedules are not uniformly standardized and vary from school to school. Most South Korean middle schools and high schools have school uniforms, modeled on western-style uniforms. Boys' uniforms usually consist of trousers and white shirts, and girls wear skirts and white shirts (this only applies in middle schools and high schools). The country adopted a new educational program to increase the number of their foreign students through 2010. According to the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, the number of scholarships for foreign students in South Korea would have (under the program) doubled by that time, and the number of foreign students would have reached 100,000.[172]

South Korea is one of the top-performing OECD countries in reading literacy, mathematics and sciences with the average student scoring 519, compared with the OECD average of 492, placing it ninth in the world. The country has one of the world's highest-educated labor forces among OECD countries.[173][174] The country is well known for its highly feverish outlook on education, where its national obsession with education has been called "education fever".[175][176][177] This obsession with education has catapulted the resource-poor nation consistently atop the global education rankings. In 2014, South Korea ranked second worldwide (after Singapore) in the national rankings of students' math and science scores by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) .[178]

Higher education is a serious issue in South Korean society, where it is viewed as one of the fundamental cornerstones of South Korean life. Education is regarded with a high priority for South Korean families, as success in education is often a source of honor and pride for families and within South Korean society at large, and is seen as a fundamental necessity to channel one's social mobility to ultimately improve one's socioeconomic position in South Korean society.[179][180] South Koreans view education as the main propeller of social mobility for themselves and their family, as a gateway to the South Korean middle class. Often seen as the objective among many South Korean prospective university students, graduating from an elite South Korean university is the ultimate marker of prestige, high socioeconomic status, promising marriage prospects, and a respectable career path.[181] The entrance into a top-tier higher educational institution leads to a prestigious, secure and well-paid white collar job with the government, banks, or a major South Korean conglomerate such as Samsung, Hyundai or LG Electronics.[182] With incredible pressure on high school students to secure limited spots at the nation's most esteemed universities, its institutional reputation and alumni networks are strong predictors of future career prospects. The top three universities in South Korea, often referred to as "SKY", are Seoul National University, Korea University and Yonsei University.[183][184] An average South Korean student's life revolves around education, with intensely cutthroat competition for top grades, pressure to succeed academically and being the top student in every core class is deeply ingrained in the psyche of South Korean students at a young age.[184] Yet with only so many limited places at the nation's most prestigious universities and even far fewer job openings at top-tier companies to accommodate the glut of numerously highly qualified university graduates competing for such openings that have flooded the job market, many young South Koreans remain disappointed and are often unwilling to lower their expectations with regards employment prospects with the result of many feeling as though they are underachievers. There is a major cultural taboo in South Korean society attached to those who have not achieved formal university education, where those who do not hold university degrees face social prejudice and are often condescendingly looked down by others with contempt as second-class citizens. This often results in fewer opportunities for employment, improvement of one's socioeconomic position and prospects for marriage.[185][186]

KAIST main campus in Daejeon

In 2015, the country spent 5.1% of its GDP on all levels of education – roughly 0.8 percentage points above the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average of 4.3%.[187] A strong investment in education, a militant drive to achieve academic success, as well as the passion for scholarly excellence has helped the resource-poor country rapidly grow its economy over the past 60 years from a war-torn wasteland to a prosperous first-world country.[188]

International reception regarding the South Korean education system has been divided. It has been praised for various reasons, including its comparatively high test results and its major role in generating South Korea's economic development, creating one of the world's most educated workforces.[189] South Korea's highly enviable academic performance has persuaded British education ministers to actively remodel their own curriculums and exams to try to emulate Korea's militant drive and passion for scholarly excellence and high educational achievement and success.[189] Former U.S. President Barack Obama has also praised the country's rigorous school system, where over 80 percent of South Korean high school graduates go on to university.[190] The nation's high university entrance rate has created a highly skilled workforce, making South Korea among the most highly educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree.[191] In 2017, the country ranked fifth for the percentage of 25 to 64 year old's that have attained tertiary education with 47.7 percent.[191] In addition, 69.8 percent of South Koreans aged 25–34 have completed some form of tertiary education qualification, and bachelor's degrees are held by 34.2 percent of South Koreans aged 25–64, the most in the OECD.[187][191]

The system's rigid and hierarchical structure has been criticized for stifling creativity and innovation;[192][193] described as intensely and "brutally" competitive,[194] the system is often blamed for the high suicide rate in the country, particularly the growing rates among those aged 10–19. Various media outlets attribute the country's high suicide rate to the nationwide anxiety around the country's college entrance exams, which determine the trajectory of students' entire lives and careers.[195][196] Former South Korean hagwon teacher Se-Woong Koo wrote that the South Korean education system amounts to child abuse and that it should be "reformed and restructured without delay".[197] The system has also been criticized for producing an excess supply of university graduates creating an overeducated and underemployed labor force; in the first quarter of 2013 alone, nearly 3.3 million South Korean university graduates were jobless, leaving many graduates overqualified for jobs requiring less education.[198] Further criticism has been stemmed for causing labor shortages in various skilled blue collar labor and vocational occupations, where many go unfilled as the negative social stigma associated with vocational careers and not having a university degree continues to remain deep-rooted in South Korean society.[199][200][201]


Dialects of the Korean language

Korean is the official language of South Korea and is classified by most linguists as a language isolate. It incorporates a significant number of loan words from Chinese. Korean uses an indigenous writing system called Hangul, created in 1446 by King Sejong, to provide a convenient alternative to the Classical Chinese Hanja characters that were difficult to learn and did not fit the Korean language well. South Korea still uses some Chinese Hanja characters in limited areas, such as print media and legal documentation.

The Korean language in South Korea has a standard dialect known as the Seoul dialect (after the capital city), with an additional four dialects (Chungcheong, Gangwon, Gyeongsang, and Jeolla) and one language (Jeju) in use around the country.

Almost all South Korean students today learn English throughout their education, with some optionally choosing Japanese or Mandarin as well.[citation needed]


Religion in South Korea (2015 census)[202][203]

  Irreligious (56.1%)
  Protestantism (19.7%)
  Korean Buddhism (15.5%)
  Catholicism (7.9%)
  Other (0.8%)

According to the results of the census of 2015, more than half of the South Korean population (56.1%) declared themselves not affiliated with any religious organizations.[202] In a 2012 survey, 52% declared themselves "religious", 31% said they were "not religious" and 15% identified themselves as "convinced atheists".[204] Of the people who are affiliated with a religious organization, most are Christians and Buddhists. According to the 2015 census, 27.6% of the population were Christians (19.7% identified themselves as Protestants, 7.9% as Roman Catholics) and 15.5% were Buddhists.[202] Other religions include Islam (130,000 Muslims, mostly migrant workers from Pakistan and Bangladesh but including some 35,000 Korean Muslims[205]), the homegrown sect of Won Buddhism, and a variety of indigenous religions, including Cheondoism (a Confucianizing religion), Jeungsanism, Daejongism, Daesun Jinrihoe, and others. Freedom of religion is guaranteed by the constitution, and there is no state religion.[206] Overall, between the 2005 and 2015 censuses, there has been a slight decline of Christianity (down from 29% to 27.6%), a sharp decline of Buddhism (down from 22.8% to 15.5%), and a rise of the unaffiliated population (from 47.2% to 56.9%).[202]

Christianity is South Korea's largest organized religion, accounting for more than half of all South Korean adherents of religious organizations. There are approximately 13.5 million Christians in South Korea today; about two thirds of them belonging to Protestant churches, and the rest to the Catholic Church.[202] The number of Protestants has been stagnant throughout the 1990s and the 2000s, but increased to a peak level throughout the 2010s. Roman Catholics increased significantly between the 1980s and the 2000s, but declined throughout the 2010s.[202] Christianity, unlike in other East Asian countries, found fertile ground in Korea in the 18th century, and by the end of the 18th century it persuaded a large part of the population, as the declining monarchy supported it and opened the country to widespread proselytism as part of a project of Westernization. The weakness of Korean Sindo, which – unlike Japanese Shinto and China's religious system – never developed into a national religion of high status,[207] combined with the impoverished state of Korean Buddhism, (after 500 years of suppression at the hands of the Joseon state, by the 20th century it was virtually extinct) left a free hand to Christian churches. Christianity's similarity to native religious narratives has been studied as another factor that contributed to its success in the peninsula.[208] The Japanese colonization of the first half of the 20th century further strengthened the identification of Christianity with Korean nationalism, as the Japanese coopted native Korean Sindo into the Nipponic Imperial Shinto that they tried to establish in the peninsula.[209] Widespread Christianization of the Koreans took place during State Shinto,[209] after its abolition, and then in the independent South Korea as the newly established military government supported Christianity and tried to utterly oust native Sindo.

Buddha's Birthday celebration in Seoul

Among Christian denominations, Presbyterianism is the largest. About nine million people belong to one of the hundred different Presbyterian churches; the biggest ones are the HapDong Presbyterian Church, TongHap Presbyterian Church and the Koshin Presbyterian Church. South Korea is also the second-largest missionary-sending nation, after the United States.[210]

Buddhism was introduced to Korea in the 4th century.[211] It soon became a dominant religion in the southeastern kingdom of Silla, the region that hitherto hosts the strongest concentration of Buddhists in South Korea. In the other states of the Three Kingdoms Period, Goguryeo and Baekje, it was made the state religion respectively in 372 and 528. It remained the state religion in Later Silla (North South States Period) and Goryeo. It was later suppressed throughout much of the subsequent history under the unified kingdom of Joseon (1392–1897), which officially adopted a strict Korean Confucianism. Today, South Korea has about 7 million Buddhists,[202] most of them affiliated to the Jogye Order. Most of the National Treasures of South Korea are Buddhist artifacts.


Development of life expectancy in North Korea and South Korea

South Korea has a universal healthcare system.[212] According to the Health Care Index ranking, it has the world's best healthcare system as of 2021.[213]

Suicide in South Korea is the 10th highest in the world according to the World Health Organization (WHO), as well as the highest suicide rate in the OECD.[214][215]

South Korean hospitals have advanced medical equipment and facilities readily available, ranking 4th for MRI units per capita and 6th for CT scanners per capita in the OECD.[216] It also had the OECD's second largest number of hospital beds per 1000 people at 9.56 beds.

Life expectancy has been rising rapidly and South Korea ranked 11th in the world for life expectancy at 82.3 years by the WHO in 2015.[217] It also has the third highest health adjusted life expectancy in the world.[218]

Foreign relations[edit]

South Korea maintains diplomatic relations with more than 188 countries. The country has also been a member of the United Nations since 1991, when it became a member state at the same time as North Korea. On January 1, 2007, former South Korean Foreign Minister Ban Ki-moon served as UN Secretary-General from 2007 to 2016. It has also developed links with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations as both a member of ASEAN Plus three, a body of observers, and the East Asia Summit (EAS).

In November 2009, South Korea joined the OECD Development Assistance Committee, marking the first time a former aid recipient country joined the group as a donor member.

South Korea hosted the G-20 Summit in Seoul in November 2010, a year that saw South Korea and the European Union conclude a free trade agreement (FTA) to reduce trade barriers. South Korea went on to sign a Free Trade Agreement with Canada and Australia in 2014, and another with New Zealand in 2015.

North Korea[edit]

Both North and South Korea claim complete sovereignty over the entire peninsula and outlying islands.[219] Despite mutual animosity, reconciliation efforts have continued since the initial separation between North and South Korea. Political figures such as Kim Koo worked to reconcile the two governments even after the Korean War.[220] With longstanding animosity following the Korean War from 1950 to 1953, North Korea and South Korea signed an agreement to pursue peace.[221] On October 4, 2007, Roh Moo-Hyun and North Korean leader Kim Jong-il signed an eight-point agreement on issues of permanent peace, high-level talks, economic cooperation, renewal of train services, highway and air travel, and a joint Olympic cheering squad.[221]

North Korean leader Kim Jong-un and South Korean President Moon Jae-in shake hands inside the Peace House.

Despite the Sunshine Policy and efforts at reconciliation, the progress was complicated by North Korean missile tests in 1993, 1998, 2006, 2009, and 2013. By early 2009, relationships between North and South Korea were very tense; North Korea had been reported to have deployed missiles,[222] ended its former agreements with South Korea,[223] and threatened South Korea and the United States not to interfere with a satellite launch it had planned.[224] North and South Korea are still technically at war (having never signed a peace treaty after the Korean War) and share the world's most heavily fortified border.[225] On May 27, 2009, North Korean media declared that the Armistice is no longer valid because of the South Korean government's pledge to "definitely join" the Proliferation Security Initiative.[citation needed] To further complicate and intensify strains between the two nations, the sinking of the South Korean warship Cheonan in March 2010 was affirmed by the South Korean government[226] to have been caused by a North Korean torpedo, which the North denies. President Lee Myung-bak declared in May 2010 that Seoul would cut all trade with North Korea as part of measures primarily aimed at striking back at North Korea diplomatically and financially, except for the joint Kaesong Industrial Project and humanitarian aid.[227] North Korea initially threatened to sever all ties, to completely abrogate the previous pact of non-aggression, and to expel all South Koreans from a joint industrial zone in Kaesong, but backtracked on its threats and decided to continue its ties with South Korea. Despite the continuing ties, the Kaesong Industrial Region has seen a large decrease in investment and manpower as a result of this military conflict. In February 2016, the Kaesong complex was closed by Seoul in reaction to North Korea's launch of a rocket earlier in the month,[228] which was unanimously condemned by the United Nations Security Council.[229] The 2017 election of President Moon Jae-in has seen a change in approach towards the North, and both sides used the South Korean-held 2018 Winter Olympics as an opportunity for engagement,[230] with a very senior North Korean political delegation sent to the games, along with a reciprocal visit by senior South Korean cabinet members to the North soon afterwards.[231]

China and Russia[edit]

Historically, Korea had close relations with the dynasties in China, and some Korean kingdoms were members of the Imperial Chinese tributary system. The Korean kingdoms also ruled over some Chinese kingdoms including the Khitan people and the Manchurians before the Qing dynasty and received tributes from them.[232] In modern times, before the formation of South Korea, Korean independence fighters worked with Chinese soldiers during the Japanese occupation. However, after World War II, the People's Republic of China embraced Maoism while South Korea sought close relations with the United States. The PRC assisted North Korea with manpower and supplies during the Korean War, and in its aftermath the diplomatic relationship between South Korea and the PRC almost completely ceased. Relations thawed gradually and South Korea and the PRC re-established formal diplomatic relations on August 24, 1992. The two countries sought to improve bilateral relations and lifted the forty-year-old trade embargo,[233] and South Korean–Chinese relations have improved steadily since 1992.[233] The Republic of Korea broke off official relations with the Republic of China (Taiwan) upon gaining official relations with the People's Republic of China, which does not recognize Taiwan's sovereignty.[234]

South Korean president Moon Jae-in meets with Russian president Vladimir Putin.

China has become South Korea's largest trading partner by far, sending 26% of South Korean exports in 2016 worth $124 billion, as well as an additional $32 billion worth of exports to Hong Kong.[235] South Korea is also China's fourth largest trading partner, with $93 billion of Chinese imports in 2016.[236]

The 2017 deployment of THAAD defense missiles by the United States military in South Korea in response to North Korean missile tests has been protested strongly by the Chinese government, concerned that the technologically advanced missile defense could be used more broadly against China.[237] Relations between the governments have cooled in response, with South Korean commercial and cultural interests in China having been targeted, and Chinese tourism to South Korea having been curtailed.[238] The situation was largely resolved by South Korea making significant military concessions to China in exchange for THAAD, including not deploying any more anti-ballistic missile systems in South Korea and not participating in an alliance between the United States and Japan.[239]

South Korea and Russia are participants in the Six-party talks on the North Korea's nuclear proliferation issue. Moon Jae-in's administration has focused on increasing South Korea's consumption of natural gas. These plans include re-opening dialogue around a natural gas pipeline that would come from Russia and pass through North Korea.[240] In June 2018, president Moon Jae-in became the first South Korean leader to speak in the Russian Parliament.[241] On June 22, Moon Jae-in and Putin signed a document for foundation of free trade area.[242]


The Liancourt Rocks have become an issue known as the Liancourt Rocks dispute.

Korea and Japan have had difficult relations since ancient times, but also significant cultural exchange, with Korea acting as the gateway between East Asia and Japan. Contemporary perceptions of Japan are still largely defined by Japan's 35 year colonization of Korea in the 20th century, which is generally regarded in South Korea as having been very negative. Japan is today South Korea's third largest trading partner, with 12% ($46 billion) of exports in 2016.[235]

There were no formal diplomatic ties between South Korea and Japan directly after independence the end of World War II in 1945. South Korea and Japan eventually signed the Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea in 1965 to establish diplomatic ties. There is heavy anti-Japanese sentiment in South Korea because of a number of unsettled Japanese-Korean disputes, many of which stem from the period of Japanese occupation after the Japanese annexation of Korea. During World War II, more than 100,000 Koreans served in the Imperial Japanese Army.[243][244] Korean women were coerced and forced to serve the Imperial Japanese Army as sexual slaves, called comfort women, in both Korea and throughout the Japanese war fronts.[245][246]

Longstanding issues such as Japanese war crimes against Korean civilians, the negationist re-writing of Japanese textbooks relating Japanese atrocities during World War II, the territorial disputes over the Liancourt Rocks, known in South Korea as "Dokdo" and in Japan as "Takeshima",[247] and visits by Japanese politicians to the Yasukuni Shrine, honoring Japanese people (civilians and military) killed during the war continue to trouble Korean-Japanese relations. The Liancourt Rocks were the first Korean territories to be forcibly colonized by Japan in 1905. Although it was again returned to Korea along with the rest of its territory in 1951 with the signing of the Treaty of San Francisco, Japan does not recant on its claims that the Liancourt Rocks are Japanese territory.[248] In response to then-Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi's visits to the Yasukuni Shrine, former President Roh Moo-hyun suspended all summit talks between South Korea and Japan in 2009.[249] A summit between the nations' leaders was eventually held on February 9, 2018, during the Korean held Winter Olympics.[250] South Korea asked the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to ban the Japanese Rising Sun Flag from the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo,[251][252] and the IOC said in a statement "sports stadiums should be free of any political demonstration. When concerns arise at games time we look at them on a case-by-case basis."[253]

European Union[edit]

The European Union (EU) and South Korea are important trading partners, having negotiated a free trade agreement for many years since South Korea was designated as a priority FTA partner in 2006. The free trade agreement was approved in September 2010, and took effect on July 1, 2011.[254] South Korea is the EU's tenth largest trade partner, and the EU has become South Korea's fourth largest export destination. EU trade with South Korea exceeded €90 billion in 2015 and has enjoyed an annual average growth rate of 9.8% between 2003 and 2013.[255]

The EU has been the single largest foreign investor in South Korea since 1962, and accounted for almost 45% of all FDI inflows into Korea in 2006. Nevertheless, EU companies have significant problems accessing and operating in the South Korean market because of stringent standards and testing requirements for products and services often creating barriers to trade. Both in its regular bilateral contacts with South Korea and through its FTA with Korea, the EU is seeking to improve this situation.[255]

United States[edit]

President Yoon Suk Yeol meets with U.S. President Joe Biden in Seoul.

The close relationship began directly after World War II, when the United States temporarily administered Korea for three years (mainly in the South, with the Soviet Union engaged in North Korea) after Japan. Upon the onset of the Korean War in 1950, U.S. forces were sent to defend against an invasion from North Korea of the South, and subsequently fought as the largest contributor of UN troops. The United States participation was critical for preventing the near defeat of the Republic of Korea by northern forces, as well as fighting back for the territory gains that define the South Korean nation today.

Following the Armistice, South Korea and the U.S. agreed to a "Mutual Defense Treaty", under which an attack on either party in the Pacific area would summon a response from both.[256] In 1967, South Korea obliged the mutual defense treaty, by sending a large combat troop contingent to support the United States in the Vietnam War. The US has over 23,000 troops stationed in South Korea, including the U.S. Eighth Army, Seventh Air Force, and U.S. Naval Forces Korea. The two nations have strong economic, diplomatic, and military ties, although they have at times disagreed with regard to policies towards North Korea, and with regard to some of South Korea's industrial activities that involve usage of rocket or nuclear technology. There had also been strong anti-American sentiment during certain periods, which has largely moderated in the modern day.[257]

The two nations also share a close economic relationship, with the U.S. being South Korea's second largest trading partner, receiving $66 billion in exports in 2016.[235] In 2007, a free trade agreement known as the Republic of Korea-United States Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA) was signed between South Korea and the United States, but its formal implementation was repeatedly delayed, pending approval by the legislative bodies of the two countries. On October 12, 2011, the U.S. Congress passed the long-stalled trade agreement with South Korea.[258] It went into effect on March 15, 2012.[259]


Unresolved tension with North Korea has prompted South Korea to allocate 2.6% of its GDP and 15% of all government spending to its military (government share of GDP: 14.967%), while maintaining compulsory conscription for men.[citation needed] Consequently, South Korea has the world's seventh largest number of active troops (599,000 in 2018), the world's highest number of reserve troops (3,100,000 in 2018).[260]

The South Korean military consists of the Army (ROKA), the Navy (ROKN), the Air Force (ROKAF), and the Marine Corps (ROKMC), and reserve forces.[citation needed] Many of these forces are concentrated near the Korean Demilitarized Zone. All South Korean males are constitutionally required to serve in the military, typically 18 months. Previous exceptions for South Korean citizens of mixed race no longer apply since 2011.[261]

In addition to male conscription in South Korea's sovereign military, 1,800 Korean males are selected every year to serve 18 months in the KATUSA Program to further augment the United States Forces Korea (USFK).[citation needed] In 2010, South Korea was spending 1.68 trillion in a cost-sharing agreement with the US to provide budgetary support to the US forces in Korea, on top of the ₩29.6 trillion budget for its own military.

The South Korean-developed K2 Black Panther, built by Hyundai Rotem

The South Korean Army has 2,500 tanks in operation, including the K1A1 and K2 Black Panther, which form the backbone of the South Korean army's mechanized armor and infantry forces. A sizable arsenal of many artillery systems, including 1,700 self-propelled K55 and K9 Thunder howitzers and 680 helicopters and UAVs of numerous types, are assembled to provide additional fire, reconnaissance, and logistics support. South Korea's smaller but more advanced artillery force and wide range of airborne reconnaissance platforms are pivotal in the counter-battery suppression of North Korea's large artillery force, which operates more than 13,000 artillery systems deployed in various state of fortification and mobility.[citation needed]

The South Korean Navy has made its first major transformation into a blue-water navy through the formation of the Strategic Mobile Fleet, which includes a battle group of Chungmugong Yi Sun-sin class destroyers, Dokdo class amphibious assault ship, AIP-driven Type 214 submarines, and King Sejong the Great class destroyers, which is equipped with the latest baseline of Aegis fleet-defense system that allows the ships to track and destroy multiple cruise missiles and ballistic missiles simultaneously, forming an integral part of South Korea's indigenous missile defense umbrella against the North Korean military's missile threat.[262]

The South Korean Air Force operates 840 aircraft, making it world's ninth largest air force, including several types of advanced fighters like F-15K, heavily modified KF-16C/D,[263] and the indigenous T-50 Golden Eagle,[264][265] supported by well-maintained fleets of older fighters such as F-4E and KF-5E/F that still effectively serve the air force alongside the more modern aircraft. In an attempt to gain strength in terms of not just numbers but also modernity, the commissioning of four Boeing 737 AEW&C aircraft, under Project Peace Eye for centralized intelligence gathering and analysis on a modern battlefield, will enhance the fighters' and other support aircraft's ability to perform their missions with awareness and precision.

In May 2011, Korea Aerospace Industries Ltd., South Korea's largest plane maker, signed a $400 million deal to sell 16 T-50 Golden Eagle trainer jets to Indonesia, making South Korea the first country in East Asia to export supersonic jets.[266]

ROKAF FA-50, a supersonic combat aircraft developed by Korea Aerospace Industries

From time to time, South Korea has sent its troops overseas to assist American forces. It has participated in most major conflicts that the United States has been involved in the past 50 years. South Korea dispatched 325,517 troops to fight alongside American, Australian, Filipino, New Zealand and South Vietnamese soldiers in the Vietnam War, with a peak strength of 50,000.[267] In 2004, South Korea sent 3,300 troops of the Zaytun Division to help re-building in northern Iraq, and was the third largest contributor in the coalition forces after only the US and Britain.[268] Beginning in 2001, South Korea had so far deployed 24,000 troops in the Middle East region to support the War on Terrorism. A further 1,800 were deployed since 2007 to reinforce UN peacekeeping forces in Lebanon.

United States contingent[edit]

The United States has stationed a substantial contingent of troops to defend South Korea. There are approximately 28,500 U.S. military personnel stationed in South Korea,[269] most of them serving one year unaccompanied tours. The U.S. troops, which are primarily ground and air units, are assigned to USFK and mainly assigned to the Eighth United States Army of the U.S. Army and Seventh Air Force of the U.S. Air Force. They are stationed in installations at Osan, Kunsan, Yongsan, Dongducheon, Sungbuk, Camp Humphreys, and Daegu, as well as at Camp Bonifas in the DMZ Joint Security Area.

A fully functioning UN Command is at the top of the chain of command of all forces in South Korea, including the U.S. forces and the entire South Korean military – if a sudden escalation of war between North and South Korea were to occur the United States would assume control of the South Korean armed forces in all military and paramilitary moves. There has been long-term agreement between the United States and South Korea that South Korea should eventually assume the lead for its own defense. This transition to a South Korean command has been slow and often postponed, although it is currently scheduled to occur in the early 2020s.[270]

Conscientious objection[edit]

Male citizens who refuse or reject to undertake military services because of conscientious objection are typically imprisoned, with over 600 individuals usually imprisoned at any given time; more than the rest of the world put together.[271] The vast majority of these are young men from the Jehovah's Witnesses Christian denomination.[272] However, in a court ruling of 2018, conscientious objectors were permitted to reject military service.[273]


Share of world GDP (PPP)[274]
Year Share
1980 0.61%
1990 1.16%
2000 1.56%
2010 1.70%
2020 1.74%
The Bank of Korea, the central bank of South Korea and issuer of the South Korean won
The Samsung headquarters in Samsung Town, located in Seocho-gu, Seoul

South Korea's mixed economy[275][276][277] ranks 11th largest GDP at nominal and the 14th largest GDP by purchasing power parity in the world,[274] identifying it as one of the G-20 major economies. It is a developed country with a high-income economy and is the most industrialized member country of the OECD. South Korean brands such as LG Electronics and Samsung are internationally famous and garnered South Korea's reputation for its quality electronics and other manufactured goods.[278]

Its massive investment in education has taken the country from mass illiteracy to a major international technological powerhouse. The country's national economy benefits from a highly skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree.[279] South Korea's economy was one of the world's fastest-growing from the early 1960s to the late 1990s, and was still one of the fastest-growing developed countries in the 2000s, along with Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan, the other three Asian Tigers.[280] It recorded the fastest rise in average GDP per capita in the world between 1980 and 1990.[281] South Koreans refer to this growth as the Miracle on the Han River.[282] The South Korean economy is heavily dependent on international trade, and in 2014, South Korea was the fifth-largest exporter and seventh-largest importer in the world. In addition, the country has one of the world's largest foreign-exchange reserves.[283]

Despite the South Korean economy's high growth potential and apparent structural stability, the country suffers damage to its credit rating in the stock market because of the belligerence of North Korea in times of deep military crises, which has an adverse effect on South Korean financial markets.[284][285] The International Monetary Fund compliments the resilience of the South Korean economy against various economic crises, citing low state debt and high fiscal reserves that can quickly be mobilized to address financial emergencies.[286] Although it was severely harmed by the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the South Korean economy managed a rapid recovery and subsequently tripled its GDP.[287]

Furthermore, South Korea was one of the few developed countries that were able to avoid a recession during the global financial crisis.[288] Its economic growth rate reached 6.2 percent in 2010 (the fastest growth for eight years after significant growth by 7.2 percent in 2002),[289] a sharp recovery from economic growth rates of 2.3% in 2008 and 0.2% in 2009 during the Great Recession. The unemployment rate in South Korea also remained low in 2009, at 3.6%.[290]

South Korea became a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1996.[291]

The following list includes the largest South Korean companies by revenue in 2017 who are all listed as part of the Fortune Global 500:

Rank[292] Name Headquarters Revenue
(mil. $)
(mil. $)
(mil. $)
01. Samsung Electronics Suwon 173,957 19,316 217,104
02. Hyundai Motor Seoul 80,701 4,659 148,092
03. SK Holdings Seoul 72,579 659 85.332
04. Korea Electric Power Naju 51,500 6,074 147,265
05. LG Electronics Seoul 47,712 66 31,348
06. POSCO Pohang 45,621 1,167 66,361
07. Kia Motors Seoul 45,425 2,373 42,141
08. Hanwha Seoul 40,606 423 128,247
09. Hyundai Heavy Industries Ulsan 33,881 469 40,783
010. Hyundai Mobis Seoul 32,972 2,617 34,541
011. Samsung Life Insurance Seoul 26,222 1,770 219,157
012. Lotte Shopping Seoul 25,444 144 34,710
013. Samsung C&T Seoul 24,217 92 36,816
014. LG Display Seoul 22,840 781 20,606
015. GS Caltex Seoul 22,207 1,221 15,969

Transportation, energy and infrastructure[edit]

South Korea developed the HEMU 430X high-speed train, which can travel at over 430 km/h (270 mph), making South Korea the world's fourth country after France, Japan and China to develop a high-speed train running above 420 km/h (260 mph) on conventional rails.
The Daegu Metro Line 3 monorail

South Korea has a technologically advanced transport network consisting of high-speed railways, highways, bus routes, ferry services, and air routes that crisscross the country. Korea Expressway Corporation operates the toll highways and service amenities en route.

Korail provides frequent train services to all major South Korean cities. Two rail lines, Gyeongui and Donghae Bukbu Line, to North Korea are now being reconnected. The Korean high-speed rail system, KTX, provides high-speed service along Gyeongbu and Honam Line. Major cities including Seoul, Busan, Incheon, Daegu, Daejeon and Gwangju have urban rapid transit systems.[293] Express bus terminals are available in most cities.[294]

South Korea's main gateway and largest airport is Incheon International Airport, serving 58 million passengers in 2016.[295] Other international airports include Gimpo, Busan and Jeju. There are also many airports that were built as part of the infrastructure boom but are barely used.[296] There are also many heliports.[297]

The national carrier, Korean Air served over 26,800,000 passengers, including almost 19,000,000 international passengers in 2016.[298] A second carrier, Asiana Airlines also serves domestic and international traffic. Combined, South Korean airlines serve 297 international routes.[299] Smaller airlines, such as Jeju Air, provide domestic service with lower fares.[300]

South Korea is the world's fifth-largest nuclear power producer and the second-largest in Asia as of 2010.[301] Nuclear power in South Korea supplies 45% of electricity production, and research is very active with investigation into a variety of advanced reactors, including a small modular reactor, a liquid-metal fast/transmutation reactor and a high-temperature hydrogen generation design. Fuel production and waste handling technologies have also been developed locally. It is also a member of the ITER project.[302]

South Korea is an emerging exporter of nuclear reactors, having concluded agreements with the UAE to build and maintain four advanced nuclear reactors,[303] with Jordan for a research nuclear reactor,[304][305] and with Argentina for construction and repair of heavy-water nuclear reactors.[306][307] As of 2010, South Korea and Turkey are in negotiations regarding construction of two nuclear reactors.[308] South Korea is also preparing to bid on construction of a light-water nuclear reactor for Argentina.[307]

South Korea is not allowed to enrich uranium or develop traditional uranium enrichment technology on its own, because of US political pressure,[309] unlike most major nuclear powers such as Japan, Germany, and France, competitors of South Korea in the international nuclear market. This impediment to South Korea's indigenous nuclear industrial undertaking has sparked occasional diplomatic rows between the two allies. While South Korea is successful in exporting its electricity-generating nuclear technology and nuclear reactors, it cannot capitalize on the market for nuclear enrichment facilities and refineries, preventing it from further expanding its export niche. South Korea has sought unique technologies such as pyroprocessing to circumvent these obstacles and seek a more advantageous competition.[310] The US has recently been wary of South Korea's burgeoning nuclear program, which South Korea insists will be for civilian use only.[301]

South Korea is the third highest ranked Continental Asian country in the World Economic Forum's Network Readiness Index (NRI) after Singapore and Hong Kong respectively – an indicator for determining the development level of a country's information and communication technologies. South Korea ranked number 10 overall in the 2014 NRI ranking, up from 11 in 2013.[311]


In 2016, 17 million foreign tourists visited South Korea.[312][313] With rising tourist prospects, especially from foreign countries outside of East Asia, the South Korean government has set a target of attracting 20 million foreign tourists a year by 2017.[314]

South Korean tourism is driven by many factors, including the prominence of Korean pop culture such as South Korean pop music and television dramas, known as the Korean Wave or Hallyu, has gained popularity throughout East Asia. The Hyundai Research Institute reported that the Korean Wave has a direct impact in encouraging direct foreign investment back into the country through demand for products, and the tourism industry.[315] Among East Asian countries, China was the most receptive, investing $1.4 billion in South Korea, with much of the investment within its service sector, a sevenfold increase from 2001. According to an analysis by economist Han Sang-Wan, a 1 percent increase in the exports of Korean cultural content pushes consumer goods exports up 0.083 percent while a 1 percent increase in Korean pop content exports to a country produces a 0.019 percent bump in tourism.[315]

South Korean National Pension System[edit]

The South Korean pension system was created to provide benefits to persons reaching old age, families and persons stricken with death of their primary breadwinner, and for the purposes of stabilizing its nation's welfare state.[316] South Korea's pension system structure is primarily based on taxation and is income-related. In 2007 there was a total of 18,367,000 insured individuals with only around 511,000 persons excluded from mandatory contribution.[317] The current pension system is divided into four categories distributing benefits to participants through national, military personnel, governmental, and private school teacher pension schemes.[318] The national pension scheme is the primary welfare system providing allowances to the majority of persons. Eligibility for the national pension scheme is not dependent on income but on age and residence, where those between the ages of 18 and 59 are covered.[319] Any one who is under the age of 18 are dependents of someone who is covered or under a special exclusion where they are allowed to alternative provisions.[320] The national pension scheme is divided into four categories of insured persons – the workplace-based insured, the individually insured, the voluntarily insured, and the voluntarily and continuously insured.

Employees between the ages of 18 and 59 are covered under the workplace-based pension scheme and contribute 4.5% of their gross monthly earnings.[316] The national pension covers employees who work in firms that employ five or more employees, fishermen, farmers, and the self-employed in both rural and urban areas. Employers are also covered under the workplace-based pension scheme and help cover their employees obligated 9% contribution by providing the remaining 4.5%.[320] Anyone who is not employed, of the age of 60 or above, or excluded by article 6 of the National Pension Act,[321] but is of the ages between 18 and 59, is covered under the individually insured pension scheme.[321] Persons covered by the individually insured pension scheme are in charge of paying the entire 9% contribution themselves. Voluntarily insured persons are not subjected to mandatory coverage but can choose to be. This category comprises retirees who voluntarily choose to have additional benefits, individuals under the age of 27 without income, and individuals whose spouses are covered under a public welfare system, whether military, governmental, or private school teacher pensions.[319] Like the individually insured persons, they too are in charge of covering the full amount of the contribution. Voluntarily and continuously insured persons consists of individuals 60 years of age who want to fulfill the minimum insured period of 20 years to qualify for old age pension benefits.[321] Excluding the workplace-based insured persons, all the other insured persons personally cover their own 9% contribution.[319]

South Korea's old-age pension scheme covers individuals age 60 or older for the rest of their life as long as they have satisfied the minimum of 20 years of national pension coverage beforehand.[320] Individuals with a minimum of 10 years covered under the national pension scheme and who are 60 years of age are able to be covered under a 'reduced old-age pension' scheme. There also is an 'active old-age pension' scheme that covers individuals age 60 to 65 engaged in activities yielding earned income. Individuals age of 55 and younger than 60 who are not engaged in activities yielding earned income are eligible to be covered under the 'early old-age pension' scheme.[321] Around 60% of all Korean elders, age 65 and over are entitled to a 5% benefit of their past average income at an average of 90,000 Korean Won (KRW).[322] Basic old-age pension schemes covered individuals 65 years of age who earned below an amount set by presidential order. In 2010, that ceiling was 700,000 KRW for a single individual and 1,120,000 for a couple, equivalent to around $600.00 and $960.00.[320]

Science and technology[edit]

A 3D OLED TV made by Korean LG Display, the world's largest LCD and OLED maker

Scientific and technological development in South Korea at first did not occur largely because of more pressing matters such as the division of Korea and the Korean War that occurred right after its independence. It was not until the 1960s under the dictatorship of Park Chung Hee where South Korea's economy rapidly grew from industrialization and the chaebol corporations such as Samsung, LG, and SK. Ever since the industrialization of South Korea's economy, South Korea has placed its focus on technology-based corporations, which has been supported by infrastructure developments by the government. South Korean corporations Samsung and LG were ranked first and third largest mobile phone companies in the world in the first quarter of 2012, respectively.[323] An estimated 90% of South Koreans own a mobile phone.[324] Aside from placing/receiving calls and text messaging, mobile phones in the country are widely used for watching Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB) or viewing websites.[325] Over one million DMB phones have been sold and the three major wireless communications providers SK Telecom, KT, and LG U+ provide coverage in all major cities and other areas. South Korea has the fastest Internet download speeds in the world,[326] with an average download speed of 25.3 Mbit/s.[327]

South Korea leads the OECD in graduates in science and engineering.[328] From 2014 to 2019, the country ranked first among the most innovative countries in the Bloomberg Innovation Index.[329] It was ranked 5th in the Global Innovation Index 2022, up from 10th in 2020 and 11st in 2019.[330][331][332] Additionally, South Korea today is known as a Launchpad of a mature mobile market, where developers can reap benefits of a market where very few technology constraints exist. There is a growing trend of inventions of new types of media or apps, utilizing the 4G and 5G internet infrastructure in South Korea. South Korea has today the infrastructures to meet a density of population and culture that has the capability to create strong local particularity.[333]

Cyber security[edit]

Following cyberattacks in the first half of 2013, whereby government, news-media, television station, and bank websites were compromised, the national government committed to the training of 5,000 new cybersecurity experts by 2017. The South Korean government blamed North Korea for these attacks, as well as incidents that occurred in 2009, 2011 and 2012, but Pyongyang denies the accusations.[334]

In late September 2013, a computer-security competition jointly sponsored by the defense ministry and the National Intelligence Service was announced. The winners were announced on September 29, 2013, and shared a total prize pool of 80 million won (US$74,000).[334]

South Korea's government maintains a broad-ranging approach toward the regulation of specific online content and imposes a substantial level of censorship on election-related discourse and on many websites that the government deems subversive or socially harmful.[335][336]

Aerospace engineering[edit]

Naro-1 during liftoff

South Korea has sent up 10 satellites since 1992, all using foreign rockets and overseas launch pads, notably Arirang-1 in 1999, and Arirang-2 in 2006 as part of its space partnership with Russia.[337] Arirang-1 was lost in space in 2008, after nine years in service.[338]

In April 2008, Yi So-yeon became the first Korean to fly in space, aboard the Russian Soyuz TMA-12.[339][340]

In June 2009, the first spaceport of South Korea, Naro Space Center, was completed at Goheung, Jeollanam-do.[341] The launch of Naro-1 in August 2009 resulted in a failure.[342] The second attempt in June 2010 was also unsuccessful.[343] However, the third launch of the Naro 1 in January 2013 was successful.[344] The government plans to develop Naro-2 by 2018.[345]

South Korea's efforts to build an indigenous space launch vehicle have been marred due to persistent political pressure from the United States, who had for many decades hindered South Korea's indigenous rocket and missile development programs[346] in fear of their possible connection to clandestine military ballistic missile programs, which Korea many times insisted did not violate the research and development guidelines stipulated by US-Korea agreements on restriction of South Korean rocket technology research and development.[347] South Korea has sought the assistance of foreign countries such as Russia through MTCR commitments to supplement its restricted domestic rocket technology. The two failed KSLV-I launch vehicles were based on the Universal Rocket Module, the first stage of the Russian Angara rocket, combined with a solid-fueled second stage built by South Korea.


Albert HUBO, developed by KAIST, can make expressive gestures with its five separate fingers.

Robotics has been included in the list of main national R&D projects in Korea since 2003.[348] In 2009, the government announced plans to build robot-themed parks in Incheon and Masan with a mix of public and private funding.[349]

In 2005, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) developed the world's second walking humanoid robot, HUBO. A team in the Korea Institute of Industrial Technology developed the first Korean android, EveR-1 in May 2006.[350] EveR-1 has been succeeded by more complex models with improved movement and vision.[351][352]

Plans of creating English-teaching robot assistants to compensate for the shortage of teachers were announced in February 2010, with the robots being deployed to most preschools and kindergartens by 2013.[353] Robotics are also incorporated in the entertainment sector as well; the Korean Robot Game Festival has been held every year since 2004 to promote science and robot technology.[354]


Since the 1980s, the Korean government has invested in the development of a domestic biotechnology industry, and the sector is projected to grow to $6.5 billion by 2010.[355] The medical sector accounts for a large part of the production, including production of hepatitis vaccines and antibiotics.

Recently, research and development in genetics and cloning has received increasing attention, with the first successful cloning of a dog, Snuppy (in 2005), and the cloning of two females of an endangered species of gray wolves by the Seoul National University in 2007.[356]

The rapid growth of the industry has resulted in significant voids in regulation of ethics, as was highlighted by the scientific misconduct case involving Hwang Woo-Suk.[357]

Since late 2020, SK Bioscience Inc. (a division of SK Group) has been producing a major proportion of the Vaxzevria vaccine (also known as COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca), under license from the University of Oxford and AstraZeneca, for worldwide distribution through the COVAX facility under the WHO hospice. A recent agreement with Novavax expands its production for a second vaccine to 40 million doses in 2022, with a $450 million investment in domestic and overseas facilities.[358]

Culture and society[edit]

A musician playing a gayageum

South Korea shares its traditional culture with North Korea, but the two Koreas have developed distinct contemporary forms of culture since the peninsula was divided in 1945. Historically, while the culture of Korea has been heavily influenced by that of neighboring China, it has nevertheless managed to develop a unique cultural identity that is distinct from its larger neighbor.[359] Its rich and vibrant culture left 21 UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritages of Humanity,[360] the fourth largest in the world,[needs update] along with 15 World Heritage Sites. The South Korean Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism actively encourages the traditional arts, as well as modern forms, through funding and education programs.[361] According to the 2023 edition of the Press Freedom Index, South Korea has the second highest level of press freedom on the Asian continent, behind Taiwan.[362]

The industrialization and urbanization of South Korea have brought many changes to the way modern Koreans live. Changing economics and lifestyles have led to a concentration of population in major cities, especially the capital Seoul, with multi-generational households separating into nuclear family living arrangements. A 2014 Euromonitor study found that South Koreans drink the most alcohol on a weekly basis compared to the rest of the world. South Koreans drink 13.7 shots of liquor per week on average and, of the 44 other countries analyzed, Russia, the Philippines, and Thailand follow.[363]


A blue and white porcelain peach-shaped water dropper from the Joseon Dynasty in the 18th century

Korean art has been highly influenced by Buddhism and Confucianism, which can be seen in the many traditional paintings, sculptures, ceramics and the performing arts.[364] Korean pottery and porcelain, such as Joseon's baekja and buncheong, and Goryeo's celadon are well known throughout the world.[365] The Korean tea ceremony, pansori, talchum and buchaechum are also notable Korean performing arts.

Post-war modern Korean art started to flourish in the 1960s and 1970s, when South Korean artists took interest in geometrical shapes and intangible subjects. Establishing a harmony between man and nature was also a favorite of this time. Because of social instability, social issues appeared as main subjects in the 1980s. Art was influenced by various international events and exhibits in Korea, and with it brought more diversity.[366] The Olympic Sculpture Garden in 1988, the transposition of the 1993 edition of the Whitney Biennial to Seoul,[367] the creation of the Gwangju Biennale[368] and the Korean Pavilion at the Venice Biennale in 1995[369] were notable events.


Because of South Korea's tumultuous history, construction and destruction has been repeated endlessly, resulting in an interesting melange of architectural styles and designs.[370]

Korean traditional architecture is characterized by its harmony with nature. Ancient architects adopted the bracket system characterized by thatched roofs and heated floors called ondol.[371] People of the upper classes built bigger houses with elegantly curved tiled roofs with lifting eaves. Traditional architecture can be seen in the palaces and temples, preserved old houses called hanok,[372] and special sites like Hahoe Folk Village, Yangdong Village of Gyeongju and Korean Folk Village. Traditional architecture may also be seen at the nine UNESCO World Heritage Sites in South Korea.[373]

Western architecture was first introduced to Korea at the end of the 19th century. Churches, offices for foreign legislation, schools and university buildings were built in new styles. With the annexation of Korea by Japan in 1910 the colonial regime intervened in Korea's architectural heritage, and Japanese-style modern architecture was imposed. The anti-Japanese sentiment, and the Korean War, led to the destruction of most buildings constructed during that time.[374]

Korean architecture entered a new phase of development during the post-Korean War reconstruction, incorporating modern architectural trends and styles. Stimulated by the economic growth in the 1970s and 1980s, active redevelopment saw new horizons in architectural design. In the aftermath of the 1988 Seoul Olympics, South Korea has witnessed a wide variation of styles in its architectural landscape due, in large part, to the opening up of the market to foreign architects.[375] Contemporary architectural efforts have been constantly trying to balance the traditional philosophy of "harmony with nature" and the fast-paced urbanization that the country has been going through in recent years.[376]


Korean cuisine, hanguk yori (한국요리; 韓國料理), or hansik (한식; 韓食), has evolved through centuries of social and political change. Ingredients and dishes vary by province. There are many significant regional dishes that have proliferated in different variations across the country in the present day. The Korean royal court cuisine once brought all of the unique regional specialties together for the royal family. Meals consumed both by the royal family and ordinary Korean citizens have been regulated by a unique culture of etiquette.

Korean cuisine is largely based on rice, noodles, tofu, vegetables, fish and meats. Traditional Korean meals are noted for the number of side dishes, banchan (반찬), which accompany steam-cooked short-grain rice. Every meal is accompanied by numerous banchan. Kimchi (김치), a fermented, usually spicy vegetable dish is commonly served at every meal and is one of the best known Korean dishes. Korean cuisine usually involves heavy seasoning with sesame oil, doenjang (된장), a type of fermented soybean paste, soy sauce, salt, garlic, ginger, and gochujang (고추장), a hot pepper paste. Other well-known dishes are Bulgogi (불고기), grilled marinated beef; Gimbap (김밥); and Tteokbokki (떡볶이), a spicy snack consisting of rice cake seasoned with gochujang or a spicy chili paste.

Soups are also a common part of a Korean meal and are served as part of the main course rather than at the beginning or the end of the meal. Soups known as guk (국) are often made with meats, shellfish and vegetables. Similar to guk, tang (탕; 湯) has less water, and is more often served in restaurants. Another type is jjigae (찌개), a stew that is typically heavily seasoned with chili pepper and served boiling hot.

Popular Korean alcoholic beverages include Soju, Makgeolli and Bokbunja ju.

Korea is unique among East Asian countries in its use of metal chopsticks. Metal chopsticks have been discovered in Goguryeo archaeological sites.[377]


BTS has emerged as one of the country's most successful K-pop groups since their rise to international prominence during the latter half of the 2010s.

In addition to domestic consumption, South Korea has a thriving entertainment industry where various facets of South Korean entertainment, including television dramas, films, and popular music, have garnered international popularity and generated significant export revenues for the nation's economy. The cultural phenomenon known as Hallyu or the "Korean Wave", has swept many countries across Continental and East Asia making South Korea a major soft power as an exporter of popular culture and entertainment, rivaling Western nations such as the United States and the United Kingdom.[378][379][380][381][382]

Blackpink has been one of the most popular K-pop groups in the world since the late 2010s.

Until the 1990s, trot and traditional Korean folk based ballads dominated South Korean popular music. The emergence of the South Korean pop group Seo Taiji and Boys in 1992 marked a turning point for South Korean popular music, also known as K-pop. Since the 1990s, the genre has continuously re-modernized itself by incorporating elements of popular musical genres and trends from across the world such as Western popular music, experimental, jazz, gospel, Latin, classical, hip hop, rhythm and blues, electronic dance, reggae, country, folk, and rock on top of its uniquely traditional Korean music roots.[383] Though Western-style pop, hip hop, rhythm and blues, rock, folk, electronic dance oriented acts have become dominant in the contemporary South Korean popular music scene, trot still continues to be appreciated and enjoyed by older South Koreans. K-pop idols are well known across Continental Asia, have found fame in the Western World, and have generated millions of dollars in export revenue in music markets beyond East Asia. Many K-pop acts have also secured a strong global following using online social media platforms such as YouTube. K-pop first began to makes its mark outside of Continental and East Asia following the unexpected success of South Korean singer Psy's international music sensation, "Gangnam Style", which topped global music charts in 2012.

Since the success of the film Shiri in 1999, the Korean film industry has begun to gain recognition internationally. Domestic films have a dominant share of the market, partly because of the existence of screen quotas requiring cinemas to show Korean films at least 73 days a year.[384] 2019's Parasite, directed by Bong Joon-ho, became the highest-grossing film in South Korea as well as the first non-English language film to win Best Picture at the United States-based Academy Awards that year amongst numerous other accolades.

South Korean television shows have become popular outside of Korea. South Korean television dramas, known as K-dramas, have begun to find fame internationally. Many dramas tend to have a romantic focus, such as Princess Hours, You're Beautiful, Playful Kiss, My Name is Kim Sam Soon, Boys Over Flowers, Winter Sonata, Autumn in My Heart, Full House, City Hunter, All About Eve, Secret Garden, I Can Hear Your Voice, Master's Sun, My Love from the Star, Healer, Descendants of the Sun, Guardian: The Lonely and Great God and Reply (TV series) . Historical dramas have included Faith, Dae Jang Geum, The Legend, Dong Yi, Moon Embracing the Sun, Sungkyunkwan Scandal, Iljimae and Kingdom.[385][386] The 2021 survival drama Squid Game, created by Hwang Dong-hyuk, received critical acclaim and widespread international attention upon its release, becoming Netflix's most-watched series at launch and garnering a viewership of more than 142 million households during its first four weeks from launch.[387][388][389][390]


There are many official public holidays in South Korea. Korean New Year's Day, or "Seollal", is celebrated on the first day of the Korean lunar calendar. Korean Independence Day falls on March 1, and commemorates the March 1 Movement of 1919. Memorial Day is celebrated on June 6, and its purpose is to honor the men and women who died in South Korea's independence movement. Constitution Day is on July 17, and it celebrates the promulgation of Constitution of the Republic of Korea. Liberation Day, on August 15, celebrates Korea's liberation from the Empire of Japan in 1945. Every 15th day of the 8th lunar month, Koreans celebrate the Midautumn Festival, in which Koreans visit their ancestral hometowns and eat a variety of traditional Korean foods. On October 1, Armed Forces day is celebrated, honoring the military forces of South Korea. October 3 is National Foundation Day. Hangul Day, on October 9 commemorates the invention of hangul, the native alphabet of the Korean language.


Seoul Sports Complex, Korea's largest integrated sports center

The martial art taekwondo originated in Korea. In the 1950s and 1960s, modern rules were standardized, with taekwondo becoming an official Olympic sport in 2000.[391] Other Korean martial arts include Taekkyon, hapkido, Tang Soo Do, Kuk Sool Won, kumdo and subak.[392]

Football has traditionally been regarded as the most popular sport in Korea, with Baseball as the second.[393] Recent polling indicates that a majority, 41% of South Korean sports fans continue to self-identify as football fans, with baseball ranked 2nd at 25% of respondents. However, the polling did not indicate the extent to which respondents follow both sports.[394] The national football team became the first team in the Asian Football Confederation to reach the FIFA World Cup semi-finals in the 2002 FIFA World Cup, jointly hosted by South Korea and Japan. The Korea Republic national team (as it is known) has qualified for every World Cup since Mexico 1986, and has broken out of the group stage in 2002, in 2010, when it was defeated by eventual semi-finalist Uruguay in the Round of 16, and in 2022. At the 2012 Summer Olympics, South Korea won the bronze medal for football.

Sajik Baseball Stadium in Busan. Baseball is one of the most popular sports in South Korea.

Baseball was first introduced to Korea in 1905 and has since become one of the most popular sports in the country.[395][396][397] Recent years have been characterized by increasing attendance and ticket prices for professional baseball games.[398][399] The Korea Professional Baseball league, a 10-team circuit, was established in 1982. The South Korea national team finished third in the 2006 World Baseball Classic and second in the 2009 tournament. The team's 2009 final game against Japan was widely watched in Korea, with a large screen at Gwanghwamun crossing in Seoul broadcasting the game live.[400] In the 2008 Summer Olympics, South Korea won the gold medal in baseball.[401] Also in 1982, at the Baseball Worldcup, Korea won the gold medal. At the 2010 Asian Games, the Korean National Baseball team won the gold medal. Several Korean players have gone on to play in Major League Baseball.

Basketball is a popular sport in the country as well. South Korea has traditionally had one of the top basketball teams in Asia and one of the continent's strongest basketball divisions. Seoul hosted the 1967 and 1995 Asian Basketball Championship. The Korea national basketball team has won a record number of 23 medals at the event to date.[402]

Taekwondo, a Korean martial art and Olympic sport

South Korea hosted the Asian Games in 1986 (Seoul), 2002 (Busan), and 2014 (Incheon). It also hosted the Winter Universiade in 1997, the Asian Winter Games in 1999, and the Summer Universiade in 2003 and 2015. In 1988, South Korea hosted the Summer Olympics in Seoul, coming fourth with 12 gold medals, 10 silver medals, and 11 bronze medals. South Korea regularly performs well in archery, shooting, table tennis, badminton, short track speed skating, handball, field hockey, freestyle wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling, baseball, judo, taekwondo, speed skating, figure skating, and weightlifting. The Seoul Olympic Museum is dedicated to the 1988 Summer Olympics. On July 6, 2011, Pyeongchang was chosen by the IOC to host the 2018 Winter Olympics.

South Korea has won more medals in the Winter Olympics than any other Asian country, with a total of 45 (23 gold, 14 silver, and 8 bronze). At the 2010 Winter Olympics, South Korea ranked fifth in the overall medal rankings. South Korea is especially strong in short track speed skating. Speed skating and figure skating are also popular, and ice hockey is an emerging sport, with Anyang Halla winning their first ever Asia League Ice Hockey title in March 2010.[403]

Seoul hosted a professional triathlon race, which is part of the International Triathlon Union (ITU) World Championship Series in May 2010.[404] In 2011, the South Korean city of Daegu hosted the 2011 IAAF World Championships in Athletics.[405]

In October 2010, South Korea hosted its first Formula One race at the Korea International Circuit in Yeongam, about 400 kilometers (250 mi) south of Seoul.[406] The Korean Grand Prix was held from 2010 to 2013, but was not placed on the 2014 F1 calendar.[407]

Domestic horse racing events are also followed by South Koreans and Seoul Race Park in Gwacheon, Gyeonggi-do is located closest to Seoul out of the country's three tracks.[408]

Competitive video gaming, also called Esports (sometimes written e-Sports), has become more popular in South Korea in recent years, particularly among young people.[409] The two most popular games are League of Legends and StarCraft. The gaming scene of South Korea is managed by the Korean e-Sports Association.

See also[edit]


  1. South Koreans use the name Hanguk (한국, 韓國) when referring to South Korea or Korea as a whole. The literal translation of South Korea, Namhan (남한, 南韓), is rarely used. North Koreans use Namchosŏn (남조선, 南朝鮮) when referring to South Korea, derived from the North Korean name for Korea, Chosŏn (조선, 朝鮮).
  2. Template:Korean
  3. South Korea's border with North Korea is a disputed border as both countries claim the entirety of the Korean Peninsula.


  1. [시행 2016.8.4.] [법률 제13978호, 2016.2.3., 제정] [Enforcement 2016.8.4. Law No. 13978, enacted on February 3, 2016] (in 한국어). 2016. Retrieved July 26, 2017.
  2. "Foreign population in Korea tops 2.5 million". koreatimes. February 24, 2020.
  3. "Global Religion - Religious Beliefs Across the World" (PDF). Ipsos. May 2023. Retrieved August 23, 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  4. Template:Cite CIA World Factbook
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "World Economic Outlook Database April 2023". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved June 19, 2022.
  6. Inequality – Income inequality – OECD Data. OECD. Retrieved July 17, 2021.
  7. "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. September 8, 2022. Retrieved September 8, 2022.
  8. Roberts, John Morris; Westad, Odd Arne (2013). The History of the World. Oxford University Press. p. 443. ISBN 978-0-19-993676-2. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
  9. Gardner, Hall (November 27, 2007). Averting Global War: Regional Challenges, Overextension, and Options for American Strategy. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 158–159. ISBN 978-0-230-60873-3. Archived from the original on April 17, 2021. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
  10. Laet, Sigfried J. de (1994). History of Humanity: From the seventh to the sixteenth century. UNESCO. p. 1133. ISBN 978-92-3-102813-7. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Rossabi, Morris (May 20, 1983). China Among Equals: The Middle Kingdom and Its Neighbors, 10th–14th Centuries. University of California Press. p. 323. ISBN 978-0-520-04562-0. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Yi, Ki-baek (1984). A New History of Korea. Harvard University Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-674-61576-2. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
  13. Yunn, Seung-Yong (1996), "Muslims earlier contact with Korea", Religious culture of Korea, Hollym International, p. 99
  14. Dourado, Fernão. "Atlas de Fernão Vaz Dourado". Arquivo nacional da Torre do Tombo.
  16. pato, Raymundo. "Cartas de Afonso de Albuquerque, vol. 1".
  17. Korea原名Corea? 美國改的名. United Daily News (in 中文). July 5, 2008. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
  18. Barbara Demick (September 15, 2003). "A 'C' Change in Spelling Sought for the Koreas". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
  19. 이기환 (August 30, 2017). [이기환의 흔적의 역사]국호논쟁의 전말…대한민국이냐 고려공화국이냐. 경향신문 (in 한국어). The Kyunghyang Shinmun. Retrieved July 2, 2018.
  20. 이덕일. [이덕일 사랑] 대~한민국. 조선닷컴 (in 한국어). Chosun Ilbo. Retrieved July 2, 2018.
  21. 21.0 21.1 Myers, Brian Reynolds (December 28, 2016). "Still the Unloved Republic". Sthele Press. Archived from the original on March 13, 2018. Retrieved June 10, 2019. Taehan minguk. In English it is translated as Republic of Korea or South Korea, names which to us foreigners denote the state as a political entity distinct from its northern neighbor. To most people here, however, Taehan minguk conveys that sense only when used in contrastive proximity with the word Pukhan (North Korea). Ask South Koreans when the Taehan minguk was established; more will answer '5000 years ago' than 'in 1948,' because to them it is simply the full name for Hanguk, Korea, the homeland. That's all it meant to most people who shouted those four syllables so proudly during the World Cup in 2002.
  22. Myers, Brian Reynolds (May 20, 2018). "North Korea's state-loyalty advantage". Free Online Library. Archived from the original on May 20, 2018. Retrieved May 26, 2018.
  23. 23.0 23.1 "Korea, 1000–1400 A.D. | Chronology | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  24. "Ancient civilizations" (Press release). Canada: Royal Ontario Museum. December 12, 2005. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
  25. "Prehistoric Korea". About Korea. Archived from the original on March 2, 2008. Retrieved July 12, 2008., Office of the Prime Minister.
  26. "Korea's History". Asian Shravan. Archived from the original on January 28, 2010. Retrieved February 17, 2009.
  27. 27.0 27.1 *Seth, Michael J. (2010). A History of Korea: From Antiquity to the Present. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 443. ISBN 978-0-7425-6717-7.
    "An extreme manifestation of nationalism and the family cult was the revival of interest in Tangun, the mythical founder of the first Korean state... Most textbooks and professional historians, however, treat him as a myth."
    "Although Kija may have truly existed as a historical figure, Tangun is more problematical."
    "Most [Korean historians] treat the [Tangun] myth as a later creation."
    "The Tangun myth became more popular with groups that wanted Korea to be independent; the Kija myth was more useful to those who wanted to show that Korea had a strong affinity to China."
    "If a choice is to be made between them, one is faced with the fact that the Tangun, with his supernatural origin, is more clearly a mythological figure than Kija."
  28. Peterson, Mark; Margulies, Phillip (2009). A Brief History of Korea. Infobase Publishing. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-4381-2738-5.
  29. Hwang, Kyung-moon (2010). A History of Korea, An Episodic Narrative. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-230-36453-0.
  30. Early Korea Archived June 25, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
  31. 낙랑군.
  32. 이문영 (July 15, 2011). 이야기보따리 삼국시대: 역사친구 004. Sowadang. ISBN 978-89-93820-14-0 – via Google Books.
  33. Vovin, Alexander (2017). "Origins of the Japanese Language". Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199384655.013.277. ISBN 978-0-19-938465-5.
  34. Janhunen, Juha (2010). "RReconstructing the Language Map of Prehistorical Northeast Asia". Studia Orientalia (108). ... there are strong indications that the neighbouring Baekje state (in the southwest) was predominantly Japonic-speaking until it was linguistically Koreanized.
  35. Yi, Ki-baek (1984). A New History of Korea. Harvard University Press. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-0-674-61576-2. Retrieved November 21, 2016.
  36. Yi, Hyŏn-hŭi; Pak, Sŏng-su; Yun, Nae-hyŏn (2005). New history of Korea. Jimoondang. p. 201. ISBN 978-89-88095-85-0. He launched a military expedition to expand his territory, opening the golden age of Goguryeo.
  37. Hall, John Whitney (1988). The Cambridge History of Japan. Cambridge University Press. p. 362. ISBN 978-0-521-22352-2. Retrieved July 29, 2016.
  38. Embree, Ainslie Thomas (1988). Encyclopedia of Asian history. Scribner. p. 324. ISBN 978-0-684-18899-7. Retrieved July 29, 2016.
  39. Cohen, Warren I. (December 20, 2000). East Asia at the Center: Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World. Columbia University Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-231-50251-1. Retrieved July 29, 2016.
  40. Kim, Jinwung (November 5, 2012). A History of Korea: From "Land of the Morning Calm" to States in Conflict. Indiana University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-253-00078-1. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
  41. "Kings and Queens of Korea". KBS World Radio. Archived from the original on August 28, 2016. Retrieved August 26, 2016.
  42. *White, Matthew (November 7, 2011). Atrocities: The 100 Deadliest Episodes in Human History. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-393-08192-3. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
    • Grant, Reg G. (2011). 1001 Battles That Changed the Course of World History. Universe Pub. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-7893-2233-3. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
    • Bedeski, Robert (March 12, 2007). Human Security and the Chinese State: Historical Transformations and the Modern Quest for Sovereignty. Routledge. p. 90. ISBN 978-1-134-12597-5. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
    • Yi, Ki-baek (1984). A New History of Korea. Harvard University Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-674-61576-2. Retrieved July 29, 2016. Koguryŏ was the first to open hostilities, with a bold assault across the Liao River against Liao-hsi, in 598. The Sui emperor, Wen Ti, launched a retaliatory attack on Koguryŏ but met with reverses and turned back in mid-course. Yang Ti, the next Sui emperor, proceeded in 612 to mount an invasion of unprecedented magnitude, marshalling a huge force said to number over a million men. And when his armies failed to take Liao-tung Fortress (modern Liao-yang), the anchor of Koguryŏ's first line of defense, he had a nearly a third of his forces, some 300,000 strong, break off the battle there and strike directly at the Koguryŏ capital of P'yŏngyang. But the Sui army was lured into a trap by the famed Koguryŏ commander Ŭlchi Mundŏk, and suffered a calamitous defeat at the Salsu (Ch'ŏngch'ŏn) River. It is said that only 2,700 of the 300,000 Sui soldiers who had crossed the Yalu survived to find their way back, and the Sui emperor now lifted the siege of Liao-tung Fortress and withdrew his forces to China proper. Yang Ti continued to send his armies against Koguryŏ but again without success, and before long his war-weakened empire crumbled.
    • Nahm, Andrew C. (2005). A Panorama of 5000 Years: Korean History (Second revised ed.). Seoul: Hollym International Corporation. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-930878-68-9. China, which had been split into many states since the early 3rd century, was reunified by the Sui dynasty at the end of the 6th century. Soon after that, Sui China mobilized a large number of troops and launched war against Koguryŏ. However, the people of Koguryŏ were united and they were able to repel the Chinese aggressors. In 612, Sui troops invaded Korea again, but Koguryŏ forces fought bravely and destroyed Sui troops everywhere. General Ŭlchi Mundŏk of Koguryŏ completely wiped out some 300,000 Sui troops which came across the Yalu River in the battles near the Salsu River (now Ch'ŏngch'ŏn River) with his ingenious military tactics. Only 2,700 Sui troops were able to flee from Korea. The Sui dynasty, which wasted so much energy and manpower in aggressive wars against Koguryŏ, fell in 618.
  43. Ebrey, Patricia Buckley; Walthall, Anne; Palais, James B. (2006). East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History. Houghton Mifflin. p. 123. ISBN 978-0-618-13384-0. Retrieved September 12, 2016.
  44. Kitagawa, Joseph (September 5, 2013). The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture. Routledge. p. 348. ISBN 978-1-136-87590-8. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
  45. Kitagawa, Joseph (September 5, 2013). The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture. Routledge. p. 348. ISBN 978-1-136-87590-8. Retrieved July 29, 2016.
  46. Ebrey, Patricia Buckley; Walthall, Anne; Palais, James B. (2013). East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Volume I: To 1800. Cengage Learning. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-111-80815-0. Retrieved September 12, 2016.
  47. A Brief History of Korea. Ewha Womans University Press. January 1, 2005. pp. 29–30. ISBN 978-89-7300-619-9. Retrieved November 21, 2016.
  48. Kim, Jinwung (2012). A History of Korea: From "Land of the Morning Calm" to States in Conflict. Indiana University Press. pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-0-253-00024-8. Retrieved September 12, 2016.
  49. Wells, Kenneth M. (July 3, 2015). Korea: Outline of a Civilisation. Brill. pp. 18–19. ISBN 978-90-04-30005-7. Retrieved September 12, 2016.
  50. Injae, Lee; Miller, Owen; Jinhoon, Park; Hyun-Hae, Yi (December 15, 2014). Korean History in Maps. Cambridge University Press. pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-1-107-09846-6. Retrieved February 24, 2017.
  51. MacGregor, Neil (October 6, 2011). A History of the World in 100 Objects. Penguin UK. ISBN 978-0-14-196683-0. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  52. Chŏng, Yang-mo; Smith, Judith G. (1998). Arts of Korea. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 230. ISBN 978-0-87099-850-8. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  53. International, Rotary (April 1989). The Rotarian. Rotary International. p. 28. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  54. Ross, Alan (January 17, 2013). After Pusan. Faber & Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-29935-5. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  55. Mason, David A. "Gyeongju, Korea's treasure house". Korean Culture and Information Service (KOCIS). Archived from the original on October 3, 2016. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  56. Adams, Edward Ben (1990). Koreaʾs pottery heritage. Seoul International Pub. House. p. 53. ISBN 9788985113069. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  57. DuBois, Jill (2004). Korea. Marshall Cavendish. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-7614-1786-6. Retrieved July 29, 2016. golden age of art and culture.
  58. Randel, Don Michael (2003). The Harvard Dictionary of Music. Harvard University Press. p. 273. ISBN 978-0-674-01163-2. Retrieved July 29, 2016.
  59. Hopfner, Jonathan (September 10, 2013). Moon Living Abroad in South Korea. Avalon Travel. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-61238-632-4. Retrieved July 29, 2016.
  60. Kim, Djun Kil (January 30, 2005). The History of Korea. ABC-CLIO. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-313-03853-2. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  61. Gernet, Jacques (May 31, 1996). A History of Chinese Civilization. Cambridge University Press. p. 291. ISBN 978-0-521-49781-7. Retrieved July 21, 2016. Korea held a dominant position in the north-eastern seas.
  62. Reischauer, Edwin Oldfather (May 1, 1955). Ennins Travels in Tang China. John Wiley & Sons Canada, Limited. pp. 276–283. ISBN 978-0-471-07053-5. Retrieved July 21, 2016. From what Ennin tells us, it seems that commerce between East China, Korea and Japan was, for the most part, in the hands of men from Silla. Here in the relatively dangerous waters on the eastern fringes of the world, they performed the same functions as did the traders of the placid Mediterranean on the western fringes. This is a historical fact of considerable significance but one which has received virtually no attention in the standard historical compilations of that period or in the modern books based on these sources. ... While there were limits to the influence of the Koreans along the eastern coast of China, there can be no doubt of their dominance over the waters off these shores. ... The days of Korean maritime dominance in the Far East actually were numbered, but in Ennin's time the men of Silla were still the masters of the seas in their part of the world.
  63. Kim, Djun Kil (May 30, 2014). The History of Korea, 2nd Edition. ABC-CLIO. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-61069-582-4. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
  64. Seth, Michael J. (2006). A Concise History of Korea: From the Neolithic Period Through the Nineteenth Century. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-7425-4005-7. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
  65. Mun, Chanju; Green, Ronald S. (2006). Buddhist Exploration of Peace and Justice. Blue Pine Books. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-9777553-0-1. Retrieved July 29, 2016.
  66. McIntire, Suzanne; Burns, William E. (June 25, 2010). Speeches in World History. Infobase Publishing. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-4381-2680-7. Retrieved July 29, 2016.
  67. Buswell, Robert E. Jr.; Lopez, Donald S. Jr. (November 24, 2013). The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton University Press. p. 187. ISBN 978-1-4008-4805-8. Retrieved July 29, 2016.
  68. Poceski, Mario (April 13, 2007). Ordinary Mind as the Way: The Hongzhou School and the Growth of Chan Buddhism. Oxford University Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-19-804320-1. Retrieved July 29, 2016.
  69. Wu, Jiang; Chia, Lucille (December 15, 2015). Spreading Buddha's Word in East Asia: The Formation and Transformation of the Chinese Buddhist Canon. Columbia University Press. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-231-54019-3. Retrieved July 29, 2016.
  70. Wright, Dale S. (March 25, 2004). The Zen Canon: Understanding the Classic Texts. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-988218-2. Retrieved July 29, 2016.
  71. *Su-il, Jeong (July 18, 2016). The Silk Road Encyclopedia. Seoul Selection. ISBN 978-1-62412-076-3. Retrieved July 29, 2016.
  72. 박, 종기 (August 24, 2015). 고려사의 재발견: 한반도 역사상 가장 개방적이고 역동적인 500년 고려 역사를 만나다 (in 한국어). 휴머니스트. ISBN 978-89-5862-902-3. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
  73. Kim, Djun Kil (January 30, 2005). The History of Korea. ABC-CLIO. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-313-03853-2. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
  74. Grayson, James H. (November 5, 2013). Korea – A Religious History. Routledge. p. 79. ISBN 978-1-136-86925-9. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
  75. Lee, Ki-Baik (1984). A New History of Korea. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-674-61576-2. When Parhae perished at the hands of the Khitan around this same time, much of its ruling class, who were of Koguryŏ descent, fled to Koryŏ. Wang Kŏn warmly welcomed them and generously gave them land. Along with bestowing the name Wang Kye ("Successor of the Royal Wang") on the Parhae crown prince, Tae Kwang-hyŏn, Wang Kŏn entered his name in the royal household register, thus clearly conveying the idea that they belonged to the same lineage, and also had rituals performed in honor of his progenitor. Thus Koryŏ achieved a true national unification that embraced not only the Later Three Kingdoms but even survivors of Koguryŏ lineage from the Parhae kingdom.
  76. Bulliet, Richard; Crossley, Pamela; Headrick, Daniel; Hirsch, Steven; Johnson, Lyman (January 1, 2014). The Earth and Its Peoples, Brief: A Global History. Cengage Learning. p. 264. ISBN 978-1-285-44551-9. Retrieved September 12, 2016.
  77. Cohen, Warren I. (December 20, 2000). East Asia at the Center: Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World. Columbia University Press. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-231-50251-1. Retrieved September 12, 2016.
  78. Lee, Kenneth B. (1997). Korea and East Asia: The Story of a Phoenix. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-275-95823-7. Retrieved July 28, 2016.
  79. Bowman, John (September 5, 2000). Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Columbia University Press. p. 202. ISBN 978-0-231-50004-3. Retrieved August 1, 2016. The Mongolian-Khitan invasions of the late tenth century challenge the stability of the Koryo government, but a period of prosperity follows the defeat of the Khitan in 1018..
  80. 80.0 80.1 Lee, Kenneth B. (1997). Korea and East Asia: The Story of a Phoenix. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-275-95823-7. Retrieved November 12, 2016.
  81. Yi, Ki-baek (1984). A New History of Korea. Harvard University Press. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-674-61576-2. Retrieved November 19, 2016.
  82. Selin, Helaine (November 11, 2013). Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Westen Cultures. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 505–506. ISBN 978-94-017-1416-7. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
  83. Haralambous, Yannis; Horne, P. Scott (November 28, 2007). Fonts & Encodings. O'Reilly Media, Inc. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-596-10242-5. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
  84. Lee, Kenneth B. (1997). Korea and East Asia: The Story of a Phoenix. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-275-95823-7. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
  85. Koerner, E.F.K.; Asher, R. E. (June 28, 2014). Concise History of the Language Sciences: From the Sumerians to the Cognitivists. Elsevier. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-4832-9754-5. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
  86. Perez, Louis (2013). Japan At War: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 140–141. ISBN 978-1-59884-741-3."Yi's successes gave Korea complete control of the sea lanes around the peninsula, and the Korean navy was able to intercept most of the supplies and communications between Japan and Korea"
  87. 신형식 (January 2005). A Brief History of Korea. Ewha Womans University Press. ISBN 978-89-7300-619-9. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
  88. Beirne, Paul (April 2016). Su-un and His World of Symbols: The Founder of Korea's First Indigenous Religion. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-04749-0. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
  89. "Korea – Korea under Japanese rule | Britannica". Retrieved April 27, 2022.
  90. Fry, Michael (August 5, 2013). "National Geographic, Korea, and the 38th Parallel". National Geographic. Retrieved May 15, 2021.
  91. "Republic of Korea". Archived from the original on May 2, 2014.
  92. "195 (III) The problem of the independence of Korea" Archived October 23, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, December 12, 1948, Resolutions Adopted by the General Assembly During its Third Session, p. 25.
  93. Regarding Syngman Rhee (South Korea):
    • Lee, Gil-sang (2005). Korea through the Ages. Seongnam: Center for Information on Korean Culture, the Academy of Korean Studies. pp. 166–181.
    • Lee, Hyun-hee; Park, Sung-soo; Yoon, Nae-hyun (2005). New History of Korea. Paju: Jimoondang. pp. 584–590.
    Regarding Kim Il-sung (North Korea):
    • Buzo, Adrian (2002). The Making of Modern Korea. London: Routledge. pp. 71–91. ISBN 978-0-415-23749-9.
  94. Appleman, Roy E. (1998) [1961]. South to the Naktong, North to the Yalu. United States Army Center of Military History. p. 17. ISBN 978-0160019180. Archived from the original on February 7, 2014.
  95. Millett, Allan R. (2007). The Korean War: The Essential Bibliography. The Essential Bibliography Series. Dulles, VA: Potomac Books Inc. p. 14. ISBN 978-1574889765.
  96. Stuecker, William (2004). Korean War: World History. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 102–103.
  97. Su-kyoung Hwang, Korea's Grievous War. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016; pg. 90–95.
  98. Kim, Samuel S. (2014). "The Evolving Asian System". International Relations of Asia. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-4422-2641-8. With three of the four major Cold War fault lines—divided Germany, divided Korea, divided China, and divided Vietnam—East Asia acquired the dubious distinction of having engendered the largest number of armed conflicts resulting in higher fatalities between 1945 and 1994 than any other region or sub-region. Even in Asia, while Central and South Asia produced a regional total of 2.8 million in human fatalities, East Asia's regional total is 10.4 million including the Chinese Civil War (1 million), the Korean War (3 million), the Vietnam War (2 million), and the Pol Pot genocide in Cambodia (1 to 2 million).
  99. Cumings, Bruce (2011). The Korean War: A History. Modern Library. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-8129-7896-4. Various encyclopedias state that the countries involved in the three-year conflict suffered a total of more than 4 million casualties, of which at least 2 million were civilians—a higher percentage than in World War II or Vietnam. A total of 36,940 Americans lost their lives in the Korean theater; of these, 33,665 were killed in action, while 3,275 died there of nonhostile causes. Some 92,134 Americans were wounded in action, and decades later, 8,176 were still reported as missing. South Korea sustained 1,312,836 casualties, including 415,004 dead. Casualties among other UN allies totaled 16,532, including 3,094 dead. Estimated North Korean casualties numbered 2 million, including about one million civilians and 520,000 soldiers. An estimated 900,000 Chinese soldiers lost their lives in combat.
  100. Lewy, Guenter (1980). America in Vietnam. Oxford University Press. pp. 450–453. ISBN 978-0-19-987423-1. The total number of Korean civilians who died in the fighting, which left almost every major city in North and South Korea in ruins, has been estimated at between 2 and 3 million. This adds up to almost 1 million military deaths and a possible 2.5 million civilians who were killed or died as a result of this extremely destructive conflict.
  101. Griffiths, James (February 23, 2018). "The 'forgotten' My Lai: South Korea's Vietnam War massacres". CNN.
  102. Flashback: The Kwangju massacre, May 17, 2000.
  103. "20 years later, father still seeks truth in son's death" Archived March 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, The Hankyoreh, January 15, 2007. Retrieved July 15, 2010.
  104. "Two Decedes After Seoul Olympics". Korea Times. October 30, 2007.
  105. 105.0 105.1 "Kim Dae-jung". The Guardian. August 18, 2009.
  106. "North and South Korean leaders meet". the Guardian. Associated Press. June 13, 2000.
  107. "The Nobel Peace Prize 2000". The Nobel Foundation. 2000. Retrieved February 17, 2009.
  108. "South Korea's New President Sworn In – DW – 02/25/2008".
  109. "FIFA World Cup: When South Korea created history in 2002 |".
  110. "Rocky relations between Japan and South Korea over disputed islands". the Guardian. August 18, 2010.
  111. Oliver, Christian. "Seoul: S Korea looks forward to its own party", Financial Times (UK). June 25, 2010.
  112. Cheonan and Yeonpyeong. The Northeast Asian Response to North Korea's Provocations (PDF). Asia Foundation. May 1, 2011.
  113. "Park Geun-hye sworn in as South Korea president". BBC News. February 25, 2013.
  114. Langan, Peter (November 28, 2016). "How long will Seoul protests remain peaceful?". Asia Times. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
  115. "South Korea's president is removed from office as court upholds her impeachment". Los Angeles Times. March 10, 2017. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
  116. "New Korean president willing to work with North – DW – 05/10/2017".
  117. "South Korea's Moon may be on brink of legacy-defining moment". USA Today. February 11, 2018.
  118. "Park Geun-hye: South Korea's ex-leader jailed for 24 years for corruption". BBC News. April 6, 2018.
  119. Gladstone, Rick (January 4, 2021). "As Birthrate Falls, South Korea's Population Declines, Posing Threat to Economy". The New York Times. Retrieved January 5, 2021.
  120. "Who is South Korea's new president Yoon Suk Yeol?". France 24. May 10, 2022.
  121. The estimated area rises steadily from year to year, possibly because of land reclamation. 행정구역(구시군)별 국토적. Korea Statistical Information Service (in 한국어). Archived from the original on September 17, 2004. Retrieved March 27, 2006.
  122. 122.0 122.1 Geography of Korea, Asia Info Organization
  123. Dinerstein, Eric; et al. (2017). "An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm". BioScience. 67 (6): 534–545. doi:10.1093/biosci/bix014. ISSN 0006-3568. PMC 5451287. PMID 28608869.
  124. "Korea National Park Service official site". Retrieved October 29, 2010.
  125. Climate data in seoul, 1971 ~ 2000(in Korean), Korea Meteorological Administration.
  126. South Korea climate Archived March 30, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, U.S. Library of Congress, Country studies
  127. 127.0 127.1 127.2 "Korea Air Pollution Problems". American University of Washington. Archived from the original on March 9, 2010. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
  128. Randolph T. Hester (August 28, 2009). "Letter to Lee administration: Save the Songdo Tidal Flat". The Hankyoreh. Archived from the original on May 11, 2011. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
  129. Wang, Ucilla (July 28, 2008 ) South Korea Boosts Renewable-Energy Investments by 60%.
  130. 130.0 130.1 "South Korea's green new deal". CNN. October 18, 2009. Retrieved October 21, 2009.
  131. R&D status and prospects on fuel cells in Korea.
  132. Renewable Energy Policy Mechanisms by Paul Gipe Archived May 10, 2012, at the Wayback Machine (1.3MB)
    Lauber, V. (2004). "REFIT and RPS: Options for a harmonized Community framework", Energy Policy, Vol. 32, Issue 12, pp. 1405–1414.
    Lauber, V. (2008). "Certificate Trading – Part of the Solution or Part of the Problem?" Ljubljana Conference on the Future of GHG Emissions Trading in the EU, March 2008. Salzburg, Austria: University of Salzburg. Retrieved March 16, 2009, at
  133. The fuel cell industry review 2012.
  134. Cha, Josh Smith, Sangmi (June 8, 2020). "Jobs come first in South Korea's ambitious 'Green New Deal' climate plan". Reuters. Retrieved September 29, 2020.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  135. Herald, The Korea (September 8, 2020). "Moon vows to shut down 30 more coal plants to bring cleaner air and battle climate change". Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  136. "Seoul City holds second Arisu Festival to show tap water is safe to drink". Newsworld. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007.
  137. "Seoul Metropolitan Government – "A Clean, Attractive & Global City, Seoul!"". Archived from the original on February 15, 2009.
  138. Grantham, H. S.; et al. (2020). "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity – Supplementary Material". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 5978. Bibcode:2020NatCo..11.5978G. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7723057. PMID 33293507.
  139. "Party Groupings". United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. November 28, 2007. Archived from the original on June 5, 2013. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
  140. Template:CIA World Factbook
  141. "Index of Democracy 2008" (PDF). The Economist Intelligence Unit. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 14, 2008. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
  142. "South Korea – Constitution". International Constitutional Law. Retrieved February 16, 2009.
  143. "Korea, South". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. February 10, 2009. Retrieved February 16, 2009.
  144. "Corruption Perceptions Index 2018 Executive Summary p.8" (PDF). Transparency International. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  145. 행정안전부. 행정안전부> 정책자료> 통계> 주민등록 인구통계. Archived from the original on April 20, 2018. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
  146. 146.0 146.1 146.2 "Population Projections for Provinces (2013~2040)" (PDF). Statistics Korea. April 16, 2016. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
  147. 147.0 147.1 "Major Indicators of Korea". Korean Statistical Information Service. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  148. Gladstone, Rick (January 4, 2021). "As Birthrate Falls, South Korea's Population Declines, Posing Threat to Economy". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 4, 2021. Retrieved January 5, 2021.
  149. "South Korea is facing a crisis of extinction and it's not due to North's nukes". The Economic Times. January 5, 2021.
  150. "Korea marks first-ever decline in registered population". January 3, 2021.
  151. 151.0 151.1 Breen, Michael (April 4, 2017). The New Koreans: The Story of a Nation. Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4668-7156-4 – via Google Books.
  152. "South Korea". CIA Country Studies. Retrieved April 22, 2006.
  153. Populations for all cities as of 2005, "Summary of Census Population (by administrative district/sex/age)". NSO Database. Archived from the original on October 5, 2010. Retrieved May 11, 2009.
  154. "South Korea – Population Trends". Library of Congress Country Studies.
  155. "Korea's Population Tops 50 Million". The Chosun Ilbo. February 1, 2010. Archived from the original on April 30, 2010. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
  156. 156.0 156.1 "Population by Census (2016)". Korean Statistical Information Service. Archived from the original on February 28, 2018. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
  157. Choe Sang-Hun (November 2, 2009). "South Koreans Struggle With Race". The New York Times.
  158. "More Than 1 Million Foreigners Live in Korea (According to the article, approximately 443,566 people are considered to be Chinese residents in South Korea with Korean ethnicity.)". The Chosun Ilbo. August 6, 2009. Archived from the original on September 9, 2009. Retrieved October 18, 2009.
  159. Archived May 12, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, 대한민국 통계청
  160. Jung Sung-ki (November 4, 2009). "US Soldiers in Korea Negative About Rotation to Middle East". The Korea Times. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
  161. Kang Shin-Who (November 26, 2009). "Foreign Teachers Unenthusiastic Over Culture Course". The Korea Times. Seoul. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
  162. Kim Rahn (May 22, 2009). "South Korea's birthrate world's lowest". The Korea Times. Seoul. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
  163. "South Korea". CIA World Factbook. June 26, 2009. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
  164. "Childbirths in S. Korea grow 5.7 pct in 2010" Archived May 26, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  165. "South Korea's fertility rate is the lowest in the world". The Economist. June 30, 2018. Retrieved November 24, 2019.
  166. "S. Korea's childbirth tally drops to another historic low in October". December 27, 2018. Archived from the original on January 23, 2019. Retrieved November 24, 2019.
  167. "Fertility rate dips below 1 in 2018: official". The Korean Times. January 2019. Archived from the original on January 30, 2019. Retrieved November 24, 2019.
  168. CIA – The World Factbook 2008 Archived May 28, 2014, at the Wayback Machine – Rank Order – Life expectancy at birth
  169. "The World Factbook". CIA. Archived from the original on December 29, 2018. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
  170. Life expectancy at birth, total (years) |Data |Table. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  171. Leipziger, Danny (February 6, 2014). "South Korea's Japanese Mirror". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on February 11, 2014. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
  172. "South Korea Now Open For Foreign Students". August 28, 2008. Archived from the original on March 22, 2019. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
  173. "What the world can learn from the latest PISA test results". The Economist. December 10, 2016.
  174. "Education OECD Better Life". OECD. Archived from the original on May 31, 2016. Retrieved May 29, 2016.
  175. Ripley, Amanda (September 25, 2011). "South Korea: Kids, Stop Studying So Hard!". Time.
  176. Habibi, Nader (December 11, 2015). "The overeducated generation". Archived from the original on November 18, 2016.
  177. Cobbold, Trevor (November 14, 2013). "South Korea's Education Success Has a Dark Side". Archived from the original on November 18, 2016.
  178. Diamond, Anna (November 17, 2016). "Why South Korea Is So Fixated With the College-Entrance Exam". The Atlantic.
  179. Lee, Ji-Yeon (September 26, 2014). "Vocational Education and Training in Korea: Achieving the Enhancement of National Competitiveness" (PDF). KRIVET. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 20, 2016.
  180. Strother, Jason (November 10, 2012). "Drive for education drives South Korean families into the red". Christian Science Monitor.
  181. "South Korean education ranks high, but it's the kids who pay". March 30, 2015.
  182. "South Koreans Consider The Trades Over University Education". Public Radio International.
  183. David Santandreu Calonge (March 30, 2015). "South Korean education ranks high, but it's the kids who pay". Retrieved July 3, 2015.
  184. 184.0 184.1 WeAreTeachers Staff (April 5, 2013). "South Korea's School Success". WeAreTeachers. Archived from the original on July 5, 2015. Retrieved July 3, 2015.
  185. "Korea Awash with the Under-Skilled and Overeducated". The Chosun Ilbo. December 8, 2011. Retrieved October 23, 2016.
  186. Na Jeong-ju (May 23, 2012). "Meister schools fight social prejudice". The Korea Times. Archived from the original on August 17, 2016. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
  187. 187.0 187.1 "Korea" (PDF). OECD. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 15, 2019. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  188. "High performance, high pressure in South Korea's education system". ICEF Monitor. January 23, 2014. Retrieved May 29, 2016.
  189. 189.0 189.1 Reeta Chakrabarti (December 2, 2013). "South Korea's schools: Long days, high results". BBC News. Retrieved October 28, 2016.
  190. "The Pressures of the South Korean Education System". April 20, 2013. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 11, 2016.
  191. 191.0 191.1 191.2 "Korea: Overview of the Education System (EAG 2019)" (2019). OECD. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
  192. "South Korean students wracked with stress". December 8, 2013.
  193. Ripley, Amanda (September 25, 2011). "Teacher, Leave Those Kids Alone". Time. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
  194. Thomas, Tanya (April 27, 2010). "Intensely Competitive Education In South Korea Leads to Education Fever". Medindia. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
  195. "The All-Work, No-Play Culture Of South Korean Education". NPR. April 15, 2015.
  196. Janda, Michael (October 22, 2013). "Korea's Rigorous Education System Has Delivered Growth, but It is Literally Killing the Country's Youth". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
  197. Koo, Se-Woong (August 2, 2014). "An Assault Upon Our Children". The New York Times. Retrieved August 19, 2015.
  198. "Over 3 Million Highly Educated People Unemployed". The Chosun Ilbo. June 27, 2013.
  199. "Lee calls for end to prejudices against non-college graduates". Yonhap. March 5, 2012. Retrieved October 2, 2016.
  200. Na Jeong-ju (May 23, 2012). "Meister schools fight social prejudice". The Korea Times. Archived from the original on August 17, 2016. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
  201. "S Korea's vocational education needs to tackle its shortcomings". The Nation. January 6, 2014. Archived from the original on March 27, 2019. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  202. 202.0 202.1 202.2 202.3 202.4 202.5 202.6 South Korea National Statistical Office's 19th Population and Housing Census (2015): "Religion organizations' statistics". Retrieved December 20, 2016
  203. Quinn, Joseph Peter (2019). "South Korea". In Demy, Timothy J.; Shaw, Jeffrey M. (eds.). Religion and Contemporary Politics: A Global Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 365. ISBN 978-1-4408-3933-7. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  204. WIN-Gallup International: "Global Index of Religiosity and Atheism 2012" Archived October 21, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  205. "Korea's Muslims Mark Ramadan". The Chosun Ilbo. Seoul. September 11, 2008. Archived from the original on September 13, 2008.
  206. "Constitution of the Republic of Korea". Constitutional Court of Korea. Archived from the original on March 23, 2008.
  207. Ogata, Mamoru Billy (1984). A Comparative Study of Church Growth in Korea and Japan: With Special Application to Japan. Fuller Theological Seminary. pp. 32 ff.
  208. Kim, Andrew Eungi (Spring–Summer 2000). "Christianity, Shamanism, and Modernization in South Korea" (PDF). CrossCurrents. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 10, 2014. Retrieved June 8, 2013.
  209. 209.0 209.1 Korean Social Sciences Journal, 24 (1997). Korean Social Science Research Council. pp. 33–53
  210. Moll, Rob (March 1, 2006). "Missions Incredible". Christianity Today. Carol Stream, IL. Retrieved February 17, 2009.
  211. "Buddhism in Korea". Korean Buddhism Magazine. Seoul. 1997. Archived from the original on April 26, 2009. Retrieved February 17, 2009.
  212. (in French) Health at a Glance 2015 |OECD READ edition. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  213. Ireland, Sophie (April 27, 2021). "Revealed: Countries With The Best Health Care Systems, 2021".
  214. Why South Korea has high suicide rates. KOREA NOW. March 13, 2021. Archived from the original on August 8, 2021. Retrieved September 7, 2021 – via YouTube.
  215. "Suicide rates, age standardized – Data by country". World Health Organization. 2015. Archived from the original on October 18, 2017. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
  216. (in French) Health at a Glance 2015 |OECD READ edition. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  217. "Life expectancy increased by 5 years since 2000, but health inequalities persist". WHO. May 19, 2016.
  218. "WHO – World Health Statistics 2016: Monitoring health for the SDGs". WHO. Archived from the original on May 23, 2016.
  219. "Can North Korea get South to join dispute with Japan over two islands in Asia?". Newsweek. March 21, 2018.
  220. modern Korean history – Home. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
  221. 221.0 221.1 "North, South Korea pledge peace, prosperity". Reuters. October 4, 2007. Retrieved February 17, 2009.
  222. "North Korea deploying more missiles". BBC News. February 23, 2009.
  223. "North Korea tears up agreements". BBC News. January 30, 2009. Retrieved March 8, 2009.
  224. "North Korea warning over satellite". BBC News. March 3, 2009. Retrieved March 8, 2009.
  225. "Koreas agree to military hotline". CNN. June 4, 2004. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
  226. Jung Sung-ki (September 13, 2010). "Seoul reaffirms N. Korea's torpedo attack in final report". The Korea Times. Seoul.
  227. "Seoul Decides to Continue Kaesong Project, Humanitarian Aid". The Chosun Ilbo. Seoul. May 25, 2010.
  228. "Seoul shuts down joint North-South Korea industrial complex". The Guardian. February 10, 2016.
  229. "North Korea rocket launch: UN security council condemns latest violation". The Guardian. February 7, 2016.
  230. "South Korean president says Olympics have lowered tensions with North". The Washington Post. February 17, 2018.
  231. "South Koreans meet North Korean leader Kim for talks about talks". Reuters. March 5, 2018.
  232. A New History of Korea p. 61
  233. 233.0 233.1 "Asia Times – News and analysis from Korea; North and South". Asia Times. Hong Kong. September 11, 2004. Archived from the original on September 11, 2004. Retrieved April 25, 2010.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  234. Kristof, Nicholas D. (August 24, 1992). "Chinese and South Koreans Formally Establish Relations". The New York Times.
  235. 235.0 235.1 235.2 "South Korea Country Profile". MIT. March 10, 2018. Archived from the original on April 9, 2019. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
  236. "China Country Profile". MIT. March 10, 2018. Archived from the original on July 18, 2018. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
  237. "Defense Ministry's regular press conference on July 28". Chinese Ministry of National Defence. July 28, 2016. Archived from the original on January 14, 2019. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
  238. "Thaad retaliation slashes Olympics visitors from China". Korea Joongang Daily. March 2, 2018.
  239. "China wins its war against South Korea's US THAAD missile shield – without firing a shot". South China Morning Post. November 18, 2017.
  240. Adams, Rod. "Moon Jae-in Making Friends By Importing More Gas". Forbes. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
  241. "Are Warming Russia-South Korea Relations a Game-changer?". The Diplomat. July 18, 2018.
  242. "South Korea, Russia to begin preparations for FTA negotiations: Moon". The Straits Times. June 22, 2018.
  243. A Brief History of the US-Korea Relations Prior to 1945. "While less than 100 Koreans in America enlisted in the US military during World War II, more than 100,000 Koreans served in the Japanese army as officers and soldiers. There were two Korean Lt. Generals in the Japanese Army: a Chosun prince, whose rank was honorary and who commanded no troops; and Lt. Gen. Hong Sa-Ik, who was a professional military man from the old Chosun army."
  244. "Truth Commission on Forced Mobilization under the japanese Imperialism Republic of Korea". Archived from the original on February 14, 2009. Retrieved March 18, 2009.
  245. Soh, C. Sarah (May 2001). "Japan's Responsibility Toward Comfort Women Survivors". San Francisco: Japan Policy Research Institute. Archived from the original on June 28, 2012. Retrieved February 3, 2012.
  246. "WCCW's Mission". Washington Coalition for Comfort Women Issues. 2011. Archived from the original on May 2, 2010. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
  247. Kim Hee-sung (February 22, 2008). "Professor from Japan Discovers Map Proving Dokdo Island is Korean Territory". DYNAMIC-KOREA.COM. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  248. "Dokdo Takeshima Island Liancourt Rocks The Historical Facts of the Dokdo / Takeshima Island Dispute Between Korea and Japan". June 28, 2012.
  249. "President Roh Moo-hyun will not hold a summit with Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi until Koizumi stops visits to Japan's Yasukuni shrine". Voice of America. March 17, 2006. Archived from the original on May 7, 2008. Retrieved February 15, 2009.
  250. "Japan PM tells South Korea's Moon that 2015 'comfort women' deal is final". Reuters. February 9, 2018.
  251. "South Korea formally requests Japan's 'rising sun' flag be banned at 2020 Olympics". The Independent. September 11, 2019. Archived from the original on May 24, 2022.
  252. "South Korea asks IOC to ban Japan's use of 'Rising Sun' flag at Olympics". Reuters. September 11, 2019.
  253. "S. Korea urges IOC to ban Japanese imperial flag from 2020 Olympics". Kyodo News. September 12, 2019. Retrieved September 5, 2020.
  254. "EU agrees free trade deal with S.Korea". Agence France-Presse. September 16, 2009.
  255. 255.0 255.1 "South Korea-EU – trade in goods – Statistics Explained". Archived from the original on September 23, 2017. Retrieved September 23, 2017.
  256. "Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of Korea; October 1, 1953". Yale Law School.
  257. Haesook Chae (2010). "South Korean Attitudes toward the ROK–U.S. Alliance: Group Analysis". PS: Political Science & Politics. 43 (3): 493–501. doi:10.1017/S1049096510000727. S2CID 155083075.
  258. Appelbaum, Bintamin; Steinhauer, Jennifer (October 13, 2011). "Congress Ends 5-Year Standoff on Trade Deals in Rare Accord". The New York Times.
  259. "New Opportunities for U.S. Exporters Under the U.S.-Korea Trade Agreement". June 9, 2012.
  260. "2018 Defence White Paper" (PDF). December 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 8, 2019. Retrieved June 10, 2019.
  261. Lee Tae-hoon (September 30, 2009). "Military Duty Exemption for Biracial Koreans Will Be Scrapped". The Korea Times. Seoul. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
  262. "South Korea Beefs Up Anti-Air Defenses as North Blusters". Defense Industry Daily. May 31, 2009.
  263. "F-16 Air Forces – South Korea". Archived from the original on July 30, 2013. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
  264. JPG image.
  265. JPG image.
  266. Bomi Lim (May 26, 2011). "Korea Aerospace Signs Deal to Sell Trainer Jets to Indonesia" Archived July 20, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. The Jakarta Globe.
  267. Heo, Man-ho (March 25, 2009). "North Korea's Continued Detention of South Korean POWs since the Korean and Vietnam Wars North Korea's Continued Detention of South Korean POWs since the Korean and Vietnam Wars". Man-ho Heo. 14 (2): 141–165. doi:10.1080/10163270209464030.
  268. "Zaytun Division official website". Retrieved February 17, 2009.[dead link]
  269. "America's Unsinkable Fleet". Newsweek. New York. February 26, 2007. Retrieved February 17, 2009.
  270. "Allies' future command to be led by S. Korean general: minister". Yonhap News. February 22, 2018.
  271. "Amnesty International calls on South Korea to free conscientious objectors". The Guardian. May 13, 2015.
  272. "South Korean Jehovah's Witnesses Face Stigma of Not Serving in Army". The New York Times. April 10, 2015.
  273. Sang-Hun, Choe (November 1, 2018). "In Landmark Ruling, South Korea's Top Court Acquits Conscientious Objector". The New York Times.
  274. 274.0 274.1 "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2023". International Monetary Fund. April 2023. Retrieved May 16, 2023.
  275. South Korea: Introduction >> globalEDGE: Your source for Global Business Knowledge. Retrieved October 5, 2016.
  276. SOUTH KOREA Market overview Archived October 25, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.
  277. Kerr, Anne; Wright, Edmund (2015). A Dictionary of World History. Oxford University Press. pp. 367–. ISBN 978-0-19-968569-1.
  278. Behnke, Alison (2004). North Korea in Pictures. Lerner Publishing Group. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-8225-1908-9.
  279. "OECD.Stat Education and Training > Education at a Glance > Educational attainment and labor-force status > Educational attainment of 25–64 year-olds". OECD. Archived from the original on January 31, 2016.
  280. Economic Growth Rates of Advanced Economies. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
  281. "GDP per capita growth (annual %) – Data".
  282. Kleiner, Jürgen (2001). Korea, A Century of Change. River Edge, NJ: World Scientific. ISBN 978-981-02-4657-0.
  283. Service (KOCIS), Korean Culture and Information. "The Korean Economy – the Miracle on the Hangang River : : The official website of the Republic of Korea". Retrieved May 6, 2022.
  284. "Moody's Raises Korea's Credit Range". The Chosun Ilbo. Seoul. August 2, 2010. Retrieved August 14, 2010.
  285. "Financial markets unstable in S.Korea following Cheonan sinking". Hankyeoreh. May 26, 2010. Retrieved August 14, 2010.
  286. "S Korea stands among world's highest-level fiscal reserve holders: IMF". Xinhua. Beijing. September 7, 2010. Archived from the original on November 14, 2010. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
  287. Nattavud Pimpa (December 6, 2013). "Lessons from South Korea's Chaebol economy". The Conversation Australia. Retrieved December 15, 2013.
  288. "South Korea Survived Recession With CEO Tactics". Newsweek. New York. May 10, 2010.
  289. "South Korea GDP grew revised 6.2pc in 2010". Business Recorder. Karachi. Agence France-Presse. March 30, 2011. Archived from the original on April 27, 2011.
  290. "Background Note: South Korea". U.S. State Department. July 7, 2011.
  291. "About Korea" Archived January 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Paris: OECD.
  292. "Samsung Electronics". Fortune.
  293. "Subway". Korea Tourism Organization. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved July 18, 2010.
  294. Express bus terminal guide Archived September 23, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, Korea Express Bus Lines Association.
  295. "Surging Seoul: Traffic at Incheon Airport is booming. But can South Korea's Big Two airlines capitalize?". Airline Weekly. October 23, 2017. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
  296. "South Korea's abandoned airports". BBC News. May 18, 2009.
  297. "Transportation Statistics > Heliports (most recent) by country". NationMaster. 2008. Retrieved February 21, 2009.
  298. "Company Info". Korean Air. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
  299. "International Aviation Policy". Ministry of Land, Transportation and Maritime Affairs. Archived from the original on September 15, 2009. Retrieved May 19, 2005.
  300. Lee Eun-joo (July 2, 2010). "If you're looking for a ticket to Jeju, leave late". Joongang Daily (Seoul). Retrieved July 15, 2010.
  301. 301.0 301.1 "Another Korean Nuclear Issue". The Diplomat. July 19, 2010. Retrieved August 14, 2010.
  302. "ITER Members". ITER. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
  303. "South Korea wins landmark Gulf nuclear power deal". Reuters. December 29, 2009.
  304. "All systems go for Jordan's first nuclear reactor". UPI. March 31, 2010.
  305. "South Korea-Jordan sign $130M nuclear deal". World Nuclear News. July 27, 2010.
  306. "Korea, Argentina Sign MOU for Nuclear Plant Project". The Chosun Ilbo. Seoul. September 18, 2010.
  307. 307.0 307.1 "Argentina eyes nuclear role in S. America". UPI. September 17, 2010.
  308. "Korea nearing Turkey nuclear plant contract". The Korea Times. Seoul. June 15, 2010.
  309. Choe Sang-Hun (July 14, 2010). "U.S. Wary of South Korea's Plan to Reuse Nuclear Fuel". The New York Times.
  310. "S. Korean Pyroprocessing Awaits U.S. Decision". Arms Control Association. October 6, 2010. Retrieved October 29, 2010.
  311. "NRI Overall Ranking 2014" (PDF). World Economic Forum. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
  312. UNTWO (July 2017). UNWTO Tourism Highlights 2017. doi:10.18111/9789284419029. ISBN 978-92-844-1902-9.
  313. Kolesnikov-Jessop, Sonia (November 11, 2010). "South Korea Sets Its Sights on Foreign Tourists". The New York Times.
  314. "Double-digit Growth". BusinessKorea. Archived from the original on January 20, 2015.
  315. 315.0 315.1 "Hallyu fuels foreign investment in Korea". The Korea Times. Archived from the original on January 20, 2015. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
  316. 316.0 316.1 Bang, Ha-Nam, Study of Korean Corporations' Retirement Allowance Schemes, Korea Labor Institute, 1998.
  317. "South Korea and Japan's Pension System Compared" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 20, 2016.
  318. "The Korean Pension System: Current State and Tasks Ahead" (PDF). OECD.
  319. 319.0 319.1 319.2 "Coverage". National Pension Service. Archived from the original on February 21, 2016. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
  320. 320.0 320.1 320.2 320.3 "Social Security Programs Throughout the World: Asia and the Pacific, 2010 – South Korea". U.S. Social Security Administration, Office of Retirement and Disability. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
  321. 321.0 321.1 321.2 321.3 "The National Pension Act: Republic of Korea" (PDF). The World Bank.
  322. Soo-Wan Kim (December 3, 2016). The Multi-pillar system of old-age income security in Korea: Its development, current status and issues Welfare Asia (PDF). Welfare Asia.
  323. Samsung number One in the World Archived January 15, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, International Data Corporation, January 29, 2010. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
  324. "Koreans love their mobile phones", Joongang Daily, January 28, 2009. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
  325. Cho Jin-seo (February 12, 2006). "Terrestrial-DMB adds color to Korean lifestyle" Archived April 30, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, The Korea Times (Seoul). "Facts from 'Digital Korea'", CNN Asia, October 16, 2007. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
  326. Galloway, Lindsey. "Five countries on the frontline of tech".
  327. "Household Download Index". Archived from the original on February 19, 2012. Retrieved February 12, 2012.
  328. "These are the 10 smartest countries in the world when it comes to science". Business Insider. December 4, 2015. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
  329. "These Are the World's Most Innovative Countries". May 5, 2019 – via Bloomberg.
  330. WIPO (2022). Global Innovation Index 2022, 15th Edition. doi:10.34667/tind.46596. ISBN 9789280534320. Retrieved November 17, 2022. {{cite book}}: |website= ignored (help)
  331. "Release of the Global Innovation Index 2020: Who Will Finance Innovation?". World Intellectual Property Organization. Retrieved September 2, 2021.
  332. "Global Innovation Index 2019". World Intellectual Property Organization. Retrieved September 2, 2021.
  333. Tesla, Agence (June 22, 2016). "Can South Korean Startups (and the government) Save its Flailing Giant Tech Conglomerates? – Innovation is Everywhere". Retrieved July 18, 2016.
  334. 334.0 334.1 Kwanwoo Jun (September 23, 2013). "Seoul Puts a Price on Cyberdefense". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
  335. "South Korean war on 'fake news' raises concern of censorship". Reuters. October 26, 2018.
  336. "Is South Korea Sliding Toward Digital Dictatorship?". Forbes. February 25, 2019.
  337. "Korea, Russia Enter Full-Fledged Space Partnership". Defence Talk. July 5, 2007. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
  338. South Korea Confirms Contact With Satellite Lost, Space Daily, January 7, 2008. Retrieved July 15, 2010.
  339. "Scientist Yi So Yeon becomes first Korean astronaut", The Times (London), April 9, 2008
  340. "First S Korean astronaut launches". BBC News (April 8, 2008). Retrieved April 17, 2015.
  341. "S. Korea Completes Work on Naro Space Center" Archived April 17, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, The Korea Times (Seoul), June 10, 2009. Retrieved July 15, 2010.
  342. "S. Korean satellite lost shortly after launch". Yonhap. August 26, 2009. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
  343. "Global Insider: South Korea's Space Program". June 29, 2010. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
  344. Chris Bergin (January 30, 2013). "South Korea launch STSAT-2C via KSLV-1". Retrieved March 8, 2013.
  345. "Naro-1 explodes after takeoff", Joongang Daily (Seoul), June 11, 2010. Retrieved July 15, 2010.
  346. "South Korea's first rocket ready – at last". Asia Times. Hong Kong. August 11, 2009. Archived from the original on July 24, 2012. Retrieved August 21, 2010.
  347. "S. Korea DAPA commissioner confirms 500 km-range ballistic missile development research". The Hankyeoreh. October 9, 2009. Retrieved August 21, 2010.
  348. Special Report: [Business Opportunities] R&D Archived May 12, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Ministry of Knowledge Economy, September 3, 2007. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
  349. "Robot parks, a world first". JoongAng Daily, February 13, 2009. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
  350. Android Has Human-Like Skin and Expressions, Live Science, May 8, 2006. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
  351. "Female Android Debuts in S. Korea, National Geographic, May 15, 2006". National Geographic. October 28, 2010. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
  352. "EveR-3, Yonhap News, April 20, 2009" (in 한국어). April 20, 2009. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
  353. South Korean Robot English Teachers Are Go, Popular Science, February 24, 2010. Retrieved July 15, 2010.
  354. Korean Robot Game Festival Archived May 14, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Official Site
  355. "Bio International Convention Korea Country Profile" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 17, 2011. Retrieved October 29, 2010.
  356. AFP. "Discovery Channel :: News – Animals :: Endangered Wolf Cloned in South Korea". Archived from the original on January 9, 2010. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
  357. "Biotechnology" (PDF). Retrieved April 25, 2010.
  358. Dunleavy, Kevin (February 25, 2021). "With $900M IPO, SK Bioscience has big plans for manufacturing expansion—even beyond COVID-19 vaccines" FiercePharma. Retrieved April 24, 2021.
  359. Fairbank, John K.; Reischauer, Edwin O.; Craig, Albert M. (1978). East Asia: Tradition & Transformation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-395-25812-5.
  360. "UNESCO - Republic of Korea". Archived from the original on May 20, 2021. Retrieved October 14, 2021.
  361. "Associated Organisations". MCT. Archived from the original on December 24, 2005. Retrieved April 11, 2006. See also "Mission and Goal". Korea Cultural Administration. Archived from the original on April 30, 2006. Retrieved April 11, 2006.
  362. "Index 2023 – Global score". Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved May 3, 2023.
  363. Roberto A. Ferdman; Ritchie King (February 2, 2014). "South Koreans drink twice as much liquor as Russians and more than four times as much as Americans". Quartz. Archived from the original on February 8, 2014. Retrieved February 9, 2014.
  364. Korean painting Archived July 30, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, Asia Art
  365. Korean Pottery and Celadon, Asian Relocation Management Korea
  366. Contemporary Korean Art in 1990s Archived September 11, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, apexart, 1999
  367. (in Korean) Whitney Biennal to come to Seoul again, Seoul News, March 26, 2010. Retrieved July 13, 2010.
  368. "Gwangju Biennale". Gwangju Biennale. Archived from the original on July 10, 2010. Retrieved October 29, 2010.
  369. Korean Pavilion Archived May 16, 2016, at the Portuguese Web Archive, La Biennale di Venezia.
  370. Korean architecture, Asian Info Organization
  371. Chung Ah-young (March 31, 2010). "Exhibit Focuses on Traditional Architecture" Archived December 20, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, The Korea Times; Photos of traditional Korean shelters
  372. List of traditional Korean houses, Asian Tradition in Architecture
  373. "UNESCO World Heritage: Republic of Korea". Unesco. Retrieved October 29, 2010.
  374. Brief Review of Korea Modern Architecture, Prof. Park Kil-ryong (Kukmin University), modified by Architectural Design Lab, GSNU.
  375. Contemporary Korean architecture, Asian Info Organization
  376. "Korean buildings that captivate world". Archived from the original on April 29, 2011.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link), Asia News, January 15, 2010; Lee Hoo-nam (April 16, 2009)."Still, slow waters of Korean architecture", Joongang Daily (Seoul). Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  377. 재미있는 동양3국의 젓가락 문화비교 Archived June 19, 2018, at the Wayback Machine. (May 19, 2012). Retrieved October 5, 2016.
  378. "'Korean Wave' piracy hits music industry". BBC News. November 9, 2001. Retrieved June 25, 2010.
  379. Chow, Kat. "How The South Korean Government Made K-Pop A Thing". NPR. National Public Radio. Retrieved September 4, 2021.
  380. Lara Farrar. "'Korean Wave' of pop culture sweeps across Asia". CNN.
  381. Kim, Harry (February 2, 2016). "Surfing the Korean Wave: How K-pop is taking over the world | The McGill Tribune". The McGill Tribune. Archived from the original on November 23, 2018. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
  382. Nguyen Hoai Phuong, Duong. Korean Wave as Cultural Imperialism: A study of K-pop Reception in Vietnam (PDF) (Thesis). Leiden University.
  383. Seo Taiji, KBS World
  384. "S.Korea's Screen Quota Hinders Market Access" Archived July 3, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, KBS World, July 16, 2010.
  385. "List of Korean dramas". June 4, 2007. Retrieved October 29, 2010.
  386. 콘텐츠산업정보포털. (in 한국어). Archived from the original on April 17, 2021. Retrieved March 27, 2021.
  387. Park, Ji-won (September 26, 2021). "Squid Game tops global Netflix chart". The Korea Times. Archived from the original on September 26, 2021. Retrieved October 24, 2021.
  388. Wong, Henry (September 28, 2021). "Squid Game: the hellish horrorshow taking the whole world by storm". The Guardian. Archived from the original on September 28, 2021. Retrieved October 24, 2021.
  389. White, Peter (October 19, 2021). "'Squid Game': Netflix Reveals A "Mind-Boggling" 142M Households Have Watched Korean Drama". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved October 24, 2021.
  390. Keck, Catie (October 12, 2021). "Netflix calls Squid Game its 'biggest ever series at launch'". The Verge. Retrieved October 24, 2021.
  391. "Taekwondo". World Taekwondo Federation. November 29, 2002. Archived from the original on January 21, 2010. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
  392. "Korea Martial Arts Federation" (in 한국어). Archived from the original on July 19, 2011.
  393. 프로스포츠, 흥행 봄날 오나…야구·축구 인기몰이 중. EBN. March 17, 2015. Retrieved April 13, 2016.
  394. 한국갤럽조사연구소. May 20, 2009. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
  395. KOIS (Korea Overseas Information Service) (2003). Handbook of Korea, 11th ed. Seoul: Hollym. p. 632. ISBN 978-1-56591-212-0.
  396. Trading "S. Korean Game Developer NCsoft Interested in Pro Baseball". December 21, 2010. Accessed December 26, 2010.
  397. Min-sik, Yoon (October 25, 2013). "Baseball comes roaring back to Seoul". The Korea Herald. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
  398. Kim Yang-hee (April 21, 2011). "Professional baseball rising in popularity". The Hankyoreh. Accessed April 21, 2011.
  399. 나라지표-프로스포츠 관중현황. (January 26, 2016). Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  400. Wakabayashi, Daisuke; Park Sungha (March 24, 2009). "Japan beats South Korea to be Baseball Champions". The Wall Street Journal (New York). November 20, 2010.
  401. "South Korea takes Olympics baseball gold". Los Angeles Times (blog). August 23, 2008. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
  402. "FIBA Asia Competition Archives". Competition Archives. International Basketball Federation FIBA. September 26, 2011. Archived from the original on August 7, 2014. Retrieved April 15, 2012.
  403. "Asia League Ice Hockey official site". Retrieved October 29, 2010.
  404. "Dextro Energy International Triathlon Union World championship Series Seoul". Archived from the original on June 9, 2010. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  405. "2011 World Championships Results". SuperSport. MultiChoice (Pty) Ltd. 2011. Retrieved December 27, 2013.
  406. "2013 Formula 1 Korean Grand Prix". Formula 1. Formula One World Championship Limited. 2003–2013. Retrieved December 27, 2013.
  407. Benson, Andrew (December 4, 2013). "New Jersey, Mexico, and Korea dropped from 2014 F1 calendar". BBC Sport. Retrieved December 27, 2013.
  408. "Horse Racing". Korea Be Inspired. Korea Tourism Organization. 2013. Archived from the original on December 28, 2013. Retrieved December 27, 2013.
  409. Jin, Dal Yong (2010). Korea's Online Gaming Empire. The MIT Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-262-01476-2.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Template:Korea topics

Coordinates: 36°N 128°E / 36°N 128°E / 36; 128

Information red.svg
Scan the QR code to donate via UPI
Dear reader, We kindly request your support in maintaining the independence of Bharatpedia. As a non-profit organization, we rely heavily on small donations to sustain our operations and provide free access to reliable information to the world. We would greatly appreciate it if you could take a moment to consider donating to our cause, as it would greatly aid us in our mission. Your contribution would demonstrate the importance of reliable and trustworthy knowledge to you and the world. Thank you.

Please select an option below or scan the QR code to donate
₹150 ₹500 ₹1,000 ₹2,000 ₹5,000 ₹10,000 Other