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Republic of Armenia

Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն
Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
Flag of Armenia
Coat of arms of Armenia
Coat of arms
Motto: Մեկ Ազգ, Մեկ Մշակույթ
Mek Azg, Mek Mshakuyt
"One Nation, One Culture"
Anthem: Մեր Հայրենիք
Mer Hayrenik
"Our Fatherland"
Location of Armenia (green)
Location of Armenia (green)
and largest city
40°11′N 44°31′E / 40.183°N 44.517°E / 40.183; 44.517
State languageArmenian[1]
Ethnic groups
  • 98.1% Armenian
  • 1.9% other.[2]
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Vahagn Khachaturyan
• Prime Minister
Nikol Pashinyan
• President of the National Assembly
Alen Simonyan
LegislatureNational Assembly
Establishment history
• Kingdom of Urartu
860 BC–590 BC
• Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity)
321 BC–428 AD
• Kingdom of Armenia (medieval)
• Armenian kingdom of Cilicia
• First Republic of Armenia
28 May 1918
• Soviet conquest
29 November 1920
• Indepence restored
23 September 1991
• CIS Accesion
21 December 1991
• Admitted to the United Nations
2 March 1992
• Current constitution
5 July 1995
• Total
29,743[3] km2 (11,484 sq mi) (147th)
• Land
28,203[4] km2 (10,889 sq mi)
• Water
1,540[5] km2 (590 sq mi)
• CIA 2022 estimate
3,000,756[6] (138th)
• 2011 census
• Density
101.5/km2 (262.9/sq mi) (99th)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
$43.550 billion[7]
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
$13.612 billion[7] (127th)
• Per capita
$4,595[7] (104th)
Gini (2019)Positive decrease 29.9
HDI (2019)Increase 0.776
high · 81st
CurrencyDram (֏) (AMD)
Time zoneUTC+4 (AMT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+374
ISO 3166 codeAM
Internet TLD

Armenia (Armenian: Հայաստան, romanized: Hayastan), officially the Republic of Armenia,[lower-alpha 1] is a landlocked country located in the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia.[8]


Hayasa-Azzi may have played a significant role in the ethnicity of Armenians. It has an ancient cultural heritage. One of the earliest Armenian kingdoms such as Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia. The Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD.[9][10][11] The official date of state adoption of Christianity is 301.[12]

Foreign invasion[edit]

Between the 16th century and 19th century, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottoman and Iranian empires, repeatedly ruled by either of the two over the centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule.

20th century[edit]

During World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. In 1918, following the Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, and in 1922 became a founding member of the Soviet Union. In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

21st century[edit]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Armenia is divided into ten provinces, with the city of Yerevan having special administrative status as the country's capital. The chief executive in each of the ten provinces is the marzpet (marz governor), appointed by the government of Armenia. In Yerevan, the chief executive is the mayor, appointed by the president.

As of 2007, Armenia includes 915 communities, of which 49 are considered urban and 866 are considered rural.

Province Capital Area (km²) Population †
Aragatsotn Արագածոտն Ashtarak Աշտարակ 2,756 132,925
Ararat Արարատ Artashat Արտաշատ 2,090 260,367
Armavir Արմավիր Armavir Արմավիր 1,242 265,770
Gegharkunik   Գեղարքունիք   Gavar Գավառ 5,349 235,075
Kotayk Կոտայք Hrazdan Հրազդան 2,086 254,397
Lori Լոռի Vanadzor Վանաձոր 3,799 235,537
Shirak Շիրակ Gyumri Գյումրի 2,680 251,941
Syunik Սյունիք Kapan Կապան 4,506 141,771
Tavush Տավուշ Ijevan Իջևան 2,704 128,609
Vayots Dzor Վայոց Ձոր Yeghegnadzor   Եղեգնաձոր   2,308 52,324
Yerevan Երևան 223 1,060,138

† 2011 census
Sources: Area and population of provinces.[13]


The Republic of Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment.[14][15] The unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD.

Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh, which was proclaimed in 1991.



  1. Constitution of the Republic of Armenia,
    Article 20:

    The state language of the Republic of Armenia shall be the Armenian language.

  2. According to the 2011 Armenian census, the total population of the country is 3,018,854, and the Armenian population is 2,961,514. This means that 98.1% of the population is Armenian. Others make up the remaining 1.9% (57,340) population.
  3. "Armenia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (United States).
  4. "Armenia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (United States).
  5. "Armenia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (United States).
  6. "Armenia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (United States).
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2021". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 3 January 2022.
  8. The UN classification of world regions Archived 25 June 2002 at the Wayback Machine places Armenia in Western Asia; the CIA World Factbook "Armenia". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 2 September 2010. "Armenia". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 8 August 2007. Retrieved 16 April 2009., "Armenia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 1 April 2009. Retrieved 16 April 2009., Calendario Atlante De Agostini (in italiano) (111 ed.). Novara: Istituto Geografico De Agostini. 2015. p. sub voce. ISBN 9788851124908. and Oxford Reference Online "Oxford Reference". World Encyclopedia. Oxford Reference Online. 2004. doi:10.1093/acref/9780199546091.001.0001. ISBN 9780199546091. also place Armenia in Asia.
  9. (Garsoïan, Nina (1997). R.G. Hovannisian (ed.). Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 81, Vol. 1.)
  10. Stringer, Martin D. (2005). A Sociological History of Christian Worship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 92. ISBN 0-521-81955-5.
  11. Smaller nations that have claimed a prior official adoption of Christianity include Osroene, the Silures, and San Marino. See Timeline of official adoptions of Christianity.
  12. Grousset, René (1947). Histoire de l'Arménie (1984 ed.). Payot. p. 122.. Estimated dates vary from 284 to 314. Garsoïan (op.cit. p. 82), following the research of Ananian, favours the latter.
  13. "Armstat:Provinces, area and population" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  14. The republic has separation of church and state
  15. "The Constitution of the Republic of Armenia, Article 8.1". Archived from the original on 20 December 2010. Retrieved 30 December 2010.


  1. Armenian: Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, romanized: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
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