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Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal

  • सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल (Nepali)
  • Saṅghīya Loktāntrik Gaṇatantra Nepāl
Motto: Janani Janmabhumishcha Swargadapi Gariyasi (Sanskrit)
"Mother and Motherland Are Greater Than Heaven"
Anthem: Sayaun Thunga Phulka
"Made of Hundreds of Flowers"
Image of a globe centred on Nepal, with Nepal highlighted.
Area controlled by Nepal shown in dark green;
regions claimed but not controlled shown in light green
and largest city
28°10′N 84°15′E / 28.167°N 84.250°E / 28.167; 84.250Coordinates: 28°10′N 84°15′E / 28.167°N 84.250°E / 28.167; 84.250
Official languagesNepali[2]
Recognised national languagesAll mother-tongues[3][4]
(see Languages of Nepal)
Other languagesEnglish
Ethnic groups
Demonym(s)Nepali, Nepalese
GovernmentFederal parliamentary republic
• President
Bidya Devi Bhandari[6]
Sher Bahadur Deuba (NC)[6]
LegislatureFederal Parliament
National Assembly
House of Representatives
• Kingdom
25 September 1768[7]
4 March 1816
21 December 1923
28 May 2008
20 September 2015
• Total
147,516 km2 (56,956 sq mi) (93rd)
• Water (%)
• 2018 estimate
Neutral increase 28,095,714[10][11] (49th)
• 2011 census
• Density
180/km2 (466.2/sq mi) (50th)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $122.62 billion[13] (84th)
• Per capita
Increase $4,199[13] (144th)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $36.084 billion (98th)
• Per capita
Increase $1,236[13] (158th)
Gini (2010)32.8[14]
medium · 115th
HDI (2019)Increase 0.602[15]
medium · 142nd
CurrencyNepalese rupee (Rs, रू) (NPR)
Time zoneUTC+05:45 (Nepal Standard Time)
DST not observed
Mains electricity230 V–50 Hz[16]
Driving sideleft
Calling code+977
ISO 3166 codeNP

Nepal (Nepali: नेपाल) is a country in South Asia between India and China. Mount Everest, the highest mountain in the world, and the Himalaya Mountains are in Nepal.[17] 12 of the world's highest mountain peaks are in Nepal.[18] It is also the birthplace of Buddha.[19] It has recently become a secular country, but before it was the only Hindu kingdom in the world. Nepal is a very important pilgrimage place for both Hindus and Buddhists. The population of Nepal in 2007 was almost 29 million people.[20][21] Nepali is the official language of the country, but there are many other regional languages in Nepal. Many people in Nepal understand English and Hindi as well. The capital city of Nepal is Kathmandu, which has a population of over 1.4 million people. The second-largest city is Pokhara. Pokhara is a major tourist attraction of Nepal which is rich in natural beauty. Pokhara includes many lakes, Phewa Tal is one of them.


'Chörtens galore in Tangye, Mustang

Nepal is a landlocked country, which means it is not next to any ocean, and it is surrounded by India and China. Eight of the ten tallest mountain peaks in the world, including Mount Everest, are in Nepal.[18] Mount Everest is on the border Nepal shares with China. Nepal is a little smaller than Illinois and Bangladesh, but a little bigger than Kyrgyzstan. It also has the second-highest average elevation in the world at (10,715 ft),[22] only behind Bhutan.


Nepal used to be an agricultural country until 1950. Since 1951 it entered the modern era and has made progress. Agriculture, however, is still a major economic activity. 80% of the people do agricultural works and it provides 37% of GDP. Only about 20% of the total area is cultivable while another 33% is covered by forest. Most of the remaining land is covered by mountains. Rice and wheat are the main food crops. The lowland Terai region produces a high amount of agricultural products. A part of those products is supplied to the hill areas, which produces less.

China is the 2nd largest exporter to Nepal, but its imports from Nepal are zero. This burdens Nepal's monetary stability and monetary balance. India is the largest buyer of Nepal's goods.The yearly monsoon rain, or lack of it, strongly influences economic growth. From 1996 to 1999, real GDP growth averaged less than 4%. The growth rate recovered in 1999, rising to 6% before slipping slightly in 2001 to 5.5%. Nepal has 1/3 of its trade with India.


Indo-Aryan Pahadi (hilly) women of Khas group in Hindu outfit
Tibeto-Burman women of Tamang caste in rural outfit

The people of Nepal belong to two main groups; Indo-Aryan group and Tibeto-Burman group. Indo-Aryans are mostly Hindus and they celebrate Hindu festivals like Dashain, Tihar, Teej, Maghe Sankranti, Krishna Janmastami, Holi, Janai Purnima, Matatirtha Aunsi, Chhath, etc. Tibeto-Burmans are Buddhist and they celebrate Lhosar, Buddha Jayanti, etc.[23]


Students of Janata Primary School, northern Tistung
Students carrying the national flag of Nepal

Modern education in Nepal started with the opening of the first school in 1853. This school was only for the members of the ruling families and their courtiers. Schooling for the general people began only after 1951. It was when a popular movement ended the autocratic Rana family regime and started a democratic system. In the past 50 years, there has been a big expansion of education facilities in the country. As a result, adult literacy (age 15+) of the country was reported to be 48.2% (female: 34.6%, male: 62.2%) in the Population Census, 2001, up from about 5% in 1952–54. In the beginning in 1951, there were about 300 schools and two colleges with around 10,000 students. Now, there are more than 26,000 schools (including higher secondary), 415 colleges, five universities, and two academies of higher studies. In total, 5.5 million students are studying in those schools and colleges who are taught by more than 150,000 teachers. Despite such examples of success, there are problems and challenges. Education management, quality, usefulness, and access are some of the major issues of education in Nepal. Social differences based on gender, ethnicity, location, economic class, etc. are still there in some places. Lack of resources has always been a problem in education. These problems have made the goal of education for all a challenge for the country.

Administrative subdivisions[edit]

Administrative subdivisions of Nepal

Nepal has seven provinces. Each province has 8 to 14 districts. The districts have local units called municipalities.


The official calendar of Nepal is the Vikram Samvat, which is a Hindu calendar. Their new year begins in Baishakh, which is around mid-April. Nepal has 36 public holidays in the year. This makes Nepal the country with the most public holidays.[24]

The national cuisine of Nepal is Dhindo and Gundruk. Dhindo is a type of dough that is served very hot. Gundruk is a dish with fermented green vegetables.

Association football is the most popular sport in Nepal. The Nepal national football team plays at Dasarath Rangasala Stadium in Tripureswar, Kathmandu, Nepal.

National symbols of Nepal[edit]

The national symbols of Nepal, according to the Interim Constitution, are:[25][26]


King Prithvi Narayan Shah of Gorkha invaded the Kathmandu Valley in 1786 and unified Nepal. Before the unification, Nepal was ruled by various Kirats, Lichchavis, Thakuris and Mallas. The history mentioned that Kirats ruled Nepal during the 7th century BC. Though much was not known about Kirats, the Lichchavi dynasty ruled after them. Lichchavi rule lasted from the 2nd to 9th century AD. After Lichchavis, Nepal was ruled by the Thakuris who were followed by the Mallas for two centuries. Nepal was divided into many principalities and small kingdoms in the fifth centuries of Malla rule.

Jang Bahadur Rana the then Prime Minister of Nepal revolted against the royalty in 1844. The famous Kot Massacre took place during this period in which numbers of noblemen were killed. The Rana took absolute power but continued to maintain the Shah family in the palace. The 104 years regime of Ranas came to and end due to their autocratic rules.

In November 1950, King Tribhuvan restored democracy overthrowing the Rana regime with large number of Nepalese people support. He restored Shah Regime again in Nepal. After his death King Mahendra had ruled in Nepal from 13 March 1955 to 31 January 1972.

Birendra ruled Nepal from 31 January 1972 to 1 June 2001. He was known as one of the most noble and peaceful king of Nepal. The entire family of King Birendra was killed in June 2001 popularly Known as Royal Massacre 2001. Prince Dipendra was made King while he was on coma stage, later he died in hospital bed. After the death of Diepndra, Gyanendra Shah late King Birendra’s brother became the King of Nepal.

King Gyanendra Shah was dethroned in 2006 after a decade long People’s revolution led by communist party of Nepal (Maoist) and several weeks protest by major political parties. After that, Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal was established.

NepalPopulation Graph
The pillar today, in the same location where it was found, with the inscription now at eye level following extensive earthworks. The top is a protection against the elements.
Alois Anton Führer own report on the discovery, entitled Monograph on Buddha Sakyamuni's birthplace, 1897

In December 1896, Alois Anton Führer was making a follow-up survey of the nearby Nigali-Sagar pillar, discovered and investigated by him the previous year, in March 1895.[27][28]

Lumbini pillar ruins, cross-section of the site as of 1901.[29]

According to some accounts, Führer found the Lumbini pillar on December 1, and then asked the help of local commander, General Khadga Shumsher Rana, to excavate it.[30][31] According to other accounts General Khadga Samsher Rana knew the location of the pillar and led Führer to it.[30] Reportedly, Führer was not present when the inscription was discovered, as he arrived only "a little later", but Ricketts was witness to it.[28] Initially, only the top of the pillar was visible, with a Medieval inscription on it. The Nepalese authorities dug around the pillar, to find the ancient Brahmi inscription, which therefore had remained underground, hidden from view.[32][28]

The Brahmi inscription on the pillar gives evidence that Ashoka, emperor of the Maurya Empire, visited the place in 3rd-century BCE and identified it as the birth-place of the Buddha. The inscription was translated by Paranavitana:[33][note 1]

Rummindei pillar, inscription of Ashoka
(original Brahmi script)
(Prakrit in the Brahmi script)

When King Devanampriya Priyadarsin had been anointed twenty years, he came himself and worshipped (this spot) because the Buddha Shakyamuni was born here. (He) both caused to be made a stone bearing a horse (?) and caused a stone pillar to be set up, (in order to show) that the Blessed One was born here. (He) made the village of Lummini free of taxes, and paying (only) an eighth share (of the produce).

— The Rummindei Edict, one of the Minor Pillar Edicts of Ashoka.[37]

𑀤𑁂𑀯𑀸𑀦𑀁𑀧𑀺𑀬𑁂𑀦 𑀧𑀺𑀬𑀤𑀲𑀺𑀦 𑀮𑀸𑀚𑀺𑀦 𑀯𑀻𑀲𑀢𑀺𑀯𑀲𑀸𑀪𑀺𑀲𑀺𑀢𑁂𑀦
Devānaṃpiyena Piyadasina lājina vīsati-vasābhisitena
𑀅𑀢𑀦 𑀆𑀕𑀸𑀘 𑀫𑀳𑀻𑀬𑀺𑀢𑁂 𑀳𑀺𑀤 𑀩𑀼𑀥𑁂 𑀚𑀸𑀢 𑀲𑀓𑁆𑀬𑀫𑀼𑀦𑀺 𑀢𑀺
atana āgāca mahīyite hida Budhe jāte Sakyamuni ti
𑀲𑀺𑀮𑀸 𑀯𑀺𑀕𑀥𑀪𑀺 𑀘𑀸 𑀓𑀸𑀳𑀸𑀧𑀺𑀢 𑀲𑀺𑀮𑀸𑀣𑀪𑁂 𑀘 𑀉𑀲𑀧𑀸𑀧𑀺𑀢𑁂
silā vigaḍabhī cā kālāpita silā-thabhe ca usapāpite
𑀳𑀺𑀤 𑀪𑀕𑀯𑀁 𑀚𑀸𑀢 𑀢𑀺 𑀮𑀼𑀁𑀫𑀺𑀦𑀺𑀕𑀸𑀫𑁂 𑀉𑀩𑀮𑀺𑀓𑁂 𑀓𑀝𑁂
hida Bhagavaṃ jāte ti Luṃmini-gāme ubalike kaṭe
𑀅𑀞𑀪𑀸𑀕𑀺𑀬𑁂 𑀘
aṭha-bhāgiye ca

— Adapted from transliteration by E. Hultzsch,[38]
Lumbini Rummindei pillar at time of discovery in 1896, with location of the inscription, which was hidden about 1 meter under ground level.[39][40][full citation needed]

Related pages[edit]


  1. "Nepal | Facts, History & News". Retrieved 29 June 2020.
  2. "Nepal | Culture, History, & People". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
  3. "नेपालको संविधान २०७२" [Constitution of Nepal 2015] (PDF). 20 September 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2019 – via Nepal Law Commission.
  4. Mandal, Bidhi; Nayak, Ravi (9 June 2019). "Why English?". Republica. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  5. 5.0 5.1 2011 National Census, p. 4.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "President Bhandari administers oath of office to Oli". The Rising Nepal. 15 February 2020. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  7. Subba, Sanghamitra (20 December 2019). "A future written in the stars". Nepali Times. Archived from the original on 31 January 2021. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  8. The Sugauli Treaty of 1816 rendered moot the degree of independence of Nepal. The sixth point of the treaty directly questions the degree of independence of Nepal. The fact that any differences between Nepal and Sikkim will be "referred to the arbitration of the East India Company" sees Nepal as a semi-independent or a vassal state or tributary of the British empire.
  9. Formal recognition of Nepal as an independent and sovereign state by Great Britain.
  10. ""World Population prospects – Population division"". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  11. ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  12. 2011 National Census, p. 1.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". IMF. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  14. "Gini Index (World Bank Estimate) – Nepal". World Bank. Archived from the original on 8 June 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  15. "Human Development Report 2019". United Nations Development Programme. 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 May 2020. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  16. "Voltage, Frequency and Power Factor of Electricity", Electricity Rules, 2050 (1993) (Regulation), 1993, archived from the original on 29 April 2019, retrieved 17 April 2020 – via Nepal Law Commission
  17. Buskey, Theresa (March 2001). "II". In Alan Christopherson, M.S. (ed.). History and Geography. LIFEPAC. 804 N. 2nd Ave. E. Rock Rapids: Alpha Omega Publications, Inc. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-58095-157-9. Retrieved 26 January 2019.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  18. 18.0 18.1 "Highest mountains in the world". Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  19. "Lumbini, the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha". UNESCO. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
  20. "Nepal | A Unique and Diverse Country in South Asia". Retrieved 2021-06-19.
  21. nations encyclopedia, nepal, 2013,
  22. "Countries With The Highest Average Elevations". WorldAtlas. Retrieved 2017-07-21.
  23. "Festivals of Nepal". 9 May 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-05-09.
  24. Jha, Manish (7 October 2016). "Regular breaks". Nepali Times. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
  25. "Final Interim Constitution of Nepal, 2063" (PDF). 2007. p. 2. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
  26. "Plants, Animals and Birds of Nepal". Nepal Vista. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
  27. Beckwith, Christopher I. (2017). Greek Buddha: Pyrrho's Encounter with Early Buddhism in Central Asia. Princeton University Press. pp. 234–235. ISBN 978-0-691-17632-1.
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named VAS
  29. Mukherji, P. C.; Smith, Vincent Arthur (1901). A report on a tour of exploration of the antiquities in the Tarai, Nepal the region of Kapilavastu;. Calcutta, Office of the superintendent of government printing, India. p. Plate XIII.
  30. 30.0 30.1 Falk, Harry (January 1998). The discovery of Lumbinī. p. 13.
  31. Barth, A. (1897). "Decouvertes recentes du Dr. Führer au Nepale". Le Journal des Savants. Académie des inscriptions et belles–lettres: 72.
  32. Weise, Kai (2013). The Sacred Garden of Lumbini: Perceptions of Buddha's birthplace. UNESCO. ISBN 978-92-3-001208-3.
  33. Paranavitana, S. (Apr. - Jun., 1962). Rupandehi Pillar Inscription of Asoka, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 82 (2), 163-167
  34. Weise, Kai; et al. (2013), The Sacred Garden of Lumbini – Perceptions of Buddha's Birthplace (PDF), Paris: UNESCO, pp. 47–48, archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-08-30
  35. Hultzsch, E. /1925). Inscriptions of Asoka. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 164-165
  36. Tsukamoto, Keisho (2006). Reconsidering the Rummindei Pillar Edict of Asoka: In Connection with 'a piece of natural rock' from Mayadevi Temple[permanent dead link], Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies 54 (3), 1113-1120
  37. Hultzsch, E. (1925). Inscriptions of Asoka. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 164-165
  38. Hultzsch, E. (1925). Inscriptions of Asoka. New Edition by E. Hultzsch (in Sanskrit). p. 164.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  39. Asoka pillar at Rummindei [Lumbini] in the Nepal Tarai, west view of ruins. British Library Online
  40. "Dr. Fuhrer went from Nigliva to Rummindei where another Priyadasin lat has been discovered... and an inscription about 3 feet below surface, had been opened by the Nepalese" in Calcutta, Maha Bodhi Society (1921). The Maha-Bodhi. p. 226.

Cite error: <ref> tags exist for a group named "note", but no corresponding <references group="note"/> tag was found

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