India–Russia relations

From Bharatpedia, an open encyclopedia

India–Russia relations
Map indicating locations of India and Russia


Diplomatic mission
Embassy of India, MoscowEmbassy of Russia, New Delhi
Ambassador Pavan KapoorAmbassador Denis Alipov
President of Russia Vladimir Putin and Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi, at the 21st India-Russia Annual Summit in New Delhi, 2021.

India–Russia relations are the bilateral relations and overall international policies between the Republic of India and the Russian Federation. During the Cold War, India and the Soviet Union (USSR) formed a strong and strategic relationship; this diplomatic unity was further strengthened with both nations’ shared military ideals, as well as their overall economic policies. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia kept the same close ties to India; in international terms, both nations share a special relationship. Russia and India, both, consider their mutual affinity to be a "special and privileged strategic partnership". India and Russia together have aligned interest of creating multipolar world order each being one pole instead of bipolar world with the decline of the American-led unipolar world order.[1]

Traditionally, the Indo-Russian strategic partnership has been built on five major components: politics, defence, civil nuclear energy, anti-terrorism co-operation, as well as the advancement of and exploration of outer space travel.[2] These five major components were highlighted in a speech given by former Indian Foreign Secretary Ranjan Mathai in Russia.[2]

The IRIGC (India-Russia Intergovernmental Commission) is the main body that conducts affairs at the governmental level between both countries.[3] Both countries are members of international bodies including the UN, BRICS, G20 and SCO.[4] Russia has stated that it supports India receiving a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council.[citation needed] In addition, Russia has expressed interest in joining SAARC with observer status in which India is a founding member.[5][6]

India is the second largest market for the Russian defence industry. In 2017, approximately 68% of the Indian military's hardware import came from Russia, making Russia the chief supplier of defence equipment.[7][failed verification] India has an embassy in Moscow and two consulates-general (in Saint Petersburg and Vladivostok). Russia has an embassy in New Delhi and six consulate-generals (in Chennai, Goa, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Mumbai and Trivandrum).[8]

According to a 2014 BBC World Service Poll, 85% of Russians view India positively, with only 9% expressing a negative view.[9] Similarly, a 2017 opinion poll by the Moscow-based non-governmental think tank Levada-Center states that Russians identified India as one of their top five "friends", with the others being Belarus, China, Kazakhstan and Syria.[10] Polls show that 60% of people support the Indian government's handling of the Russo-Ukrainian war, while 50% agreed to the sanctions imposed by other nations on Russia, according to LocalCircles, a community social media platform.[11] A poll conducted in summer 2022 shows that Indians most frequently named Russia their most trusted partner, with 43% naming Russia as such compared to 27% who named the US.[12]


Goods uncovered from archaeological site such as Pazyryk indicates that nomads inhabiting the area conducted trading activities with India during 4th-3rd century BCE.[13] In 1468, Russian traveller Afanasy Nikitin began his journey to India. Between 1468 and 1472, he travelled through Persia, India and the Ottoman Empire. The documentation of his experiences during this journey is compiled in the book The Journey Beyond Three Seas (Khozheniye za tri morya).[14]

In the 18th century the Russian cities Astrakhan, Moscow and St. Petersburg were frequently visited by Indian merchants. Russia and Iran was used as a transit trade between Western Europe and India, especially after Peter the Great requested from Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb the commencement of trade relations in 1696.[15] Decades later, the Russian czar personally granted Anbu-Ram Mulin's Indian trading company the right to resolve property rights issues in Astrakhan, thus allowing Indians to bring in caravans with their linen fabrics, cottons, silks, and Indian, Persian and Uzbek cloth. The Astrakhan governor was ordered to show "kindness and goodwill" to the Indian merchants in Russia, who cherished their religious freedom and special trade privileges that they never had in other Eastern countries; until the middle of the 18th century, members of the community only paid 12 rubles a year as rent for a shop in the Indian Trading Compound, and were exempted from taxes and duties by the Russian authorities. The value of goods exported by them from Astrakhan into the interior cities of Russia in 1724 exceeded 104,000 rubles, amounting to nearly a quarter of all Astrakhan trade, until British occupation stopped independent Indian trade with Russia altogether.[14][16][17]

In 1801, Tsar Paul ordered plans made for the invasion of British India by 22,000 Cossacks, which never actually occurred due to poor handling of preparations. The intention was that Russia would form an alliance with France, and attack the British Empire and its weak point using a French corps of 35,000 men and a Russian corps of 25,000 infantry and 10,000 mounted Cossacks. Some Cossacks had approached Orenburg when the tsar was assassinated. His successor Alexander I immediately cancelled the plans.[18]

India and the Soviet Union[edit]

India–Soviet Union relations
Map indicating locations of India and USSR

Soviet Ambassador Kirill Novikov arriving in New Delhi 1947 to establish formal diplomatic relations with India

Stalin had a negative view of Gandhi and the Congress Party, and of Nehru, as tools of the British and monopoly capitalism. Before his death in 1953 relations were cold.[19]

Russia had wanted to strengthen commercial, cultural and literary ties with India, and had wanted to open diplomatic office in India at least since 1860, but the then British government in India was against it. The first consulate of Russia was opened in Mumbai in November 1900. Mumbai at the time was also a comfortable stopover for Haj pilgrims from the Asian republics under Russian rule. In 1910, the consulate was moved to Kolkata. On April 12, 1947, Russia opened its Embassy in New Delhi.[20]

A cordial relationship began in 1955 and represented the most successful of the Soviet attempts to foster closer relations with Third World countries.[21] The relationship began with a visit by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to the Soviet Union in June 1955, and First Secretary of the Communist Party Nikita Khrushchev's return trip to India in the fall of 1955. While in India, Khrushchev announced that the Soviet Union supported Indian sovereignty over the disputed territory of the Kashmir region and over Portuguese coastal enclaves such as Goa.

The Soviet Union's strong relations with India had a negative impact upon both Soviet relations with the People's Republic of China and Indian relations with the PRC, during the Khrushchev period. The Soviet Union declared its neutrality during the 1959 border dispute and the Sino-Indian war of October 1962, although the Chinese strongly objected. The Soviet Union gave India substantial economic and military assistance during the Khrushchev period, and by 1960 India had received more Soviet assistance than China had.[citation needed] This disparity became another point of contention in Sino-Soviet relations. In 1962 the Soviet Union agreed to transfer technology to co-produce the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 jet fighter in India, which the Soviet Union had earlier denied to China.[22]

In 1965 the Soviet Union served successfully as a peace broker between India and Pakistan after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. The Soviet Chairman of the Council of Ministers, literally Premier of the Soviet Union, Alexei Kosygin, met with representatives of India and Pakistan and helped them negotiate an end to the military conflict over Kashmir.

In 1971 the former East Pakistan region initiated an effort to secede from its political union with West Pakistan. India supported the secession and the U.S considered possible entrance of China to further destabilize India in taking up a moral leadership in the area. However, China after the Sino-Indian war did not want to enter into United States bidding for Yahya Khan's attrocities in present day Bangladesh. Meanwhile, India's relationship with the Soviet Union grew strategically and resulted in the Indo-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation, August 1971. In December, it helped India to halt American adventurism using military power and ended the conflict which ensured the victory of the secessionists in the establishment of the new state of Bangladesh.[23][24]

Relations between the Soviet Union and India did not suffer much during the right-wing Janata Party's coalition government in the late 1970s, although India did move to establish better economic and military relations with Western countries. To counter these efforts by India to diversify its relations, the Soviet Union proffered additional weaponry and economic assistance.

During the 1980s, despite the 1984 assassination by Sikh separatists of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, the mainstay of cordial Indian-Soviet relations, India maintained a close relationship with the Soviet Union. Indicating the high priority of relations with the Soviet Union in Indian foreign policy, the new Indian Prime Minister, Rajiv Gandhi, visited the Soviet Union on his first state visit abroad in May 1985 and signed two long-term economic agreements with the Soviet Union. According to Rejaul Karim Laskar, a scholar of Indian foreign policy, during this visit, Rajiv Gandhi developed a personal rapport with Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev.[25] In turn, Gorbachev's first visit to a Third World state was his meeting with Rajiv Gandhi in New Delhi in late 1986. General Secretary Gorbachev unsuccessfully urged Rajiv Gandhi to help the Soviet Union set up an Asian collective security system. Gorbachev's advocacy of this proposal, which had also been made by Leonid Brezhnev, was an indication of continuing Soviet interest in using close relations with India as a means of containing China. With the improvement of Sino-Soviet relations in the late 1980s, containing China had less of a priority, but close relations with India remained important as an example of Gorbachev's new Third World policy.

Modern political relations[edit]

Former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee with Russia's president Vladimir Putin in October 2000.

The first major political initiative, since the collapse of the Soviet Union, between India and Russia began with the Strategic Partnership signed between the two countries in 2000. President Vladimir Putin stated in an article written by him in The Hindu, "The Declaration on Strategic Partnership between India and Russia signed in October 2000 became a truly historic step".[26][27] Former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh also agreed with his counterpart by stated in speech given during President Putin's 2012 visit to India, "President Putin is a valued friend of India and the original architect of the India-Russia strategic partnership".[28] Both countries closely collaborate on matters of shared national interest these include at the UN, BRICS, G20 and SCO. Russia also supports India receiving a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council.[citation needed] In addition, Russia has vocally backed India joining the NSG[29] and APEC.[30] Moreover, it has also expressed interest in joining SAARC with observer status in which India is a founding member.[6][5]

Russia currently is one of only two countries in the world (the other being Japan) that has a mechanism for annual ministerial-level defence reviews with India.[2] The Indo-Russian Inter-Governmental Commission (IRIGC) is one of the largest and most comprehensive governmental mechanisms that India has had with any country internationally. Almost every department from the Government of India attends it.[2]

Relations with India have always been and I am sure will be one of the most important foreign policy priorities of our country. Our mutual ties of friendship are filled with sympathy, and trust, and openness. And we must say frankly that they were never overshadowed by disagreements or conflict. This understanding - this is indeed the common heritage of our peoples. It is valued and cherished in our country, in Russia, and in India. And we are rightfully proud of so close, so close relations between our countries.

— Dmitry Medvedev, about relations with India[31]

We are confident that India lives in the hearts of every Russian. In the same way, I can assure you that Russia also lives in our souls as a Homeland, as people who share our emotions, our feelings of mutual respect and constant friendship. Long live our friendship!

— Pratibha Patil, about relations with Russia[31]

Template:Omission India-Russia relationship is one of deep friendship and mutual confidence that would not be affected by transient political trends. Russia has been a pillar of strength at difficult moments in India's history. India will always reciprocate this support. Russia is and will remain our most important defense partner and a key partner for our energy security, both on nuclear energy and hydrocarbons,

— Pranab Mukherjee, about relations with Russia[32]
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Russian President Vladimir Putin on 16 September 2022

In May 2022, Russian political scientist Sergey Karaganov, who is considered close to Vladimir Putin and Sergey Lavrov, stated that India figured extremely high on the agenda of the Russian foreign policy and strong India-Russia ties will help stabilise to New Delhi’s ties with Beijing besides bringing a balance in Moscow’s partnership with China.[33]

In November 2022, India's External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar praised Russia as "exceptionally steady" and "time-tested" partner.[34]

In January 2023, Russian Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Maria Zakharova backed India in its dispute with British national broadcaster BBC over a documentary critical of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, stating this was part of an “information war” against “global centers of power pursuing an independent policy”.[35]

After the start of Ukraine war and because of sanctions imposed by US and Europe on Russia, it started to provide oil and chemical fertilisers at discounted rate to India increasing India-Russia bilateral trade volume from $13 billion [2021-2022] to $27 billion within 2022[36] making it largest oil and fertiliser supplier to India.[37] By 2023 India Russia trade is expected to cross $30 billion.[38] India has also refused to accept the price cap on Russian crude imposed by Western world.[39] However CIA director William J. Burns has said that Indian PM Narendra Modi’s words with Russian President Vladimir Putin has helped averting the nuclear war threat from Russia.[40]

Although Russia's new foreign policy concept after the Ukraine war proposes to deepen its relations with India and China as a counterweight to the West,[41] but Beijing and New Delhi have their own unique policies, China and India's long-standing contradictions make it impossible.[42] In the last two decades, the balance of power in the China-Russia alliance has reversed. China is now the senior partner, whereas Russia is further diminished by the quagmire in Ukraine,[43] and Moscow even rejects the validity of the term Indo-Pacific, although New Delhi's entire strategy depends on the success of this structure. With Russia delaying delivery of the S-400 anti-missile system to India under pressure from the Ukraine war, public opinion in India has questioned its ability to ensure a stable balance of power with China. Some views believe that Putin's acceleration closer to China makes “[India-Russia] relationship is going down from being a very high-value strategic partnership to a transactional one”.[44] India has also stepped up diversity diplomacy to mitigate the negative impact of deepening China-Russia relations.[41][42]


The Indo-Russian Inter-Governmental Commission (IRIGC) is the main body that conducts affairs at the governmental level between both countries.[3] Some have described it as the steering committee of Indo-Russia relations.[3] It is divided into two parts, the first covering Trade, Economic, Scientific, Technological and Cultural Co-operation. This is normally co-chaired by the Russian Deputy Prime Minister and the Indian External Affairs Minister. The second part of the commission covers Military Technical Co-operation; this is co-chaired by the two countries respective Defence Ministers. Both parts of IRIGC meet annually.[3]

In addition, to the IRIGC there are other bodies that conduct economic relations between the two countries. These include, the Indo-Russian Forum on Trade and Investment, the India-Russia Business Council, the India-Russia Trade, Investment and Technology Promotion Council and the India-Russia Chamber of Commerce.[3]

An article penned by Vladimir Putin was published in The Times of India on 30 May 2017, a day before Prime Minister Narendra Modi's visit to Russia, to mark the 70th anniversary of the establishment of relations between India and the Russia on 13 April 1947.[45][46]

Military relationship[edit]

A meeting of the Russian-Indian intergovernmental commission on military and technical cooperation
Indian and Russian soldiers training during the Indra 2015 counter-terrorism exercise.

The Soviet Union was an important supplier of defence equipment for several decades, and this role has been inherited by the Russian federation. Between 2012 and 2016, Russia accounts for 68% of India's defense imports, and India and Russia have deepened their Make in India defence manufacturing cooperation by signing agreements for the construction of naval frigates, KA-226T twin-engine utility helicopters (joint venture (JV) to make 60 in Russia and 140 in India), Brahmos cruise missile (JV with 50.5% India and 49.5% Russia).[47] Between 2013 and 2018, Russia accounted for 62% of arms sales to India.[48] According to the SIPRI, Russia was the largest supplier of arms to India in both 2013–17 and 2018–22, but its share of total Indian arms imports fell from 64% to 45% while France emerged as the second largest supplier between 2018-22.[49]

In 1997, Russia and India signed a ten-year agreement for further military-technical cooperation encompassed a wide range of activities, including the purchase of completed weaponry, joint development and production, and joint marketing of armaments and military technologies.[50] The co-operation is not limited to a buyer-seller relationship but includes joint research and development, training, service to service contacts, including joint exercises. The last joint naval exercises took place in April 2007 in the Sea of Japan and joint airborne exercises were held in September 2007 in Russia. An Inter-Governmental commission on military-technical co-operation is co-chaired by the defence ministers of the two countries. The seventh session of this Inter-Governmental Commission was held in October 2007 in Moscow. During the visit, an agreement on joint development and production of prospective multi-role fighters was signed between the two countries. In 2009, India and Russia renew defense cooperation pact started in Soviet era, which resulted in the sale of a multitude of defence equipment to India and also the emergence of the countries as development partners as opposed to purely a buyer-seller relationship, including the joint ventures projects to develop and produce the Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft (FGFA) and the Multirole Transport Aircraft (MTA).[51] In 2012, both countries signed a defence deal worth $2.9 billion during President Putin's visit to India for the 42 new Sukhois to be produced under license by defence PSU Hindustan Aeronautics, which will add to the 230 Sukhois earlier contracted from Russia.[27] However, India finally withdrew from the joint stealth fighter project with Russia's Sukhoi in 2018.[52][53]

In October 2018, India inked the historic agreement worth US$5.43 billion with Russia to procure five S-400 Triumf surface-to-air missile defence system, one of the best missile defence system in the world ignoring America's CAATSA act. The United States threatened India with sanctions over India's decision to buy the S-400 missile defense system from Russia.[54]

India and Russia have several major joint military programmes including:

Additionally, India has purchased/leased various military hardware from Russia:

The secretary of Russia's Security Council, Nikolai Patrushev, and Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi in New Delhi on 29 March 2023

Russia said that despite the ongoing conflict with Ukraine, which caused international sanctions, it fulfilled its contractual obligations and delivered all weapon systems, including the S-400 air defense system, according to schedule. Also, Moscow said that they expect that serial production of AK 203 assault rifles in India will begin in late 2022- early 2023. Dmitry Shugaev, head of the Federal Service for Military Technical Cooperation (FSMTC), said that the Russian side was ready for cooperation and had already submitted proposals on the joint development and production of modern types of military equipment and actively uses the principle of "Make in India. At the Army-2022 forum, the Russian side declared its readiness for cooperation and presented proposals for the joint development and production of modern types of military equipment, namely, "the main battle tank of the future, infantry fighting vehicle, fifth-generation aircraft, diesel-electric submarines and other types of modern weapons."[56]

Russian President Vladimir Putin attended the Vostok-2022 [ru] military exercise in the Russian Far East. Beyond Russian troops, the exercises also included military forces from India, among others.[57]

In 2023, Russia and India have planned to hold several joint military exercises. Exercises will be held in the Southern Military District as part of the Indra military project, which was first implemented back in 2003. For the coming year, the countries have also planned to hold an event "AviaIndra".[58]

On 18 October 2022, the Director General of the Indian-Russian organization BrahMos informed Russian journalists about the timing of the test of the BrahMos NG missile being developed as part of a joint project. According to him, "missile tests are scheduled for 2024." At the moment, design engineers are working on a scheme of weapons. The defense of the project, as the chief director expects, should take place in Moscow at the site of the NPO Mashinostroeniya.[59]

In 2023, Russia plans to supply India with the frigate "Tushil" and the frigate "Tamala" of project 11356, created at the Baltic shipyard "Yantar". Initially, they were built for the Russian Navy, but due to Ukraine's refusal to provide engines, the ships are being prepared for the Indian side. The frigate "Tushil" was launched in October 2021, "Tamala" according to the plan will be launched at the end of 2022.[60]

Economic relations[edit]

Prime Minister Modi and President Putin at the World Diamond Conference in New Delhi in 2014

Bilateral trade between both countries is concentrated in key value chain sectors. These sectors include highly diversified segments such as machinery, electronics, aerospace, automobile, commercial shipping, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, fertilisers, apparels, precious stones, industrial metals, petroleum products, coal, high-end tea and coffee products.[61] Bilateral trade in 2002 stood at $1.5 billion[62] and increased by over 7 times to $11 billion in 2012[63] and with both governments setting a bilateral trade target of $30 billion by 2025.[64][65][61] Bilateral bodies that conduct economic relations between the two countries include IRIGC, the Indo-Russian Forum on Trade and Investment, the India-Russia Business Council, the India-Russia Trade, Investment and Technology Promotion Council, the India-Russia CEOs' Council and the India-Russia Chamber of Commerce.[61][66]

Both Governments have jointly developed an economic strategy that involves using a number of economic components to increase future bilateral trade. These include development of an FTA between India & the EEU, a bilateral treaty on the promotion and protection of investments, a new economic planning mechanism built into IRIGC, simplication of customs procedures, new long-term agreements in the expansion of energy trade including nuclear, oil and gas.[67][68] Finally, long term supplier contracts in key sectors such as oil, gas and rough diamonds. Companies such as Rosneft, Gazprom, Essar & Alrosa will act as long term suppliers respectively.[68]

Russia has stated it will co-operate with India on its "Make in India" initiative by engagement in the development of "Smart Cites", the DMIC, the aerospace sector, the commercial nuclear sector and enhancement in manufacturing of Russian military products through co-development and co-production.[64][69][70][71] Russia agreed to participate in the vast, over $100 billion, DMIC infrastructure project which will eventually connect Delhi and Mumbai with railways, highways, ports, interconnecting smart cities and industrial parks.[64] Russian President Vladimir Putin stated in an interview that one of his government's priorities was of building a smart city in India, "a smart city on the basis of Russian technologies."[72] AFK Sistema will likely be the primary Russian company involved in the project due to its previous experience in smart city projects in Ufa, Kazan and Rostov.[73]

Both countries have also agreed to work together in the aerospace sector to co-development and co-produce aircraft, examples include the Sukhoi Superjet 100, MS-21, FGFA, MTA and Kamov Ka-226.[70] Some of the co-developed aircraft will be jointly commercially exported to third countries and foreign markets e.g. FGFA and Kamov Ka-226. President of Russia's UAC Mikhail Pogosyan stated in an interview, "We are planning to sell in India about 100 passenger aircraft by 2030, which will account for 10 percent of the Indian market of airliners in the segment" and further stated, "The unprecedented scope of Russian-Indian cooperation in military aviation has created a scientific and engineering basis for undertaking joint projects in civil aviation."[70]

India is currently the world's largest cutting & polishing centre for diamonds. Both countries have agreed to streamline their bilateral trade in diamonds through reductions in regulations and tariffs. Indian Prime Minister Modi stated in an interview, "I made three proposals to President Putin. First, I would like Alrosa to have direct long-term contracts with more Indian companies. I am pleased to know that they are moving in this direction. Second, I want Alrosa and others to trade directly on our diamond bourse. We have decided to create a Special Notified Zone where mining companies can trade diamonds on consignment basis and re-export unsold ones. Third, I asked to reform regulation so that Russia can send rough diamonds to India and reimport polished diamonds without extra duties".[74][75] Analysts predict through streamlined procedures and initiatives bilateral trade in this area will significantly increase.[71]

Russia has agreed to build more than 20 nuclear reactors over the next 20 years.[69][76] Russian president stated in an interview, "It contains plans to build over 20 nuclear power units in India, as well as cooperation in building Russia-designed nuclear power stations in third countries, in the joint extraction of natural uranium, production of nuclear fuel and waste elimination."[69] In 2012 Gazprom Group and India's GAIL agreed to LNG shipments to India of 2.5 million tons a year for the period of 20 years. LNG shipments for this contract are expected to begin anytime between 2017 and 2021.[77] Indian oil companies have invested in the Russia's oil sector a notable example is ONGC-Videsh which has invested over $8 billion with major stakes in oil fields such as Sakhalin-1.[78] In a joint statement released by both governments they stated, "It is expected that Indian companies will strongly participate in projects related to new oil and gas fields in the territory of the Russian Federation. The sides will study the possibilities of building a hydrocarbon pipeline system, connecting the Russian Federation with India."[64]

Meeting of BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) foreign ministers in New York City on 22 September 2022

Officials from both countries have discussed how to increase co-operation between their countries respective IT industries. Russian Minister of Communication Nikolai Nikiforov stated in an interview, "The development of IT products and software has traditionally been a strong point of India. We welcome possible joint projects in the field and closer contacts between Russian and Indian companies."[79]

Due to India simplifying recent visa rule changes for Russians travelling to India, the number of tourists increased by over 22%.[80] In 2011 the Indian consulates in Moscow, Vladivostok and St. Petersburg issued 160,000 visas, an increase of over 50% compared to 2010.[80]

Both the countries set the investment target of $30 billion by 2025. Since they met the target by 2018, India and Russia expect to enhance the figure to $50 billion. India also proposed to set up a special economic zone for Russian companies.[citation needed]

On 5 September 2019, India pledged a USD 1 billion line of credit (concessional loans) for the development of Russia's far east.[81]

In March 2022, when Western nations imposed economic sanctions on Russia in the aftermath of its invasion of Ukraine, India and Russia explored alternative payment systems due to exclusion of most Russian banks from SWIFT and Visa/Mastercard. Officials from both countries were discussing accepting RuPay and MIR cards. The Reserve Bank of India and the Bank of Russia seek to facilitate financial transactions through an independent rupee-ruble exchange system, particularly for the purchase of sunflower oil by India, and the export of petroleum products and fertilizers by the Russian Federation. India also depends crucially on Russia for its defence equipment and parts. Additionally, Indian Oil Corp. had reportedly reached a deal to buy 3 million barrels of oil from Russia's Rosneft at a 20% discount to global prices.[82][83]

On 2 August 2022, the Russian Ambassador to India announced the Indian side's interest in the presence on the Russian market, in particular, Indian pharmaceutical products, leather goods, textiles and agricultural goods.[84]

Russian imports from India amounted to $3.1 billion or 1% of its overall imports, and 0.7% of India's overall exports in 2014. The 10 major commodities exported from India to Russia were:[85][86]

Indian commodities exports to Russia (2014)[85][86]
Product category Quantity ($ million)
Pharmaceuticals $819.1
Electronic equipment $382.3
Machines, engines, pumps $159.4
Iron and steel $149.1
Clothing (not knit or crochet) $135.7
Coffee, tea and spices $131.7
Tobacco $113.9
Vehicles $111.1
Knit or crochet clothing $97.9
Other food preparations $77.7

Russian exports to India amounted to $6.2 billion or 1.3% of its overall exports, and 0.9% of India's overall imports in 2014. The 10 major commodities exported from Russia to India were:[87][88]

Russian commodities exports to India (2014)[87][88]
Product category Quantity ($ million)
Gems, precious metals, coins $1100.0
Machines, engines, pumps $707.4
Electronic equipment $472.7
Fertilizers $366.8
Medical, technical equipment $302.7
Oil $223.8
Iron and steel $167.4
Paper $136.8
Inorganic chemicals $127.4
Salt, sulphur, stone, cement $105.1

In just five months of 2022, bilateral trade between Russia and India reached a record growth of $18.229 billion. For comparison, last year this figure amounted to $13.124 billion, and the year before that – $8.141 billion. Now Russia has become India's seventh largest trading partner, having risen to this place from the 25th position it occupied last year. Russia's share in India's total trade volume increased to 3.54% compared to 1.27% in 2021-222.[89]

Russia and India are successfully cooperating in the banking sector. In 2010, the Russian Federation opened an office of Sberbank in New Delhi. Last year, the branch was capitalized and by now the equity of the branch has reached $100 million. In 2022, Russia received permission from the regulator in India to open a second office in Mumbai. The countries plan to implement the project in 2023.[90]

Free trade agreement[edit]

The formal process for the free trade agreement between India and the Eurasian Economic Union was begun at the 2014 Indo-Russian summit in New Delhi.
Signing of Indian-Russian documents at the 2015 Indo-Russian summit in Moscow.

Both governments have long viewed their bilateral trade well below its optimal potential, with the only long term way of rectifying this through having a Free trade agreement (FTA).[91][92] Both governments have set up a joint study group (JSG) to negotiate the specifications of an agreement, a final agreement would be signed between India and Eurasian Economic Union of which Russia is a part of (also including Kazakhstan, Armenia, Kyrgyzstan & Belarus).[93] Thereby, the Indo-Russian FTA would result in a much bigger free trade agreement including India, Russia, Kazakhstan, Armenia, Kyrgyzstan & Belarus.[91] It is predicted once an FTA is in place bilateral trade will increase manifold, thereby significantly increasing the importance of economics in bilateral ties.[91][94][95]

The table below shows the recent Indo-Russian bilateral trade performance:

Indo-Russian trade (2009–12)
Year Trade Volume (Billion $) Annual Change
2009 $7.46[63]
2010 $8.53[63] +14.34%
2011 $8.87[63] +3.98%
2012 $11.04[63] +24.50%

Co-operation in the energy sector[edit]

The energy sector is an important area in Indo-Russian bilateral relations. In 2001, ONGC-Videsh acquired 20% stake in the Sakhalin-I oil and gas project in the Russian Federation, and has invested about US$1.7 billion in the project. Gazprom, the Russian company, and Gas Authority of India have collaborated in joint development of a block in the Bay of Bengal. Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project with two units of 1000 MW each is a good example of Indo-Russian nuclear energy co-operation. Both sides have expressed interest in expanding cooperation in the energy sector.

In December 2008, Russia and India signed an agreement to build civilian nuclear reactors in India during a visit by the Russian president to New Delhi.[96]

During Russia's invasion of Ukraine, India imported a lot of discounted Russian oil, Russia rose to become India's second biggest supplier of oil in May, pushing Saudi Arabia into third place but still behind Iraq which remains No. 1, data from trade sources showed,[97] accounts for 18% of India's crude imports.[98] India increased its energy reliance with Russia in the aftermath of the Ukraine conflict, as imports for Russian liquid gas, crude oil and coal tripled to almost US$5 billion in the first half of 2022.[99] After January 2023, Russia has become India's top oil supplier, replacing Iraq. India's oil imports from Russia rose for the 5th straight month in November, accounting for 23% of India's overall import of 4 million bpd oil. This was 4% higher than imports from Russia in October.[100]

North–South Transport Corridor[edit]

The North–South Transport Corridor is the ship, rail, and road route for moving freight between India, Russia, Iran, Europe and Central Asia. The route primarily involves moving freight from India, Iran, Azerbaijan and Russia via ship, rail and road.[101] The objective of the corridor is to increase trade connectivity between major cities such as Mumbai, Moscow, Tehran, Baku, Bandar Abbas, Astrakhan, Bandar Anzali etc.[102] Dry runs of two routes were conducted in 2014, the first was Mumbai to Baku via Bandar Abbas and the second was Mumbai to Astrakhan via Bandar Abbas, Tehran and Bandar Anzali. The objective of the study was to identify and address key bottlenecks.[103][104] The results showed transport costs were reduced by "$2,500 per 15 tons of cargo".[104] Other routes under consideration include via Armenia, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan.

Science and technology[edit]

India and Russia have both signed agreements for the cooperation and use of GLONASS

The ongoing collaboration in the field of science & technology, under the Integrated Long-Term Programme of Co-operation (ILTP) is the largest co-operation programme in this sphere for both India and Russia. ILTP is coordinated by the Department of Science and Technology from the Indian side and by the Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Science and Education, and Ministry of Industry and Trade from the Russian side. Development of SARAS Duet aircraft, semiconductor products, super computers, poly-vaccines, laser science and technology, seismology, high-purity materials, software & IT and Ayurveda have been some of the priority areas of co-operation under the ILTP. Under this programme, eight joint Indo-Russian centres have been established to focus on joint research and development work. Two other Joint Centres on Non-ferrous Metals and Accelerators and Lasers are being set up in India. A Joint Technology Centre based in Moscow to bring cutting-edge technologies to the market is also under processing. An ILTP Joint Council met in Moscow on 11–12 October 2007 to review co-operation and give it further direction. In August 2007, an MoU was signed between Department of Science and Technology and Russian Foundation of Basic Research, Moscow to pursue scientific co-operation.

In June 2010, the Russian-Indian Science and Technology Center (RI STC) was established in Moscow as a structure of effective innovative interaction in order to find forms of commercialization of the results of joint scientific and technical research. In April 2012, the official opening of the Delhi branch of the RI STC took place.[105]

Space co-operation[edit]

India's first Satellite Aryabhata was launched into space with the cooperation of the Soviet Union

There has been a long history of cooperation between the Soviet Union and India in space. Examples include Aryabhata, India's first satellite,[106] named after an Indian astronomer of the same name.[107] It was launched by the Soviet Union on 19 April 1975[106] from Kapustin Yar using a Kosmos-3M launch vehicle. The only Indian to visit space, Rakesh Sharma, was also launched by the Soviet Union under Interkosmos space program. During President Vladimir Putin's visit to India in December 2004, two space-related bilateral agreements were signed viz. Intergovernmental umbrella Agreement on co-operation in the outer space for peaceful purposes and the Inter Space Agency Agreement on co-operation in the Russian satellite navigation system GLONASS. Subsequently, a number of follow-up agreements on GLONASS have been signed. In November 2007, the two countries have signed an agreement on joint lunar exploration. These space co-operation programmes are under implementation. Chandrayaan-2 was a joint lunar exploration mission proposed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and the Russian Federal Space Agency (RKA) and had a projected cost of ₹4.25 billion (US$90 million). The mission, proposed to be launched in 2017 by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), included a lunar orbiter and a rover made in India as well as one lander built by Russia. But due to the repeated delays in the joint venture, the Indian side ultimately decided to develop its own lander and borne all costs of the mission by itself. Later on ISRO developed its own lander named Vikram and launched Chandrayaan-2 mission successfully on 22 July 2019, from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh.[108]

In December 2021, Russia and India signed an agreement on measures to protect technologies in the field of space. The two countries agreed to expand and strengthen partnership relations between the Russian Roscosmos and the Indian Space Research Organization, as well as cooperation in the field of crewed space programs and satellite navigation. In addition, Russia and India planned to explore the prospects for developing cooperation in the field of launch vehicle development and planetary exploration.[109]

On 10 February 2020, Glavkosmos JSC and the Manned Space Flight Center of the Indian Space Research Organization, within the framework of an agreement to provide India with assistance in preparing for the launch of astronauts, began training Indian Air Force pilots. Indian astronaut candidates have undergone physical and medical training, studied the Russian language, designs, layouts and systems of the Soyuz crewed transport spacecraft. On 22 March 2021, the head of Roscosmos, Dmitry Rogozin, announced the completion of the Indian cosmonaut training program.[110]

In October 2022, Glavkosmos JSC supplied the Indian side with systems and equipment for the Gaganian crewed transport spacecraft, as well as individual equipment (spacesuits, armchairs and lodgments produced by the Russian JSC Zvezda Scientific and Production Enterprise) for Indian cosmonauts.[111]

Nuclear deals[edit]

Construction of the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant in 2009

On 7 November 2009, India signed a new nuclear deal with Russia apart from the deals that were agreed upon by the two countries earlier.[112] India and Russia are in discussion for construction of two more nuclear power units at Kudankulam. Two units of the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant are already operational. During Russian president Vladimir Putin's visit to India for the 13th annual summit, a co-operative civilian nuclear energy road map was agreed to. Running until 2030, sixteen to eighteen new reactors will be constructed, with installed capacity of 1,000 MW each. A 1,000 MW reactor costs around $2.5 billion so the deal may touch $45 billion in worth.[113]

In November 2011, Russia and Bangladesh signed an intergovernmental agreement on cooperation in the construction of the first Bangladeshi NPP "Ruppur", consisting of two power units with Russian VVER type reactors with an electric capacity of 1200 MW each, the life cycle of which is 60 years, with the possibility of extension for another 20 years. On 23 December 2015, during the visit of Rosatom CEO Sergey Kiriyenko to Bangladesh, a general contract for the construction of the first Bangladeshi nuclear power plant was signed. At the beginning of 2017 Russia has provided India with a loan of $11.38 billion to finance the main stage of the NPP construction. The construction of the nuclear power plant began in 2021. Currently, work is underway on the first and second power units. Based on the latest schedule, the power units will be put into operation in February 2024 and at the end of the same year, respectively.[114]

Cooperation in the cultural sphere[edit]

Russian President Dmitry Medvedev making his speech at the closing ceremony of The "Year of Russia in India" in 2008.

Indo–Russian relations in the field of culture are historical. One of the first Russian visitors to India was Afanasiy Nikitin a merchant from Tver in Russia.[115][116] His famous journey (1466–1472) was documented in the book A Journey Beyond the Three Seas. Nikitin spent three years in India (1469–1472) travelling to its many regions and documenting its people, culture, economy, technology, history, society and food. Nikitin's journey was portrayed by Soviet actor Oleg Strizhenov alongside Hindi screen legend Nargis Dutt in the 1950s film Journey Beyond Three Seas.[115][116]

Astrakhan in Russia has historically been a trading centre for Indian merchants since the 16th century.[116] In 1722 Peter the Great met with Anbu-Ram the leader of the Indians merchants in Astrakhan. In the meeting Peter the Great agreed to Anbu-Ram's request for full free trade including transit rights.[116]

The first Russian translation of the Bhagavad Gita was published in 1788 by decree on the orders of Catherine the Great.[117] Russian pioneers who travelled to India and studied Indian culture include Gerasim Lebedev who studied ancient Indian languages in the 1780s[118][119] and later Nicholas Roerich who studied Indian philosophy.[120] Roerich was influenced by the philosophy of Ramakrishna and Vivekananda, the poetry of Rabindranath Tagore, and the Bhagavad Gita. The 130th birth anniversary of Nicholas Roerich and 100th birth anniversary of Svetoslav Roerich were celebrated in India in October 2004.

Leading Russian Indiologist such as Ivan Minayev, Sergey Oldenburg, Fyodor Shcherbatskoy, Yuri Knorozov, Alexandr Kondratov, Nikita Gurov and Eugene Chelyshev focused their research in understanding the Indus Script, Sanskrit and Indian literature.[118][121]

Traditionally, there has been strong collaboration in the field of cinema between India and the USSR. Several generations of Russians grew up watching subtitled Indian films (mainly Bollywood) and vice versa for Indians watching Russian films.[122] Popular Indian films in the USSR included Awara, Bobby, Barood, Mamta[123][124] and Disco Dancer.[125] Recent contemporary films entirely shot in Russia include Lucky: No Time for Love. However, after the collapse of the USSR Bollywood's market share decreased in Russia.[126] Recently, however, there has been increase due to viewers having access through cable and satellite channels.[124][127] The Russian Deputy Minister of Culture, Elena Milovzorova, stated in an interview that an Indian-Russian joint working group (JWG) would discuss procedures to allow for both countries film industries to collaborate in film production together.[122] The Krasnodar Region has been discussed among officials as a possible area for shooting future Bollywood films.[128] Former Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, known to be an admirer of Bollywood films, visited the film set of Yash Raj Studios and met Bollywood stars such as Shah Rukh Khan, Yash Chopra and Kareena Kapoor during his state visit to India.[129][130] He stated in an interview, "Our country is one of the places where Indian culture is most admired" in addition stated, "Russia and India are the only countries where satellite channels broadcast Indian movies 24/7."[129]

Yoga in Russia has been growing and becoming increasingly popular since the 1980s, particularly in majors cities and urban centres, mainly due to its reputation for health benefits.[117][131][132] However, it has its roots much earlier in Russia during the time of noted Russian actor and trainer Constantin Stanislavski who was significantly influenced by Yoga and Indian philosophy.[117][133][134]

Russia's Rossotrudnichestvo Representative Office (RRO) established in 1965 has five Russian Centres of Science and Culture (RCSC) in India they include New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Trivandrum.[135] The head of RRO and director of RCSC, Fyodor Rozovsky, expects cultural ties to grow between both countries.[135] He and other officials also expects the number of Indian students studying in Russia to increase once both countries sign an agreement on joint recognition of higher education diplomas.[136][137][138] There is a Hindi Department, in the University of Moscow along with five Chairs relating to Indology in Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Kazan and Vladivostok.

Days of Russian Culture were held in India in November 2003, in Delhi, Kolkata and Mumbai. "Days of Indian Culture" in Russia were organised from September to October 2005 in Russia. Chief Minister of National Capital Territory of Delhi led a delegation for participating in the event "Days of Delhi in Moscow" from 28 May to 1 June 2006. The "Year of Russia in India" was held in 2008. It was followed by the "Year of India in Russia" in 2009.

In the period from 2018 to 2019, the Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Russian organization ROSSCONCERT. The document opened the possibility for troupes of artists from both countries to visit India and Russia alternately. In 2019, four groups from India – "Kathak", "Hindustani Kalari", "Bollywood" and "Shehnai" visited a number of regions of the Russian Federation. In addition, Indian-Russian working groups and a cultural exchange program have been established, which also meet the cultural and tourist needs of both countries.[139]

See also[edit]


  1. "India one of most important poles in multipolar world order, says Russia". India Today. Retrieved 24 December 2022.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Sharma, Rajeev (28 November 2012). "Top Indian diplomat explains Russia's importance to India". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Sharma, Rajeev (26 September 2012). "Indo-Russian Inter-Governmental Commission to meet in mid-October". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  4. Kashani, Sarwar (9 June 2010). "India has right to join SCO, not Pakistan: Russian envoy". NewKerala. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Muni, Sukh Deo; Jetly, Rajshree (2008). "SAARC: The Changing Dimensions" (PDF). United Nations University - Comparative Regional Integration Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 February 2016.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Russia keen to join SAARC as observer". OneIndia. 22 November 2006. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
  7. John Pike. "VOA News Report". Retrieved 24 April 2016.
  8. "Russian Embassy and Consulates in India". Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  9. 2014 World Service Poll Archived 22 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine BBC
  10. Bagchi, Indrani (28 June 2018). "India in top 5 friends of Russia". The Times of India. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  11. "6 in 10 support Indian govt's handling of the Russia-Ukraine crisis, says survey". Business today. 3 March 2022. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  12. Mattoo, Aditya Gowdara Shivamurthy and Antara Ghosal Singh and Harsh V. Pant and Premesha Saha and Renita D’souza and Shashank Mattoo and Shashank. "The ORF Foreign Policy Survey 2022: India @75 and the World". ORF. Retrieved 4 November 2022.
  13. Bahn, Paul G. (2000). The Atlas of World Geology. New York: Checkmark Books. pp. 128. ISBN 0-8160-4051-6.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Волков, Даниэль (2013). "Хожение за три моря Афанасия Никитина" [Journey beyond three seas by Athanasius Nikitin]. Проза.ру (
  15. Rubchenko, Maxim (9 September 2016). "Russia and India: A civilisational friendship". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  16. "18th century Russia welcomed & cherished Indian merchants". 16 September 2016.
  17. "Astrakhan's India Connection". 16 March 2020.
  18. John W. Strong, "Russia's Plans for an Invasion of India in 1801." Canadian Slavonic Papers 7.1 (1965):
  19. J. A. Naik, Russia's policy towards India: from Stalin to Yeltsin (1995).
  20. "110 years of Indo-Russian diplomatic ties". The New Indian Express. Thiruvananthapuram: Express Publications. 27 November 2010. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  21. Vojtech. Mastny, "The Soviet Union's Partnership with India." Journal of Cold War Studies 12.3 (2010): 50-90. Online
  22. Donaldson, Robert H (1972). "India: The Soviet Stake in Stability". Asian Survey. 12 (6): 475–492. doi:10.2307/2643045. JSTOR 2643045.
  23. Singh, Zorawar Daulet (18 December 2019). "Calling the U.S.'s bluff in 1971". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 5 February 2023.
  24. "When Russia Stunned US & UK Naval Forces And Helped India Win The 1971 War". IndiaTimes. 1 March 2022. Retrieved 5 February 2023.
  25. Laskar, Rejaul (September 2014). "Rajiv Gandhi's Diplomacy: Historic Significance and Contemporary Relevance". Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Diplomatist. 2 (9): 47. Archived from the original on 21 February 2018. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  26. Vladimir Putin (24 December 2012). "For Russia, deepening friendship with India is a top foreign policy priority". The Hindu. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
  27. 27.0 27.1 "India, Russia sign new defence deals". BBC News. 24 December 2012. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
  28. Sharma, Rajeev (24 December 2012). "13th Indo-Russian Summit reaffirms time-tested ties". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  29. Dhasmana, Indivjal (21 June 2012). "Russia supports India's membership in NSG". Business Standard India. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
  30. Volodin, Andrei (5 September 2012). "India and APEC: Center of Mutual Gravitation". International Affairs. Archived from the original on 26 September 2012.
  31. 31.0 31.1 "Торжественный вечер, посвящённый Году Индии в России". Президент России. 3 September 2009. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
  32. "Russia a dependable partner of India: President Pranab Mukherjee". CNN-IBN. 11 May 2015. Archived from the original on 13 May 2015. Retrieved 11 May 2015.
  33. Chaudhury, Dipanjan Roy (28 May 2022). "India top priority in Russian foreign policy: Sergei A Karaganov". The Economic Times.
  34. "Ties with Russia are to India's advantage and we will keep it". The Times of India. 8 November 2022.
  35. "Russia describes BBC documentary on PM Modi info war against global power with independent policy". Economic Times. 31 January 2023.
  36. "India-Russia trade up by $27 bn but 'too one sided', says Indian envoy". Hindustan Times. 23 December 2022. Retrieved 24 December 2022.
  37. Service, Tribune News. "Russia largest oil supplier to India in October, surpasses Iraq". Tribuneindia News Service. Retrieved 24 December 2022.
  38. "With $30 bn bilateral trade turnover, India, Russia plan big for 2023". Business Standard. 24 December 2022. Retrieved 24 December 2022.
  39. "Russia Welcomes India's Decision To Not Support G7's Price Cap On Oil". Retrieved 24 December 2022.
  40. "PM Modi's words on war had impact on Russians: CIA Chief". TimesNow. 22 December 2022. Retrieved 24 December 2022.
  41. 41.0 41.1 "India-Russia ties are facing a long-term conundrum". Hindustan Times. 6 April 2023. Retrieved 8 April 2023.
  42. 42.0 42.1 Gupta, Shekhar (11 March 2023). "Who are India's friends & foes? Modi govt is caught in a messy US-China-Russia-Pakistan jalebi". ThePrint. Retrieved 8 April 2023.
  43. "How China-Russia alliance affects India". Deccan Herald. 12 April 2023. Retrieved 17 April 2023.
  44. Bala, Sumathi (3 May 2023). "India's ties with Russia remain steady. But Moscow's tighter embrace of China makes it wary". CNBC. Retrieved 3 May 2023.
  45. Vladimir Putin (30 May 2017). "Russia and India: 70 years together". Times of India Blog. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  46. "Vladimir's article, Russia and India: 70 years together, has been published". President of Russia. 30 May 2017. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  47. "Deeper defence & security cooperation with Russia enhances India's strategic choices". The Economic Times. 22 December 2017. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  48. Abi-Habib, Maria (5 April 2018). "India Is Close to Buying a Russian Missile System, Despite U.S. Sanctions". The New York Times.
  49. Peri, Dinakar (13 March 2023). "India remains biggest arms importer between 2018-22 despite drop in overall imports". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 30 April 2023.
  50. Rahul Bedi, "India to Sign New 10-Year Defence Deal with Russia", Jane’s Defence Weekly, July 1, 1998, p. 16.
  51. "Global Defence News and Defence Headlines - IHS Jane's 360". Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
  52. Gady, Franz-Stefan. "India Pulls out of Joint Stealth Fighter Project With Russia". Retrieved 30 April 2023.
  53. Trevithick, Joseph (23 April 2018). "It's No Surprise India Finally Ditched Its Stealth Fighter Program With Russia". The Drive. Retrieved 30 April 2023.
  54. Macias, Amanda (23 May 2019). "India, facing sanctions for Russian arms deals, says it wants to pivot spending to the US". CNBC.
  55. "What is TU 160? The bomber India wants, Russia owns and US is likely to have". The Siasat Daily. 22 February 2023. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  56. Snehesh, Alex Philip (18 August 2022). "Russia wants to build next generation tanks, submarines with India". The Print.
  57. "Explainers Explained: What does India's participation in Russia's military drills Vostok-2022 mean?". Firstpost. 2 September 2022.
  58. "India-Russia Defence Cooperation". Embassy of India (in русский).
  59. "Trials of new generation of BrahMos cruise missile to begin in early 2024 — CEO". «TASS» (in русский). Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  60. "Фрегат "Тушил" для ВМС Индии планируют сдать на заводе "Янтарь" в 2023 году". ТАСС (in русский).
  61. 61.0 61.1 61.2 "Bilateral Relations: India-Russia Relations". Embassy of India Moscow. December 2014. Archived from the original on 27 July 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  62. "India, Russia to develop aircraft". The Tribune India. 7 February 2002. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  63. 63.0 63.1 63.2 63.3 63.4 Upadhyay, Dadan (3 April 2013). "India, Russia to negotiate on CECA with Customs Union". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  64. 64.0 64.1 64.2 64.3 "Narendra Modi-Vladimir Putin meet: India, Russia to explore oil and gas; aim for US$ 30 bn trade". The Financial Express. PTI. 12 December 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  65. Gupta, A.K. Sen (5 January 2015). "India-Russia trade relations back in Spotlight". The Dollar Business. Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  66. "Indo-Russian Inter-Governmental Commission to meet in mid-October". Russia & India Report. 26 September 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2012.
  67. "Druzhba-Dosti: A Vision for strengthening the Indian-Russian Partnership over the next decade' - Joint Statement during the visit of President of the Russian Federation to India". Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India. 11 December 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  68. 68.0 68.1 "Sanctions have spurred Russia-India cooperation - Russian official". Russia & India Report. 28 January 2015. Archived from the original on 9 February 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  69. 69.0 69.1 69.2 "Putin: Russia ready to build 'more than' 20 reactors in India". World Nuclear News. 11 December 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  70. 70.0 70.1 70.2 "Russia to foray into India's civil aviation market". The Hindu. 13 March 2012. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  71. 71.0 71.1 Busvine, Douglas; Sharma, Meenakshi (10 December 2014). "Russia's Alrosa to sell more diamonds direct to India". Reuters. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  72. "India is a reliable and time-tested partner - Vladimir Putin". Russia Beyond. 10 December 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  73. Mahapatra, Debidatta Aurobinda (19 November 2014). "A 'smart item' in India-Russia cooperation". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  74. "PM invites Russian diamond miners to trade, make in India". The Indian Express. 12 December 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  75. Katz, Alexandra (12 December 2014). "Diamond sparkle for India-Russia ties". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  76. "Will the India-US nuclear deal work?". BBC News. 26 January 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  77. "Russia to secure its role of reliable energy supplier to Asian markets - Putin". TASS. 9 December 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  78. Sanzhiev, Artem (11 December 2014). "Indian companies eye sizable investments in Russian energy sector- Dharmendra Pradhan". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  79. "India, Russia discuss IT cooperation". Russia & India Report. 22 October 2014. Archived from the original on 9 February 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  80. 80.0 80.1 Radyuhin, Vladimir (26 January 2013). "Indo-Russian trade posts impressive growth". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  81. "India goes from taking to giving loans to Russia". The Times of India. 6 September 2019. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  82. "Panel to scrutinise impact of Russia sanctions on India's economy" Retrieved 24 March 2022.
  83. "Hurting from sanctions on Russia, India is losing faith in the West" business-standard. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
  84. "Indian business interested in Russian market — Russia's ambassador". 2 August 2022.
  85. 85.0 85.1 "Top Russia Imports". Retrieved 24 April 2016.
  86. 86.0 86.1 "Top India Exports". Retrieved 24 April 2016.
  87. 87.0 87.1 "Top Russia Exports". Retrieved 24 April 2016.
  88. 88.0 88.1 "Top India Imports". Retrieved 24 April 2016.
  89. "India-Russia trade soars to record high as imports of oil and fertiliser drive surge". «The Indian Express» (in русский). 21 October 2022. Retrieved 25 October 2022.
  91. 91.0 91.1 91.2 "The case for an FTA with India and the Customs Union". Russia & India Report. 18 November 2013. Archived from the original on 8 November 2014. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
  92. Lal, Neeta (28 February 2014). "Rogozin sets ball rolling for bilateral trade and investment". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  93. "India, Russia to set up study group to push FTA". The Hindu. 18 June 2014. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
  94. "India agrees for FTA with Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia". The Hindu. 22 October 2013. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  95. Belli, Alessandro (8 November 2014). "Several new Indo-Russian projects to come under "strategic vision" agreement - Dmitry Rogozin". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  96. Pasricha, Anjana (5 December 2008). "Russia, India Sign Agreement to Build Civil Nuclear Reactors". Voice of America. Archived from the original on 8 December 2008. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
  97. Verma, Nidhi (13 June 2022). "Russia becomes India's second biggest oil exporter, trade sources' data show". Reuters.
  98. "Russia now accounts for 18% of India's crude imports; up from 1%". Fortune India. 3 June 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  99. "Russia pockets $24bn from selling energy to China, India" Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  100. Choudhary, Sanjeev (6 December 2022). "Russia remain biggest oil supplier to India". The Economic Times.
  101. Dikshit, Sandeep (31 May 2012). "Despite U.S. opposition, Iran to be transport hub for North-South Corridor". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  102. Sharma, Rajeev (29 November 2012). "Transport Corridor offers many opportunities for Indo-Russian trade". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  103. "Dry Run Study of INSTC Trade Route". Business Standard. 20 March 2015. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
  104. 104.0 104.1 "Iran deal spells good tidings for India". The Hindu. 10 April 2015. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
  105. "Scientific and technical cooperation". The Embassy of the Russian Federation in the Republic of India (in русский).
  106. 106.0 106.1 "Aryabhata" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 15th edn., 1992, Vol. 1, p. 611.
  107. "Aryabhata - The first indigenously built satellite".
  108. "GSLV MkIII-M1 Successfully Launches Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 22 July 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  109. "Russia and India signed an agreement on the protection of technologies in the field of space". RIA News (in русский). 6 December 2021. Retrieved 6 December 2021.
  110. "Four Indian Cosmonauts Complete Training in Russia for Gaganyaan Mission". News18 (in русский). 23 March 2021. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  111. "Россия и Индия являются примером взаимовыгодного сотрудничества в космосе". Роскосмос (in русский). Retrieved 27 October 2021.
  112. "India, Russia sign nuclear deal". Times of India. PTI. 7 December 2009. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  113. Sharma, Rajeev (25 December 2012). "Kudankulam and more: Why Putin's India visit was a hit". Firstpost. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  114. "Росатом планирует завезти ядерное топливо на строящуюся в Бангладеш АЭС Руппур в 2023 г." (in русский). 19 October 2022. Retrieved 19 October 2022.
  115. 115.0 115.1 Kamalakaran, Ajay (5 August 2016). "From Tver to the Deccan: Retracing Afanasy Nikitin's life in India". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  116. 116.0 116.1 116.2 116.3 Rubchenko, Maxim (9 September 2016). "Russia and India: A civilisational friendship". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  117. 117.0 117.1 117.2 Kazak, Olga (10 August 2013). "Russia's age-old passion for yoga". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  118. 118.0 118.1 Kamalakaran, Ajay (12 April 2014). "St Petersburg's illustrious Sanskrit connections". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  119. "The Russian travelling musician who created a "magic theatre" in India". 5 November 2013. Archived from the original on 17 November 2014. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  120. "We are proud of the Roerich legacy - Himachal CM". 16 July 2014. Archived from the original on 17 November 2014. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  121. Kamalakaran, Ajay (15 March 2014). "Russian scholars and the Indus Valley script". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  122. 122.0 122.1 "Joint Russia-India filmmaking on the cards". Russia & India Report. 7 November 2014. Archived from the original on 16 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  123. "Russia's all-time favourite Bollywood films". Russia & India Report. 10 May 2013. Archived from the original on 16 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  124. 124.0 124.1 Naralenkova, Oxana (10 September 2009). "Bollywood returns to Russian screens". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  125. Nagvenkar, Mayabhushan (5 May 2016). "Bollywood seen as part of Russian strategy to woo Indian tourists". Business Standard. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  126. Naraykin, Sergey (23 December 2011). "Russians get a hang of Bollywood' starry dreams". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  127. "Russia's love affair with Bollywood goes beyond Raj Kapoor". dna India. 22 September 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  128. "Bollywood earmarks the South of Russia as a possible site for shooting of movies". Russia Radio. 20 May 2013. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  129. 129.0 129.1 "Medvedev Rekindles Russia's Cold War Bollywood Affair". The Wall Street Journal. 22 December 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  130. "SRK, Kareena find a Presidential admirer in Medvedev". The Indian Express. 23 December 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  131. Boroznova, Anisia; Korablinov, Alexander (10 October 2012). "Yogafest held in Moscow". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  132. Korablinov, Alexander (20 August 2014). "B.K.S. Iyengar was the pioneer of yoga revival in Russia". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  133. Fets, Konstantin (4 August 2014). "Stanislavsky's tryst with yoga". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  134. Fets, Konstantin (7 August 2014). "Yoga as an essential part of Stanislavsky's studios". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  135. 135.0 135.1 "Cultural ties set to grow between Russia and India in 2014". Russia & India Report. 4 July 2014. Archived from the original on 17 November 2014. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  136. "India, Russia to recognize each other's higher education diplomas". Russia & India Report. 4 March 2014. Archived from the original on 17 November 2014. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  137. "Mutual degree recognition agreement with India to be signed by December". Russia & India Report. 24 October 2014. Archived from the original on 17 November 2014. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  138. "New phase in Russia-India relations must be serious, long lasting". Russia & India Report. 10 November 2014. Archived from the original on 17 November 2014. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  139. "India-Russia Cultural Relations". Embassy of India (in русский).

Further reading[edit]

  • Azizian, Rouben. Russia-India Relations: Stability Amidst Strategic Uncertainty (ASIA-PACIFIC CENTER FOR SECURITY STUDIES, 2004) online.
  • Bakshi, Jyotsna. "Russian Policy towards South Asia." Strategic Analysis 23.8 (1999): 1367–1398.
  • Budhwar, Prem K. "India-Russia relations: Past, Present and the future." India Quarterly 63.3 (2007): 51–83.
  • Chavda, V. K. India, Britain, Russia; a study in British opinion, 1838-1878 (1967) online
  • Choudhury, G.W. India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and the Major Powers: Politics of a Divided Subcontinent (1975), relations with US, USSR and China.
  • Chufrin, Gennady, ed. Russia and Asia: The Emerging Security Agenda (Sweden: SIPRI, 1999),
  • Clark, Ian. "Soviet policy towards India and Pakistan, 1965-71." (PhD dissertation. Australian National U. 2013), with long bibliography p 290–303; online.
  • Clarkson, Stephen. “Non-Impact of Soviet Writing on Indian Thinking and Policy.” Economic and Political Weekly 8#15 1973, pp. 715–724. online; says Indian intellectuals ignored Russian propaganda
  • Dash, P. L. and Andrei Nazarkin, eds. Indo-Russian Diplomatic Relations: Sixty Years of Enduring Legacy (New Delhi: Academic Excellence Publishers, 2008), essays by experts.
  • Donaldson, Robert H. "The Soviet Union in South Asia: A Friend to Rely On?" Journal of International Affairs (1981) 34#2 pp 235–58.
  • Donaldson, Robert H. Soviet Policy Toward India: Ideology and Strategy (Harvard UP, 1974) online
  • Hilger, Andreas. "The Soviet Union and India: the Khrushchev era and its aftermath until 1966." (2009) online.
  • Hilali, A. Z. "Cold war politics of superpowers in South Asia." The Dialogue 1.2 (2006): 68–108. online
  • Hirsch, Michal Ben‑Josef, and Manjari Chatterjee Miller. "Otherness and resilience in bilateral relations: the cases of Israel‒Germany, India‒Russia, and India‒Israel." Journal Of International Relations and Development (2020) online.
  • Joshi, Nirmala, and Raj Kumar Sharma. "India–Russia relations in a changing Eurasian perspective." India Quarterly 73.1 (2017): 36–52.
  • Khan, Muhammad Nawaz. "Pakistan-Russia Relations Redux: From Estrangement to Pragmatism." IPRI Journal 19.1 (2019).
  • Mastny, Vojtech. "The Soviet Union's Partnership with India." Journal of Cold War Studies (2010) 12#3 pp 50–90.
  • Menon, Rajan. "India and Russia." in David M. Malone, et al. eds. The Oxford handbook of Indian foreign policy (2015) excerpt pp 509–523.
  • Mollick, Enamul Haque. "India–Russia Relations After The Cold War." in Impact Of Pandemic On India's International Relations (2021): 93+.
  • Nadkarni, Vidya. "India and Russia: The End of a Special Relationship?." Naval War College Review 48.4 (1995): 19–33. online
  • Naik, J. A. Russia's policy towards India: from Stalin to Yeltsin (1995).
  • Pant, Harsh V. "India-Russia Ties and India's Strategic Culture: Dominance of a Realist Worldview." India Review 12.1 (2013): 1–19.
  • Rekha, Chandra. India-Russia Post Cold War Relations: A New Epoch of Cooperation (London: Taylor & Francis, 2017).
  • Rothermund, Dietmar. "India and the Soviet Union." The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 386.1 (1969): 78–88.
  • Samra, Chattar Singh. India and Anglo-Soviet Relations (1917-1947) (Asia Publishing House, 1959).
  • Singh, Anita Inder. "India's relations with Russia and Central Asia." International Affairs 71.1 (1995): 69–81.
  • Soherwordi, Hussain Shaheed, and Uzma Munshi. "China-Russia-Pakistan Strategic Triangle: Imperative Factors." South Asian Studies (1026-678X) 35.1 (2020) online.
  • Stein, Arthur. India and the Soviet Union: The Nehru Era (U of Chicago Press, 1969). online
  • Stein, Arthur. "India and the USSR: The post-Nehru period." Asian Survey (1967): 165–175. online
  • Tsan, Katherine Foshko. "Re-Energizing the Indian-Russian Relationship: Opportunities and Challenges for the 21st Century." Jindal Journal of International Affairs 2.1 (2012): 141–184. online
  • Unnikrishnan, Nandan. "The enduring relevance of India-Russia relations." Observer Research Foundation 25 (2017). online


  • Datar, Asha L. India's Economic Relations with the USSR and Eastern Europe 1953 to 1969 (Cambridge University Press, 1972).
  • Kapoor, Nivedita. "India-Russia ties in a changing world order: In pursuit of a special strategic partnership." ORF Occasional Paper 218 (2019): 1-33. online
  • Lyalina, Pauline Albertovna, et al. "Interaction between Russia and India in the field of hydrocarbon logistics." Journal of Social Sciences Research (2018): 440–447.
  • Manshin, Roman V., and Abdul Latif Ghafari. "Investment cooperation between Russia and India." RUDN Journal of Economics 29.3 (2021): 490–501.
  • Singh, Mayengbam Lalit, and Chingshubam Manimohon Singh. "Has EU's Sanctions on Russia Led to Greater Bilateral Trade between India and Russia? A Simulation Analysis." FOCUS: Journal of International Business 8.2 (2021): 112–128.
  • Wani, Nassir Ul Haq, Jasdeep Kaur Dhami, and Neeru Sidana. "Indo-Russia Trade: An Evaluation of Symmetry, Complementarity, Intensity and Similarity." Management 3.1 (2020): 14–33.

Primary sources[edit]

  • Naik, J. A, ed. India and the communist countries : documents, 1976-1978 (1981) online
  • Prasad, Bimal, ed. Indo-Soviet Relations, 1947–1972: A Documentary Study (Bombay: Allied Publishers, 1973)

External links[edit]

Template:Foreign relations of Russia

Information red.svg
Scan the QR code to donate via UPI
Dear reader, We kindly request your support in maintaining the independence of Bharatpedia. As a non-profit organization, we rely heavily on small donations to sustain our operations and provide free access to reliable information to the world. We would greatly appreciate it if you could take a moment to consider donating to our cause, as it would greatly aid us in our mission. Your contribution would demonstrate the importance of reliable and trustworthy knowledge to you and the world. Thank you.

Please select an option below or scan the QR code to donate
₹150 ₹500 ₹1,000 ₹2,000 ₹5,000 ₹10,000 Other