List of communist parties in India

From Bharatpedia, an open encyclopedia
Information red.svg
Scan the QR code to donate via UPI
Dear reader, We need your support to keep the flame of knowledge burning bright! Our hosting server bill is due on June 1st, and without your help, Bharatpedia faces the risk of shutdown. We've come a long way together in exploring and celebrating our rich heritage. Now, let's unite to ensure Bharatpedia continues to be a beacon of knowledge for generations to come. Every contribution, big or small, makes a difference. Together, let's preserve and share the essence of Bharat.

Thank you for being part of the Bharatpedia family!
Please scan the QR code on the right click here to donate.

0%

   

transparency: ₹0 raised out of ₹100,000 (0 supporter)



Template:Socialism sidebar

Template:Communism sidebar

This page contains a list of political parties in India that are aligned with the communist ideology. Most communist parties in India trace their origins to-

Currently, communism is especially prevalent in the states of Kerala, West Bengal, and Tripura. In terms of armed insurgency the red corridor, also called the red zone,[22] is a region that is considerably affected by the Naxalite–Maoist insurgency, the red corridor is in the eastern, central, and southern parts of India more specifically in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Telangana, and West Bengal.[23][24][25][26]

Communist Parties Registered with Election Commission of India

Communist Parties with National Party Status

A registered party is recognised as a national party only if it fulfils any one of the three conditions listed below:[27]
  1. The party wins 2% of seats in the Lok Sabha from at least three different states.[28]
  2. At a general election to Lok Sabha or Legislative Assembly, the party polls 6% of votes in any four or more states and in addition it wins four Lok Sabha seats.
  3. The party gets recognition as a state party in four states.
Election Symbol Party Flag Name Abbr. Ideology Founded Leader Seats in
Lok Sabha
Seats in
Rajya Sabha
Seats in State
Assemblies
Seats in State
Councils
Notes
Indian Election Symbol Ears of Corn and Sickle.png
CPI-banner.svg Communist Party of India[29] CPI Communism[30]
Marxism–Leninism[2]
26 December 1925
(98 years ago)
 (1925-12-26)[31][32]
D. Raja (General Secretary)[33]
2 / 543
1 / 245
21 / 4,036
2 / 426
Indian Election Symbol Hammer Sickle and Star.png
CPI-M-flag.svg Communist Party of India (Marxist)[44][45] CPI(M)/
CPIM/
CPM
Communism[30] 7 November 1964
(59 years ago)
 (1964-11-07)[46][13][47]
Sitaram Yechury (General Secretary)[48][49][50]
3 / 543
6 / 245
88 / 4,036
0 / 426

Communist Parties with State Party Status

A party has to fulfill any of the following conditions for recognition as a state party:
  1. A party should secure at least 6% of valid votes polled in an election to the state legislative assembly and win at least 2 seats in that state assembly.
  2. A party should secure at least 6% of valid votes polled in an election to Lok Sabha and win at least 1 seat in Lok Sabha.
  3. A party should win minimum three percent of the total number of seats or a minimum of three seats in the Legislative Assembly, which ever is higher.
  4. A party should win at least one seat in the Lok Sabha for every 25 seats or any fraction thereof allotted to that State.
  5. Under the liberalised criteria, one more clause that it will be eligible for recognition as state party if it secures 8% or more of the total valid votes polled in the state.
Election Symbol Party Flag Name Abbr. Ideology Founded Leader Recognised In Seats in
Lok Sabha
Seats in
Rajya Sabha
Seats in State
Assemblies
Seats in State
Councils
Notes
Indian Election Symbol Spade and Stoker.png
RSP-flag.svg
Revolutionary Socialist Party (India)[8] RSP Communism
Marxism–Leninism[53]
Revolutionary socialism
19 March 1940 (84 years ago) (1940-03-19) Manoj Bhattacharya[54] Kerala[8]
West Bengal[8]
1 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Flag Logo of CPIML.png
CPIML LIBERATION FLAG.jpg
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Liberation[55] CPI-(ML)/
CPIML Liberation
Communism[56]
Marxism–Leninism
Maoism[56]
28 July 1974 (49 years ago) (1974-07-28)[57][58][21] Dipankar Bhattacharya[59][60][61] Bihar[62]
0 / 543
0 / 245
13 / 4,036
0 / 426

Regional Communist Parties

Parties that are regional in nature and are registered yet unrecognised.

Party Flag Name Abbr. Ideology Founded Leader Recognised in Seats in
Lok Sabha
Seats in
Rajya Sabha
Seats in State
Assemblies
Seats in State
Councils
Notes
Workers Party of India WPI Communism
Marxism
1943 (81 years ago) (1943) Manik Dutta Registered, Unrecognized
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Peasants and Workers Party of India[8] PWP/
PWPI
Communism
Marxism–Leninism
13 June 1948 (75 years ago) (1948-06-13)[64] Jayant Prabhakar Patil Registered, Unrecognized[8]
0 / 543
0 / 245
1 / 4,036
2 / 426
Marxist Co-ordination Committee MCC/
MCO/
M-COR
Communism
Marxism-Leninism
Maoism
1971 (53 years ago) (1971) Arup Chatterjee[66][67][68] Registered, Unrecognized
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
United Communist Party of India UCPI Communism
Marxism-Leninism
1989 (35 years ago) (1989) Sukhinder Singh Dhaliwal Registered, Unrecognized
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426

Minor Communist Parties

Negligible impact on Indian politics, many don't contest elections or organise. Some of these parties used to be important at state or even national level.

Pro Left Front Parties

Parties that support the Left Front in West Bengal and Tripura-

Election Symbol/Flag Name Abbr. Leader Founded Ideology Notes
Revolutionary Communist Party of India RCPI Biren Deka 1 August 1934 (89 years ago) (1934-08-01) Communism
Anti-Stalinism[69]
Bolshevik Party of India BPI Dilip Mathur 1939 (85 years ago) (1939) Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Indian Election Symbol Lion.png All India Forward Bloc AIFB Debabrata Biswas 22 June 1939 (84 years ago) (1939-06-22) Left-wing nationalism
Socialism
Anti-imperialism
Marxism[70]
Marxist Forward Bloc Jaihind Singh 12 November 1953 (70 years ago) (1953-11-12) Marxism
Left-wing populism
Satyashodhak Communist Party Sharad Patil 1978 (46 years ago) (1978) Marxism
Phule thought
Ambedkarism
Marxism-Phule-Ambedkarism
Indian Election Symbol Bus.png Janathipathiya samrakshana samithy Flag.jpg Janathipathiya Samrakshana Samithy JSS A. N. Rajan Babu 1994 (30 years ago) (1994) Communism
Marxism
Communist Marxist Party (Aravindakshan) CMP(A) M. V. Rajesh 2019 (5 years ago) (2019) Communism
Marxism

Left United Front Parties

Parties in opposition to Left Front in West Bengal and Tripura as well as Left Democratic Front in Kerala-

Logo/Flag Name Abbr. Leader Founded Ideology Notes
SUCI flag.svg Socialist Unity Centre of India (Communist) SUCI(C) Provash Ghosh 24 April 1948 (76 years ago) (1948-04-24) Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Shibdas Ghosh Thought
Anti-revisionism
South Asian Communist Banner.svg Marxist Communist Party of India (United) MCPI(U) Maddikayala Ashok 2005 (19 years ago) (2005) Communism
Marxism–Leninism
RMPI flag.jpg Revolutionary Marxist Party of India RMPI Mangat Ram Pasla 2016 (8 years ago) (2016) Communism
Marxism–Leninism

Pro UPA Communist Parties

Part of now defunct Confederation of Indian Communists and Democratic Socialists (CICDS)

Others

Pro-BJP/ NDA Communist Parties

Logo/Flag Name Abbr. Leader Founded Ideology Notes
Communist Party of Revolutionary Marxists CPRM Ratna Bahadur Rai 1996 (28 years ago) (1996) Communism
Marxism
  • CPRM was part of Confederation of Indian Communists and Democratic Socialists (CICDS), a confederation of pro- left-wing parties in India.
  • CPRM struggles for a separate Gorkhaland state to be formed within India. It formed a United Front which failed. Since the failure of the United Front, CPRM formed the People's Democratic Front.
  • CPRM is currently part of the Democratic Front, with BJP.[71]

Other Communist Parties

Logo/Flag Name Abbr. Leader Founded Ideology Notes

Pro-armed struggle Communist Parties

Moderate Pro-Naxal/ Maoist Communist Parties

Extremist Pro-Naxal/ Maoist Communist Parties

Defunct Communist Parties

Logo Name Abbr. Leaders Foundation Year Dissolution Year Ideology Notes
All India Communist Party AICP Shripad Amrit Dange 1980 1987 Communism
Marxism-Leninism
All India Coordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries AICCCR Charu Majumdar;
Kanu Sanyal
1967 1969 Communism
Marxism-Leninism
Andhra Pradesh Committee of Communist Revolutionaries (Chandra Pulla Reddy) APCCR (Chandra Pulla Reddy) Chandra Pulla Reddy 1971 1975 Communism
Marxism-Leninism
Andhra Pradesh Coordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries APCCCR T. Nagi Reddy 1968 1975 Communism
Marxism-Leninism
Maoism
Bolshevik–Leninist Party of India, Ceylon and Burma BLPI Leslie Goonewardene 1942 1947 Communism
Leninism
Trotskyism
Central Organising Committee, Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) COC, CPI(ML) Jagjit Singh Sohal ("Sharma") 1974 ~1982 Marxism-Leninism
Central Organising Committee, Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) (Umadhar Singh) COC, CPI(ML) (Umdhar Singh) Umadhar Singh ~1980 1985 Marxism-Leninism
Central Organising Committee, Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Party Unity CPI(ML) Party Unity Narayan Sanyal alias Naveen Prasad 1982 1998 Communism
Marxism-Leninism
Maoism
Central Organising Committee, Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Shantipal COC, CPI(ML) Shanti Pal Shanti Pal (first)
Mankhushi Jha (last)
~1970 ~2006 Communism
Marxism-Leninism
Maoism
  • As of 2006 the leader of Shanti Pal group in Madhepura was in jail, sentenced for the killing of a mukhya.
Central Reorganisation Committee, Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) CRC, CPI(ML) K. Venu 1979 1991 Communism
Marxism-Leninism
Maoism
  • In October 1991 CRC, CPI(ML) was dissolved. K. Venu renounced Maoism and declared an All India communist party as an impossibility
Centre of Communist Revolutionaries of India CCRI 1988 1994 Communism
Marxism-Leninism
Centre of Indian Communists CIC 1974 1977 Communism
Marxism-Leninism
Maoism
  • During the Emergency prohibition of several resistance groups was enforced.
Communist Consolidation Hare Krishna Konar 1935 1947 Indian nationalism
Communism
Marxism–Leninism
  • Dissolved after India achieved freedom
Communist League N. C. Sekhar 1931 1937 Communism
Communist League of India (Marxist–Leninist) CLI (ML) Ram Nath (first) 1978 ~2019 Communism
Marxism-Leninism
Maoism
  • Over the years this party got divided into numerous different factions
Communist Marxist Party CMP C. P. John 1986 2014 Communism
Marxism
Communist Organisation of India (Marxist–Leninist) COI (ML) Kanu Sanyal 1985 2003 Communism
Marxism-Leninism
Communist Party of French India V. Subbiah 1940 1954 Communism
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) CPI (ML) Charu Majumdar 1969 1972 Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Mao Zedong Thought
  • After Charu Majumdar's death the CPI (ML) split into pro- and anti-Majumdar factions
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Bolshevik CPI (ML) (Bolshevik) Jayshree Rana 1977 Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Central Team CPI(ML) Central Team 1977 1994 Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Anti-revisionism
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) New Initiative CPI (ML) New Initiative Arvind Sinha Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Unity Initiative CPI (ML) Unity Initiative Viswam 2003 Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Communist Party of Indian Union (Marxist–Leninist) CPIU (ML) 2003 Communism
Marxism–Leninism
  • In August 2003 discussions took place between Kanu Sanyal and Arvind Sinha from CPI (ML) and Subodh Mitra and S.D. Bose about a possible merger between CPIU (ML) and CPI (ML). The conference of CPIU (ML) in Samastipur 18 November 2003 confirmed the merger plans, and CPIU (ML) joined the CPI (ML) of Sanyal.
Communist Revolutionary Party Communism
Communist Workers Party (India) CWP Jyotibhushan Bhattacharya 1976 Communism
Comrades Association Communism
Forward Communist Party FCP K.N. Joglekar 1948 1952 Communism
Forward Communist Party (Anandi Mukherji) FCP (AM) Anandi Mukherji 1952 1952 Communism
Forward Communist Party (Joglekar) FCP (J) K.N. Joglekar 1952 1952 Communism
Indian Communist Party ICP U. Krishnappa 1985 Communism
Marxism
Indian Communist Party (Sen) ICP Mohit Sen 1988 Communism
Marxism
Indian People's Front IPF Nagbhushan Patnaik
Dipankar Bhattacharya
1982 1994 Communism
  • IPF was operated as the open mass front of the CPIML Liberation.
  • In December 1992, the Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Liberation held its fifth congress in Kolkata. Following which the party came out of the underground and eventually disbanded the Indian People's Front in 1994.
  • From 1995 onward the party began contesting elections on its own, substituting the role of the former front.
Inquilabi Communist Sangathan ICS Achin Vanaik, Magan Desai, Thakore Shah, Amar Jesani, Vibhuti Patel, Somendra Kumar, Jagabandhu Chattopadhyay and Kunal Chattopadhyay 1984 2004 Communism
Trotskyism
  • Their last public activity was a hostile intervention into the World Social Forum of Mumbai 2004.
  • West Bengal-based Trotskyists who had left ICS in 2003 regrouped in 2008 to form Radical Socialist.
Labour Kisan Party of Hindustan LKPH Singaravelu Chettiar 1923 1925 Communism
Socialism
Lal Communist Party Hind Union Teja Singh Swatantra 1948 1952 Communism
Marxism-Leninism
  • Merger talks between the CPI Punjab unit and the Lal Communist Party began in 1951.
  • The Lal Communist Party approached the CPI to discuss reunification, albeit Teja Singh Swatantra opposed the idea. The CPI leadership responded positively. A party meeting was held at Dalel Singh Wala, which unanimously decided to dissolve the Lal Communist Party and unconditionally join CPI.
  • The merger of the two parties was completed in July 1952.
Lal Jhanda Dal Swadesh Mitra Communism
Maoism
Lal Nishan Party LNP 1965 2018 Communism
Marxism–Leninism
League Against Gandhism/Gandhi Boycott Committee 1934 Communism
Anti-Gandhism
Liberation Front (Sabuj Sen) Sabuj Sen 1985 Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Naxalism
Maoist Communist Centre MCC 1975 2004 Communism
Marxism–Leninism–Maoism
Marxist Communist Party of India MCPI Jagjit Singh Lyallpuri 1983 2005 Communism
Marxism–Leninism–Maoism
Marxist League (India) 1933 1934 Communism
Marxism
Marxist League of Kerala Communism
Marxism
Trotskyism

Defunct Naxal-Maoist Communist Parties

Sepratist Communist Parties

Active Communist Parties

Manipur

Party Flag Name Abbr. Ideology Founded Leader Notes
People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak PREPAK Communism
Separatism
9 November 1977 (46 years ago) (1977-11-09)
Bandera FPRM Manipur.png People's Liberation Army of Manipur PLA-MP/PLAM Communism
Mao Zedong Thought
Separatism
25 September 1979 (44 years ago) (1979-09-25)
South Asian Communist Banner.svg Kangleipak Communist Party Communism
Marxism–Leninism–Maoism
14 April 1980 (44 years ago) (1980-04-14) Ibungo Ngangom

The KCP has now been divided into numerous factions.[72]

South Asian Communist Banner.svg Maoist Communist Party of Manipur MCPM Communism
Marxism–Leninism–Maoism
Separatism
September 2011 (12 years ago) (2011-09) Chiranglen Sapamcha

Greater Nepal

Party Flag Name Abbr. Ideology Founded Leader Notes
Akhil Bharat Nepali Ekta Samaj ABNES Maoism
Greater Nepal[73]
1979 (45 years ago) (1979) Bhot Bahadur thapa hemraj Singh gaman khtri

Defunct Communist Parties

Bodoland

Logo Name Abbr. Leaders Foundation Year Dissolution Year Ideology Notes
National Democratic Front of Boroland NDFB B. Saoraigwra
G. Bidai[74]
B.R. Ferrenga
1986 2020 Ethnic nationalism[75]
Marxism
Socialism
Democracy
Separatism
  • The NDFB signed a peace treaty with the government in 2020 and disbanded itself.[76]

See also

References

  1. "Recognized National Parties". Election Commission of India.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Brief History of CPI - CPI". Archived from the original on 9 December 2015. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
  3. "Foundation of the Communist Party of India (CPI) in 1925: product of (...) - Mainstream". www.mainstreamweekly.net.
  4. NOORANI, A. G. "Origins of Indian communism". Frontline.
  5. The Calcutta Historical Journal. Vol. 3. University of Calcutta. 1978. p. 59.
  6. Padhy 2011, p. 234.
  7. Fay 1993, p. viii
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 "List of Political Parties and Election Symbols main Notification Dated 18.01.2013" (PDF). India: Election Commission of India. 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  9. "Origins of the RSP". marxists.org.
  10. Gupta (1997)
  11. Sawhney, Simona (2012). "Bhagat Singh". Punjab Reconsidered. pp. 377–402. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198078012.003.0054. ISBN 978-0-19-807801-2.
  12. Habib, Irfan (September 1997). "Civil Disobedience 1930–31". Social Scientist. 25 (9/10): 43–66. doi:10.2307/3517680. JSTOR 3517680.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 "CIA papers trace split of Indian Communists". The Times of India.
  14. "List of Political Parties and Election Symbols main Notification Dated 18 January 2013". India: Election Commission of India. 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  15. "Road to Naxalbari". www.frontline.in. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  16. "Magazine / Reflections : From Naxalbari to Nalgonda". The Hindu. 2004-12-05. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  17. Daily, Peoples. "Spring Thunder Over India". www.marxists.org. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  18. "The Naxalbari Uprising". 30 years of Naxalbari. Archived from the original on 2010-10-31. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  19. Nadeem Ahmed. "Naxalite Ideology: Charu's Eight Documents". The Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 2016-12-21. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  20. "The Hindustan Times". History of Naxalism. Archived from the original on 14 August 2016.
  21. 21.0 21.1 "Archived copy". www.flonnet.com. Archived from the original on 17 October 2006. Retrieved 22 February 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  22. Bhattacharjee, Sumit (2021-06-26). "When Greyhounds struck in Andhra Pradesh's fading red zone". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2021-11-19.
  23. "Armed revolt in the Red Corridor". Mondiaal Nieuws, Belgium. 2008-06-25. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  24. "Women take up guns in India's red corridor". The Asian Pacific Post. 2008-06-09. Archived from the original on 22 June 2006. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  25. "Rising Maoists Insurgency in India". Global Politician. 2007-05-13. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  26. "Bihar ranks third among 10 states hit by Maoist violence". The Times of India.
  27. "Dynamics of elevation of political parties to State or National Party". Press Information Bureau. 8 March 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  28. "When is a Political Party recognized as a National or State Party?". FACTLY. 28 January 2017. Archived from the original on 1 January 2019. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  29. "List of Political Parties and Election Symbols main Notification Dated 18.01.2013" (PDF). India: Election Commission of India. 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 October 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 30.3 30.4 30.5 Chakrabarty, Bidyut (2014). Communism in India: Events, Processes and Ideologies. Oxford University Press. p. 314. ISBN 978-0-199-97489-4.
  31. Sada Nand Talwar (1985). Under the Banyan Tree: The Communist Movement in India, 1920-1964. Allied Publishers. p. 28. ISBN 9788170230052.
  32. "Brief History of CPI". Archived from the original on 9 December 2015. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
  33. "D. Raja takes over as CPI general secretary". The Hindu. 21 July 2019.
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 34.3 34.4 "Archived copy". archives.peoplesdemocracy.in. Archived from the original on 15 August 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 35.3 35.4 "Bengal LF Support to Sept. 2 Strike". 18 August 2015.
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3 36.4 "'Fading partners': Left parties open debate 'against' Cong". 11 June 2016.
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 37.3 37.4 SansadTV Bureau. "17 Left parties meet to strengthen unity against "communalism" - Sansad TV". Rstv.nic.in. Retrieved 2022-05-24.
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 38.3 38.4 "CPI(M) General Secretary Prakash Karat says efforts on to bring Left forces together".
  39. Mahendra Singh Rana (1 January 2006). India Votes: Lok Sabha & Vidhan Sabha Elections 2001–2005. Sarup & Sons. pp. 420–421. ISBN 978-81-7625-647-6.
  40. 40.0 40.1 "Alliance Wise and Party Wise Kerala Election Results 2021 LIVE". First Post.
  41. 41.0 41.1 41.2 "Reasons behind JDU-RJD-Congress Mahagathbandhan's massive win in Bihar elections". News18. 2015-11-08. Retrieved 2016-09-30.
  42. "Manipur: Six-party alliance, including Congress, CPI, Forward Bloc, named Manipur Progressive Secular Alliance - the Economic Times".
  43. 43.0 43.1 "11 IMCWP, Press Communique". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  44. Chakrabarty, Bidyut (2014). Communism in India: Events, Processes and Ideologies. Oxford University Press. p. 314. ISBN 978-0-19-997489-4.
  45. "List of Political Parties and Election Symbols main Notification Dated 18 January 2013". India: Election Commission of India. 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  46. 46.0 46.1 "ഇന്ത്യ - ചൈന സംഘർഷം : 1962 ൻ്റെ പാഠങ്ങൾ". www.leftclicknews.com/.
  47. 47.0 47.1 "Communist Party in Kerala". CPI(M). Archived from the original on 14 March 2012.
  48. "New Central Committee Elected at the 22nd Congress". 22 April 2018. Archived from the original on 27 May 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  49. "Sitaram Yechury re-elected as CPI(M) general secretary".
  50. "Biography of Sitaram Yechuri". winentrance.com. 14 March 2011.
  51. Bidyut Chakrabarty (13 November 2014). Left Radicalism in India. Routledge. pp. 87–88. ISBN 978-1-317-66805-3.
  52. Hamlet Bareh (2001). Encyclopaedia of North-East India: Tripura. Mittal Publications. p. 58. ISBN 978-81-7099-795-5.
  53. Bidyut Chakrabarty (2014). Communism in India: Events, Processes and Ideologies. Oxford University Press. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-19-997489-4.
  54. "Indian citizenship act against humanity: Manoj Bhattacharya". prothomalo.com.
  55. "Amending Notification regarding Political Parties and their Symbols Dated 01.03.2021". India: Election Commission of India. 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  56. 56.0 56.1 56.2 "General Programme of CPI(ML)". Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) website. 6 April 2013. Retrieved 2020-03-23.
  57. "Archived copy". www.cpiml.org. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  58. "Naxalism today".
  59. Sen, Jai (2012). Imagining Alternatives. Other worlds possible?. Gazipur: Daanish Books. p. 15. ISBN 978-93-81144-14-5.
  60. "Organisation". cpiml.org.
  61. Bhushan, Ranjit (2016). Maoism in India and Nepal. New York: Routledge. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-315-68549-6.
  62. "Amending Notification regarding Political Parties and their Symbol dated 01.03.2021". Election Commission of India. Archived from the original on 26 October 2021.
  63. Nedumpara, Jose J. (2004). Political Economy and Class Contradictions: A Study. New Delhi: Anmol Publication. p. 114. ISBN 978-81261-171-85.
  64. Bhole B.L., ’Bharatiya Shetakari Kamgar Paksha’ (Marathi) doctoral dissertation, Nagpur University, 1982, p.37.
  65. "NCP, Congress to contest 2019 Lok Sabha polls with Peasants and Workers Party of India: Sharad Pawar". Hindustan Times. 2018-12-24. Retrieved 2021-09-21.
  66. "Arup Chatterjee MLA of NIRSA Jharkhand contact address & email". nocorruption.in.
  67. "MCC MLA announces support to JMM in Jharkhand". Zee News. 8 July 2013.
  68. "Arup Chatterjee Election Result Nirsa Live: Assembly (Vidhan Sabha) Election Results 2019 Arup Chatterjee Nirsa Seat". News18.
  69. "The Defeat of the Left Front and the Search for Alternative Leftism - Radical Socialist".
  70. "Party constitution". India: All India Forward Bloc. 2017. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
  71. "BJP embarks on hill drive". www.telegraphindia.com. Retrieved 2021-02-21.
  72. "KCP's ultra-Left turn worries Manipur | Guwahati News - Times of India". The Times of India.
  73. "::Ministry of Home Affairs". Mha.gov.in. 2011-12-07. Archived from the original on 25 April 2013. Retrieved 2012-10-09.
  74. "Catch me if you can: Bidai". Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  75. Andrew T. .H. Tan (18 October 2010). Politics of Terrorism: A Survey. Routledge. p. 190. ISBN 978-1-136-83336-6.
  76. "After 34 yrs of armed struggle, NDFB finally disbands itself | India News - Times of India". The Times of India.