Indian Institutes of Technology

From Bharatpedia, an open encyclopedia

Indian Institutes of Technology
Other name
IIT or IITs (plural)
TypePublic Technical Institute
Established15 September 1956
(66 years ago)
Parent institution
Ministry of Education, Government of India
Budget9,661.50 crore (US$1.4 billion)
(FY2023–24 est.)[1]
23 cities in India

Template:Map/Indian Institutes of Technology

The Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) are prestigious central government owned public technical institutes located across India. Known for their excellence in education, they are under the ownership of the Ministry of Education of the Government of India. They are governed by the Institutes of Technology Act, 1961, declaring them as Institutes of National Importance and laying down their powers, duties, and framework for governance as the country's premier institutions in the field of technology.[2][3] The act currently lists twenty-three IITs.[4] Each IIT has autonomy and is linked to others through a common council called the IIT Council, which oversees their administration. The Minister of Education of India is the ex officio Chairperson of the IIT Council.[5]

Currently, there are 23 IITs across the country.

List of all Indian Institutes of Technology[edit | edit source]

IITs and their locations, sorted by date of establishment [2][3][4][6][7]
No. Name Abbreviation Founded Established as IIT State/UT
1 IIT Kharagpur IITKGP 1951 1951 West Bengal
2 IIT Bombay IITB 1958 1958 Maharashtra
3 IIT Madras IITM 1959 1959 Tamil Nadu
4 IIT Kanpur IITK 1959 1959 Uttar Pradesh
5 IIT Delhi IITD 1961 1961 Delhi
6 IIT Guwahati IITG 1994 1995 Assam
7 IIT Roorkee IITR 1847 2001[8] Uttarakhand
8 IIT Ropar IITRPR 2008 2008 Punjab
9 IIT Bhubaneswar IITBBS 2008 2008 Odisha
10 IIT Gandhinagar IITGN 2008 2008 Gujarat
11 IIT Hyderabad IITH 2008 2008 Telangana
12 IIT Jodhpur IITJ 2008 2008 Rajasthan
13 IIT Patna IITP 2008 2008 Bihar
14 IIT Indore IITI 2009 2009 Madhya Pradesh
15 IIT Mandi IITMD 2009 2009 Himachal Pradesh
16 IIT Varanasi IIT BHU 1919 2012[9] Uttar Pradesh
17 IIT Palakkad IITPKD 2015[10] 2015 Kerala
18 IIT Tirupati IITTP 2015[11] 2015 Andhra Pradesh
19 IIT Dhanbad IIT ISM 1926 2016[12] Jharkhand
20 IIT Bhilai IITBH 2016[13] 2016 Chhattisgarh
21 IIT Dharwad IITDH 2016[14] 2016 Karnataka
22 IIT Jammu IITJMU 2016[15] 2016 Jammu and Kashmir
23 IIT Goa IIT GOA 2016[16] 2016 Goa

History[edit | edit source]

The office of the Hijli Detention Camp served as the first academic building of IIT Kharagpur.
Library at IIT BHU
IIT Guwahati, established in 1994

The history of the IIT system nearly dates back to 1946 when Sir Jogendra Singh of the Viceroy's Executive Council set up a committee whose task was to consider the creation of Higher Technical Institutions for post-war industrial development in India.

The 22-member committee, headed by Nalini Ranjan Sarkar, recommended the establishment of these institutions in various parts of India, along the lines of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), with affiliated secondary institutions.[17]

The first Indian Institute of Technology was founded in May 1950 at the site of the Hijli Detention Camp in Kharagpur, West Bengal.[18] The name "Indian Institute of Technology" was adopted before the formal inauguration of the institute on 18 August 1951 by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad.[19]

On 15 September 1956, the Parliament of India passed the Indian Institute of Technology (Kharagpur) Act, declaring it as an Institute of National Importance. Jawaharlal Nehru, first Prime Minister of India, in the first convocation address of IIT Kharagpur in 1956, said:[20]

Here in the place of that Hijli Detention Camp stands the fine monument of India, representing India's urges, India's future in the making. This picture seems to me symbolically of the changes coming to India.

On the recommendations of the Sarkar Committee, four campuses were established at Bombay (1958), Madras (1959), Kanpur (1959), and Delhi (1961). The location of these campuses was chosen to be scattered throughout India to prevent regional imbalance.[21] The Indian Institutes of Technology Act was amended to reflect the addition of new IITs.[2]

Student agitations in the state of Assam made Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi promise the creation of a new IIT in Assam. This led to the establishment of a sixth institution at Guwahati under the Assam Accord in 1994.

In 2001, the University of Roorkee was converted into IIT Roorkee.[8] Over the past few years, there have been several developments toward establishing new IITs. On 1 October 2003, Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee announced plans to create more IITs "by upgrading existing academic institutions that have the necessary promise and potential".[22] Subsequent developments led to the formation of the S K Joshi Committee, in November 2003, to guide the selection of the five institutions which would be converted into IITs. Based on the initial recommendations of the Sarkar Committee, it was decided that new IITs should be spread throughout the country. When the government expressed its willingness to correct this regional imbalance, 16 states demanded IITs. Since the S K Joshi Committee prescribed strict guidelines for institutions aspiring to be IITs,[23] only seven colleges were selected for final consideration.[24] Plans are also reported to open IITs outside India, although there has not been much progress in this regard.[25] Eventually in the 11th Five year plan, eight states were identified for establishment of new IITs.

From 2008 to 2009, eight new IITs were set up in Gandhinagar, Jodhpur, Hyderabad, Indore, Patna, Bhubaneswar, Ropar, and Mandi. Following a similar selection process since 1972, in 2012 the Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University was made a member of the IITs and renamed as IIT (BHU) Varanasi.[9]

In 2015 to 2016, six new IITs in Tirupati, Palakkad, Dharwad, Bhilai, Goa, and Jammu, approved through a 2016 bill amendment, were founded, along with the conversion of Indian School of Mines Dhanbad into IIT (Indian School of Mines), Dhanbad.[12]

The entire allocation by the central government for 2017-18 budget for all Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) was slightly over 70 billion (US$980 million). However, the aggregate money spent by Indian students for tertiary education in the United States was about six times more than what the central government spends on all IITs.[26]

Organisational structure[edit | edit source]

Organisational structure of IITs

The President of India is the ex officio Visitor,[27] and has residual powers. Directly under the President is the IIT Council, comprising minister-in-charge of technical education in the Union Government, the Chairmen of all IITs, the Directors of all IITs, the Chairman of the University Grants Commission, the Director General of CSIR, the Chairman of IISc, the Director of IISc, three members of Parliament, the Joint Council Secretary of Ministry of Education, and three appointees each of the Union Government, AICTE, and the Visitor.[28]

Under the IIT Council is the Board of Governors of each IIT. Under the Board of Governors is the Director, who is the chief academic and executive officer of the IIT.[29] Under the Director, in the organisational structure, comes the Deputy Director. Under the Director and the deputy director, come the Deans, Heads of Departments, Registrar, President of the Students' Council, and Chairman of the Hall Management Committee. The Registrar is the chief administrative officer of the IIT and overviews the day-to-day operations.[29] Below the Heads of Department (HOD) are the faculty members (Professors, Associate Professors, and Assistant Professors). The Wardens come under the Chairman of the Hall Management Committee.[30]

The Institutes of Technology Act[edit | edit source]

The Institute of Technology act (parliamentary legislation) gives legal status, including degree granting powers, to the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs). It was notified in the gazette as Act number 59 of 1961 on 20 December 1961 and came into effect on 1 April 1962. The Act also declares these institutes as Institutes of National Importance.

Academics[edit | edit source]

Central Library, IIT Roorkee

The IITs receive comparatively higher grants than other engineering colleges in India.[31] While the total government funding to most other engineering colleges is around 100–200 million ($2–4 million) per year, the amount varies between 900–1300 million ($19–27 million) per year for each IIT.[24] Other sources of funds include student fees and research funding from industry and contributions from the alumni. The faculty-to-student ratio in the IITs is between 1:6 and 1:8.[32] The Standing Committee of IIT Council (SCIC) prescribes the lower limit for faculty-to-student ratio as 1:9, applied department wise. The IITs subsidize undergraduate student fees by approximately 80% and provide scholarships to all Master of Technology students and Research Scholars (PhD) in order to encourage students for higher studies, per the recommendations of the Thacker Committee (1959–1961).[33] The cost borne by undergraduate students is around ₹180,000 per year.[34] Students from the OBC, ST, SC categories, female students as well as physically challenged students are also entitled to scholarships.[35][1]

The various IITs function autonomously, and their special status as Institutes of National Importance facilitates the smooth running of IITs, virtually free from both regional as well as student politics. Such autonomy means that IITs can create their own curricula and adapt rapidly to the changes in educational requirements, free from bureaucratic hurdles. The government has no direct control over internal policy decisions of IITs (like faculty recruitment and curricula) but has representation on the IIT Council. The medium of instruction in all IITs is English.[36] The electronic libraries allow students to access on-line journals and periodicals. The IITs and IISc, Bengaluru have taken an initiative along with Ministry of Education to provide free online videos of actual lectures of different disciplines under National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning. This initiative is undertaken to make quality education accessible to all students.[37]

The academic policies of each IIT are decided by its Senate. This comprises all professors of the IIT and student representatives. Unlike many western universities that have an elected senate, the IITs have an academic senate. It controls and approves the curriculum, courses, examinations and results, and appoints committees to look into specific academic matters. The teaching, training and research activities of the institute are periodically reviewed by the senate to maintain educational standards.[38] The Director of an IIT is the ex-officio Chairman of the Senate.

All the IITs follow the credits system of performance evaluation, with proportional weighting of courses based on their importance. The total marks (usually out of 100) form the basis of grades, with a grade value (out of 10) assigned to a range of marks. Sometimes, relative grading is done considering the overall performance of the whole class. For each semester, the students are graded on a scale of 0 to 10 based on their performance, by taking a weighted average of the grade points from all the courses, with their respective credit points. Each semester evaluation is done independently and then the weighted average over all semesters is used to calculate the cumulative Grade Point Average (known as CGPA or CPI—Cumulative Performance Index).

Undergraduate education degrees[edit | edit source]

The Bachelor of Technology (BTech) degree is the most common undergraduate degree in the IITs in terms of student enrollment,[citation needed] although Bachelor of Science (BS) degree, dual degrees integrating Master of Science or Master of Arts are also offered. The BTech course is based on a 4-year program with eight semesters,[39] while the Dual Degree and Integrated courses are 5-year programs with ten semesters. In all IITs, the first year of BTech and Dual Degree courses are marked by a common course structure for all the students, though in some IITs, a single department introduction related course is also included.[40] The common courses include the basics from most of the departments like Computers, Electronics, Mechanics, Chemistry, Electrical and Physics. At the end of first year (the end of first semester at IIT Madras, IIT Hyderabad, IIT Bhilai, IIT Palakkad, and IIT Roorkee), an option to change departments is given to meritorious students on the basis of their performance in the first two semesters.[41] Few such changes ultimately take place as the criteria for them are usually strict,[41] limited to the most meritorious students.

From the second year onward, the students study subjects exclusively from their respective departments.[42] In addition to these, the students have to take compulsory advanced courses from other departments in order to broaden their education. Separate compulsory courses from humanities and social sciences department, and sometimes management courses are also enforced.[43] In the last year of their studies, most of the students are placed into industries and organisations via the placement process of the respective IIT, though some students opt out of this either when going for higher studies or when they take up jobs by applying to the companies directly.[44]

Postgraduate education[edit | edit source]

Master's degrees and postgraduate diplomas[edit | edit source]

The IITs offer a number of postgraduate programs including Master of Technology (MTech), Master of Business Administration (MBA), and Master of Science (MSc). Some IITs offer specialised graduate programmes such as Master of Design (M.Des.), the Post Graduate Diploma in Information Technology (PGDIT), Masters in Medical Science and Technology (MMST), Masters in City Planning (MCP), Master of Arts (MA), Postgraduate Diploma in intellectual property Law (PGDIPL), and the Postgraduate Diploma in Maritime Operation & Management (PGDMOM).

Some of the IITs offer an M.S. (by research) program; the MTech and M.S. are similar to the US universities' non-thesis (course based) and thesis (research based) masters programs respectively. Admissions to masters programs in engineering are made using scores of the Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE), while those to masters programs in science are made using scores of the Joint Admission Test for M.Sc. (JAM).

Several IITs have schools of management offering master's degrees in management or business administration.

In April 2015, IIT Bombay launched the first U.S.-India joint EMBA program alongside Washington University in St. Louis.[45]

Bachelors-Masters dual degrees[edit | edit source]

The IITs also offer an unconventional BTech and MTech integrated educational program called "Dual Degree". It integrates undergraduate and postgraduate studies in selected areas of specialisation. It is completed in five years[46] as against six years in conventional BTech (four years) followed by an MTech (two years).[47] Integrated Master of Science programs are also offered at few IITs which integrates the Undergraduate and Postgraduate studies in Science streams in a single degree program against the conventional university system. These programs were started to allow its graduates to complete postgraduate studies from IIT rather than having to go to another institute.

Doctoral[edit | edit source]

The IITs also offer the Doctor of Philosophy degree (PhD) as part of their doctoral education programme. In it, the candidates are given a topic of academic interest by the ins or have to work on a consultancy project given by the industries. The duration of the program is usually unspecified and depends on the specific discipline. PhD candidates have to submit a dissertation as well as provide an oral defence for their thesis. Teaching Assistantships (TA) and Research Assistantships (RA) are often provided.

The IITs, along with NITs and IISc, account for nearly 80% of all engineering PhDs in India.[48] IITs now allow admission in PhD programs without the mandatory GATE score.[49][50]

Culture and student life[edit | edit source]

All the IITs provide on-campus residential facilities to the students, research scholars and faculty. The students live in hostels (sometimes referred to as halls) throughout their stay in the IIT. Students in all IITs must choose among National Cadet Corps (NCC), National Service Scheme (NSS) and National Sports Organisation (NSO) in their first years.[51] All the IITs have sports grounds for basketball, cricket, football (soccer), hockey, volleyball, lawn tennis, badminton, athletics and swimming pools for aquatic events. Usually the hostels also have their own sports grounds.

Moreover, an Inter IIT Sports Meet is organised annually where participants from all 23 IITs contest for the General Championship Trophy in 13 different sports.

Technical and cultural festivals[edit | edit source]

A concert at the 2012 Mood Indigo

All IITs organize annual technical festivals, typically lasting three or four days. The technical festivals are Shaastra (IIT Madras), Kshitij (IIT Kharagpur), Techfest (IIT Bombay), Technex (IIT-BHU Varanasi), Cognizance (IIT Roorkee), Concetto (IIT-ISM Dhanbad), Tirutsava (IIT Tirupati), Nvision (IIT Hyderabad), Meraz (IIT Bhilai), Amalthea, (IIT Gandhinagar), Techkriti (IIT Kanpur), Tryst (IIT Delhi), Techniche (IIT Guwahati), Wissenaire (IIT Bhubaneswar), Technunctus (IIT Jammu), Exodia (IIT Mandi), Fluxus (IIT Indore), Celesta (IIT Patna) and IGNUS (IIT Jodhpur). Most of them are organized in the months of January or March. Techfest (IIT Bombay) is also one of the most popular and largest technical festivals in Asia in terms of participants and prize money involved. It has been granted patronage from United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) for providing a platform for students to showcase their talent in science and technology. Shaastra holds the distinction of being the first student-managed event in the world to implement a formal Quality Management System, earning ISO 9001:2000 certification.[52] Kshitij, which is branded as a techno-management festival due to its emphasis on both technology and management, is the largest of these festivals by sponsorship money.

Annual cultural festivals are also organized by the IITs and last three to four days. These include Thomso (IIT Roorkee), Kashiyatra (IIT BHU Varanasi), Alcheringa (IIT Guwahati), Exodia (IIT Mandi), Saarang and Paradox (annual fests of IIT Madras BTech and BS Degree respectively), Spring Fest (IIT Kharagpur, also known as SF), Rendezvous (IIT Delhi), Meraz (IIT Bhilai), Tirutsava (IIT Tirupati), Srijan, (earlier known as Saturnalia, IIT Dhanbad), Tarang (culfest) (previously Rave), Anwesha (IIT Patna), SPANDAN (IIT Jodhpur), Renao (IIT Jammu), Petrichor (IIT Palakkad), Blithchron (IIT Gandhinagar), ELAN (IIT Hyderabad), Alma Fiesta (IIT Bhubaneswar), Mood Indigo (IIT Bombay, also known as Mood-I), Antaragni (IIT Kanpur) and Zeitgeist (IIT Ropar).

Academic rankings[edit | edit source]

IITs have generally ranked above other all other engineering colleges in India for Engineering. According to Outlook India's Top Engineering Colleges of 2017, the top four engineering colleges within India were IITs.[53] In the 2019 QS World University Ranking, IIT Bombay ranked highest at 162, followed by IIT Delhi (172), IIT Madras (264), IIT Kanpur (283), IIT Kharagpur (295), IIT Roorkee (381) and IIT Guwahati (472).[54] In the 2022 NIRF rankings published by Ministry of Education, India, IIT Madras has been ranked 1st for seven consecutive years in the Engineering Category and for four consecutive years in the Overall Category.[55]

National and World Rankings of all IITs
Name 2022 NIRF[56] 2021 NIRF[57] 2020 NIRF[58] 2019 NIRF[59] 2023 QS World[60] 2022 QS World[61] 2021 QS World[62] 2020 QS World[63] 2022 QS Asia[64] 2020 QS India[65] Times World[66] Times Asia[66]
IIT Madras 1 1 1 1 250 255 275 271 54 4 601-800 (2020) 125 (2020)
IIT Bombay 3 3 4 4 172 177 172 152 42 1 401-500 (2020) 69 (2020)
IIT Delhi 4 4 3 3 174 185 193 182 45 3 401-500 (2020) 67 (2020)
IIT Kanpur 5 5 6 6 264 277 350 291 64 6 601-800 (2020) 125 (2020)
IIT Kharagpur 6 6 5 5 270 280 314 281 60 5 401-500 (2020) 59 (2020)
IIT Roorkee 7 7 9 8 369 400 383 383 109 9 501-600 (2020) 83 (2020)
IIT Guwahati 8 8 7 9 384 395 470 491 119 10 601-800 (2020) 160 (2020)
IIT Hyderabad 14 16 17 22 581-590 N/A 224 15 601-800 (2021) 144 (2021)
IIT (BHU) Varanasi 13 28 26 28 N/A 281-290 N/A N/A N/A
IIT (ISM) Dhanbad 14 26 22 25 N/A 251-260 46 1001-1200 (2022) 201-250 (2021)
IIT Indore 16 30 23 N/A 396 178 13 401-500 (2022) 78 (2021)
IIT Mandi 20 82 67 44 N/A N/A N/A 1001-1200 (2022) N/A
IIT Ropar 22 31 39 29 N/A 261-270 25 351-400 (2022) 55 (2021)
IIT Gandhinagar 23 33 35 51 N/A 301-350 N/A 601-800 (2022) N/A
IIT Jodhpur 30 N/A
IIT Patna 33 51 54 58 N/A N/A N/A N/A 301-350 36 801-1000 (2022) 301-350 (2021)
IIT Bhubaneswar 36 58 56 46 801-1000 N/A N/A N/A 251-260 20 1001-1200 (2022) 251-300 (2021)
IIT Tirupati 56 N/A
IIT Palakkad 68 N/A
IIT Bhilai N/A
IIT Dharwad N/A
IIT Jammu N/A

Criticism[edit | edit source]

The IITs have faced criticism from within and outside academia. Major concerns include allegations that they encourage brain drain and that their stringent entrance examinations encourage coaching colleges and put heavy pressure on the student's body. Recently some prominent IITians have also questioned the quality of teaching and research in IITs.[67][68][69]

With the tripling the number of IITs in recent decades, the newly created institutes have struggled to establish themselves compared to their peers. A 2021 report by Comptroller and Auditor General of India criticized the newer IITs for not meeting targets for research, faculty and student recruitment, students retention, as well as for being beset with infrastructure delays.[70][71]

In the recent past, the number of student suicides has attracted significant attention.[72]

Brain drain[edit | edit source]

Among the criticisms of the IIT system by the media and academia, a common notion is that it encourages brain drain. This trend has been reversed somewhat (dubbed the reverse brain drain) as hundreds of IIT graduates, who have pursued further studies in the US, started returning to India in the 1990s.[73] Additionally, IIT alumni are giving back generously to their parent institutions.[74] Until liberalisation started in the early 1990s, India experienced large scale emigration of IIT graduates to developed countries, especially to the United States. Since 1953, nearly twenty-five thousand IIT graduates have settled in the US.[75] Since the US benefited from subsidized education in IITs at the cost of Indian taxpayers' money, critics say that subsidising education in IITs is useless. Others support the emigration of graduates, arguing that the capital sent home by the IIT graduates has been a major source of the expansion of foreign exchange reserves for India, which, until the 1990s, had a substantial trade deficit.[citation needed]

The extent of intellectual loss receded substantially over the 1990s and 2000s, with the percentage of students going abroad dropping from as high as 70% at one time to around 30% in 2005.[73] This is largely attributed to the liberalization of the Indian economy and the opening of previously closed markets. Government initiatives are encouraging IIT students into entrepreneurship programs and are increasing foreign investment. Emerging scientific and manufacturing industries, and outsourcing of technical jobs from North America and Western Europe have created opportunities for aspiring graduates in India. Many undergraduates go abroad to pursue further studies, such as MS, MBA, and PhD.

Entrance competition[edit | edit source]

The highly competitive examination in the form of IIT-JEE has led to the establishment of a large number of coaching institutes throughout the country that provide intensive, and specific preparation for the IIT-JEE for substantial fees. It is argued that this favours students from specific regions and richer backgrounds. Some coaching institutes say that they have individually coached nearly 800 successful candidates year after year.[76] According to some estimates, nearly 95% of all students who clear the IIT-JEE had joined coaching classes.[77] Indeed, this was the case regarding preparation for IIT entrance exams even decades ago. In a January 2010 lecture at the Indian Institute of Science, the 2009 Nobel laureate in Chemistry, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan revealed that he failed to get a seat at any of the Indian engineering and medical colleges.[78] He also said that his parents, being old-fashioned, did not believe in coaching classes to prepare for the IIT entrance exam and considered them to be "nonsense".[78]

In a documentary aired by CBS, Vinod Khosla, co-founder of Sun Microsystems states, "The IITs probably are the hardest schools in the world to get into, to the best of my knowledge".[79] The documentary further concludes, "Put Harvard, MIT, and Princeton together, and you begin to get an idea of the status of IIT in India" to depict the competition as well as demand for the elite institutes.

Not all children are of a similar aptitude level and may be skilled in different paradigms and fields. This has led to criticism of the way the examinations are conducted and the way a student is forced in the Indian community. The IIT-JEE format was restructured in 2006 following these complaints.[80] After the change to the objective pattern of questioning, even the students who initially considered themselves not fit for subjective pattern of IIT-JEE decided to take the examination. Though the restructuring was meant to reduce the dependence of students on coaching classes, it led to an increase in students registering for coaching classes.[81] Some people (mostly IIT graduates) have criticized the changed pattern of the IIT-JEE. Their reasoning is that while IIT-JEE traditionally used to test students understanding of fundamentals and ability to apply them to solve tough unseen problems, the current pattern does not stress much on the application part and might lead to a reduced quality of students.[82]

IIT-JEE is conducted only in English and Hindi, making it harder for students with regional languages as their main language. In September 2011, the Gujarat High Court has acted on a Public Interest Litigation by the Gujarati Sahitya Parishad, for conducting the exams in Gujarati.[83] A second petition was made in October by Navsari's Sayaji Vaibhav Sarvajanik Pustakalaya Trust.[84] Another petition was made at the Madras High Court for conducting the exam in Tamil. In the petition it was claimed that not conducting the exam in the regional languages is in violation of article 14 of the Constitution of India.[85] IIT council recommended major changes in entrance examination structure which is effective from 2017 onwards.[86]

Alumni[edit | edit source]

IITs have many alumni.[87][88]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Kalita, Bishal (1 February 2022). "Higher Education Budget For Next Financial Year At Rs 40,828 Cr; 6.46% More Than 2021-22". NDTV 3:14pm IST. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "The Institutes of Technology Act, 1961". Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. 24 May 2005. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "IIT Act (As amended till 2012" (PDF). Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Problem of plenty: As IITs multiply, the brand value diminishes". Hindustan Times. 29 June 2015. Archived from the original on 31 August 2015. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  5. "IIT Council Portal". Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  6. "Gazette Notification of the Bill" (PDF). 29 June 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 April 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
  7. "Institute History – Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur". IIT Kharaggpur. Archived from the original on 20 April 2008. Retrieved 22 October 2008.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Information notification, University of Roorkee to IIT Roorkee. "The Institutes of Technology (Amendment) Act, 2002" (PDF). The eGazette of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Information notification, IT-BHU to IIT (BHU) Varanasi. "The Institutes of Technology (Amendment) Bill, 2011" (PDF). The eGazette of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
  10. "JEE Advanced 2015: IIT Bombay announces that four new IITs will admit students from this session". Archived from the original on 27 June 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  11. "IIT Tirupati all set to begin classes from Aug. 5". The Hindu. 25 June 2015. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 28 January 2023.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Information notification, ISM Dhanbad to IIT (ISM) Dhanbad. "The Institutes of Technology (Amendment) Bill, 2016" (PDF). The eGazette of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 12 August 2016.
  13. "Chhattisgarh to open IIT campus in Bhilai". The Indian Express. 14 January 2016. Archived from the original on 9 December 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
  14. "Dharwad will host first IIT of Karnataka". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 15 February 2020. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  15. "IIT Jammu to be set up at Chak Bhalwal". Business Standard India. Press Trust of India. 23 April 2015. Archived from the original on 9 December 2019. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  16. "Failure to identify land likely to delay setting up of IIT in Goa". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 18 February 2020. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  17. "Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur". 13 August 2007. Archived from the original on 13 August 2007. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
  18. "Inaugurated In Kharagpur In 1951, The First Indian Institute of Technology Turns 66 Today". The Times of India. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
  19. "Inaugurated In Kharagpur In 1951, The First Indian Institute of Technology Turns 66 Today". The Times of India. 18 August 2017. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
  20. "Institute History". 14 May 2006. Archived from the original on 8 July 2006. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
  21. See "more IIT" in references below. Under "Final selection", the third paragraph
  22. Upadhyaya, Yogesh K. (23 March 2005). "The making of new IITs". Retrieved 14 May 2006.
  23. Upadhyaya, Yogesh K (18 August 2005). "The march of the new IITs". Retrieved 14 May 2006.
  24. 24.0 24.1 Upadhyaya, Yogesh K (25 May 2005). "New IITs: A long journey ahead". Archived from the original on 7 December 2019. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
  25. Times News Network (1 May 2005). "Desi IITs in pardes: conditions apply". The Economic Times. Bennett, Coleman and Co. Ltd. Archived from the original on 2 May 2007. Retrieved 27 August 2006.
  26. "Indian students spend USD 6.54 billion in US, near three times more than FDI flow from North America | Business News". Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  27. "Visitor of the Institute". IIT Kharagpur. 18 November 2005. Archived from the original on 22 September 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2007.
  28. "IIT-Council". IIT Kharagpur. 18 November 2005. Archived from the original on 21 September 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2007.
  29. 29.0 29.1 "Organisational Structure". IIT Kharagpur. 18 November 2005. Archived from the original on 22 September 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2007.
  30. "Organizational Structure". Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. 3 March 2006. Archived from the original on 22 September 2007. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
  31. "Performance based funding of IITs" (PDF). IISc. 10 February 2004. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 November 2018. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
  32. Rajguru, Suvarna (30 December 2005). "What makes the IITs so chic". LittleINDIA. Archived from the original on 3 September 2006. Retrieved 27 August 2006.
  33. Natarajan, R. "The Evolution of Postgraduate Engineering Education and Research in India" (PDF). CAGS 2005 Conference. Canadian Association for Graduate Studies. p. 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2006. Retrieved 27 August 2006.
  34. "Kakodkar panel suggests steep hike in tuition fee at IITs". The Indian Express. 14 May 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
  35. "IIT fee more than doubled; total waiver for SC/ST, disabled, poor - The Economic Times". Retrieved 2 December 2022.
  36. "B.Tech Ordinances". Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  37. "NPTEL". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 9 March 2009. Archived from the original on 25 January 2013. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
  38. Prabhu, S.S. (September–November 2000). "Engineering Education in a Flux". Report of the Review Committee. IIT Kanpur. Archived from the original on 4 September 2006. Retrieved 27 August 2006.
  39. "Structure of B. Tech Programme (Ordinance No.3)". Ordinances. IIT Madras. Archived from the original on 22 June 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2007.
  40. "Structure of B. Tech Programme (Ordinance under R.4.2:Class Committee)". Ordinances. IIT Madras. Archived from the original on 22 June 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2007.
  41. 41.0 41.1 "Structure of B. Tech Programme (Ordinance under R.5.0:Change of Branch)". Ordinances. IIT Madras. Archived from the original on 22 June 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2007.
  42. "Structure of B. Tech Programme (Ordinance under R.2.0 (ii))". Ordinances. IIT Madras. Archived from the original on 22 June 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2007.
  43. "Structure of B. Tech Programme (Ordinance under R.2.0 (iii))". Ordinances. IIT Madras. Archived from the original on 22 June 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2007.
  44. "BTech Ordinances". Senate Ordinances. IIT Madras. Archived from the original on 17 May 2006. Retrieved 26 May 2006.
  45. "First U.S.-India joint EMBA program begins". Global. 23 April 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  46. Ordinance under Ordinance No. 3 Archived 17 May 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  47. Natarajan, R. "The Evolution of Postgraduate Engineering Education and Research in India" (PDF). CAGS 2005 Conference. Canadian Association for Graduate Studies. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2006. Retrieved 27 August 2006.
  48. Natarajan, R. "The Evolution of Postgraduate Engineering Education and Research in India" (PDF). CAGS 2005 Conference. Canadian Association for Graduate Studies. p. 25. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2006. Retrieved 27 August 2005.
  49. "Getting Admission to PhD Seats in IITs gets simplified". Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
  50. "Students of central institutes can join PhD in IITs without GATE". The Times of India. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  51. "Different academic programmes at IIT".
  52. "Director's Report" (PDF). IIT Madras. 8 May 2005. p. 36. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 May 2006. Retrieved 26 May 2006.
  53. "Top 100 Engineering Colleges in 2017". Outlook India. 6 July 2017. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  54. "Top Universities". Top Universities. Archived from the original on 21 June 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
  55. "IIT Madras emerges as the Undisputed Leader in Higher Education in India". IIT-Madras (Press and News). 15 July 2022. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  56. "National Institute Ranking Framework (NIRF) 2022 Engineering Rankings". 16 July 2022. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  57. "MoE, National Institute Ranking Framework (NIRF)". Retrieved 5 December 2021.
  58. "MHRD, National Institute Ranking Framework (NIRF)". Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  59. "MHRD, National Institute Ranking Framework (NIRF)". Retrieved 10 February 2019.
  60. "QS World University Rankings 2023". Top Universities. Retrieved 12 June 2022.
  61. "QS World University Rankings 2022". Top Universities. Retrieved 5 December 2021.
  62. "QS World University Rankings 2019". Top Universities. 29 May 2018. Archived from the original on 8 June 2018. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
  63. "QS World University Rankings 2018". Top Universities. 1 February 2017. Archived from the original on 9 June 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
  64. "Asia University Rankings 2022". Top Universities. Retrieved 10 December 2021.
  65. "QS India University Rankings 2020". Top Universities. Retrieved 10 December 2021.
  66. 66.0 66.1 "Search". Times Higher Education (THE). Retrieved 10 December 2021.
  67. "IIT, IIM faculty not world-class: Jairam Ramesh". India Education Review. 24 May 2011. Archived from the original on 14 June 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
  68. "What ails the IITs; Anil K Rajvanshi". 25 October 2011.
  69. "Poor quality of students entering IITs: Narayana Murthy - The Times of India". The Times of India.
  70. Report of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India on the Performance Audit of Setting up of new Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) (PDF) (Report). Ministry of Education. 2021. Report 20. Retrieved 6 February 2022.
  71. "India's tech innovation engines must raise their game". Nature. 601 (7894): 483–484. 26 January 2022. Bibcode:2022Natur.601..483.. doi:10.1038/d41586-022-00154-y. PMID 35082427 Check |pmid= value (help). S2CID 246297398 Check |s2cid= value (help). Retrieved 6 February 2022.
  72. "Suicides at IITS not due to academic stress alone". 13 May 2017.
  73. 73.0 73.1 "Trend of brain drain on reverse to India". Hindustan Times. Indo-Asian News Service. 7 March 2006. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2009.
  74. "How IITs are tapping into their robust alumni network for funding". Business Today (in हिन्दी). 5 April 2022. Retrieved 2 December 2022.
  75. Friedman, Thomas L. (2006). The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century. USA: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 104–105. ISBN 0-374-29288-4.
  76. "Successful students in IIT-JEE 2005". Brilliant Tutorials. Archived from the original on 21 April 2007. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
  77. Idichandy, V G (11 October 2005). "Why the IIT-JEE pattern was changed". Retrieved 14 May 2006.
  78. 78.0 78.1 "Nobel laureate Venkat Ramakrishnan failed IIT, medical entrance tests". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  79. "Imported from India". CBS News.
  80. "Change in IIT-JEE pattern from academic year 2006". Archived from the original on 21 February 2006. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
  81. Rukmini Shrinivasan & Hemali Chhapia (31 March 2006). "3 lakh students to vie for IIT entry this year". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
  82. Jhimli Mukherjee Pandey (4 May 2005). "Crack the IIT code, it's too easy". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2006.
  83. "Sahitya Parishad demands entrance tests in Gujarati". The Times of India. 21 September 2011. Archived from the original on 23 June 2014. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
  84. "Another PIL seeks entrance tests in Gujarati". The Times of India. 21 October 2011. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
  85. "Plea to write IIT entrance in Tamil". Deccan Chronicle. Archived from the original on 10 January 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
  86. "Changes in IIT Entrance Examination Structure".
  87. "PM's inaugural address at the 'PAN IIT-2008' – IIT Alumni Global Conference". Press Information Bureau. 19 December 2008. Archived from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 8 August 2009.
  88. "Student statistics".

Further reading[edit | edit source]

External links[edit | edit source]

Information red.svg
Scan the QR code to donate via UPI
Dear reader, We kindly request your support in maintaining the independence of Bharatpedia. As a non-profit organization, we rely heavily on small donations to sustain our operations and provide free access to reliable information to the world. We would greatly appreciate it if you could take a moment to consider donating to our cause, as it would greatly aid us in our mission. Your contribution would demonstrate the importance of reliable and trustworthy knowledge to you and the world. Thank you.

Please select an option below or scan the QR code to donate
₹150 ₹500 ₹1,000 ₹2,000 ₹5,000 ₹10,000 Other