All Parties Hurriyat Conference

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All Parties Hurriyat Conference
LeaderMirwaiz Umar Farooq
ChairpersonMasarat Alam Bhat
General SecretaryMoulvi Bashir Ahmad Irfani
First ConvenerMehmood Ahmed Saghar
FounderMirwaiz Umar Farooq
Founded9 March 1993
IdeologyKashmiri self determination and separatism[1]

All Parties Hurriyat Conference (APHC) is an alliance of 26 political, social and religious organizations formed on 9 March 1993, as a united political front to raise the cause of Kashmiri separatism in the Kashmir conflict. Mehmood Ahmed Saghar was the first convener of the APHC-PAK chapter when the alliance was established in 1993.[2] The alliance has historically been viewed positively by Pakistan as it contests the claim of the Indian government over the State of Jammu and Kashmir.[3][4][5] Mirwaiz Umar Farooq is its chairman and in 2009 Mehmood Ahmed Saghar was unanimously elected as convener of APHC in Pakistan, and Ghulam Muhammad Safi was elected as its convener in Pakistan in January 2010.[6][7]


All Parties Hurriyat Conference was founded on 7 August 2004. On its first foundation day, more than 100,000 people gathered at Hyderpora, Srinagar, showing solidarity and commitment to its objectives and goals.

Ideology and role[edit]

According to the Hurriyat Conference, Jammu and Kashmir is a disputed territory and India's control of it is not justified. It supports the Pakistani claim that Kashmir is the "unfinished agenda of Partition" and needs to be solved "as per the aspirations of the people of Jammu and Kashmir."[8]

The APHC perceives itself to be the sole representative of the Kashmiri people.[8]

The organisation's primary role has been to project an image of counter-insurgency operations in Jammu and Kashmir and to mobilise public opinion against Indian security forces. The alliance has consistently followed up local allegations of security force excesses, and in several documented cases, real allegations about human violation by Indian security forces. For instance, the Haigam firing incident of 16 February 2001, was an assault on a peaceful gathering whereas, but later claimed in news reports and official clarifications, the army contingent fired upon the mob only when they were blocked and prevented from moving.[8]

The APHC has also an observer's status in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). OIC has invited Mirwaiz Umar Farooq for its June 2005 Foreign Ministers Conference in Yemen.[8][9]


There are currently two factions of the Hurriyat Conference led by Mirwaiz Umar Farooq and Syed Ali Shah Geelani. The Mirwaiz-led group, also referred to as the "moderate faction" along with non-Hurriyat leaders like Yasin Malik undertook, between 2–16 June 2005, the first formal visit of Kashmiri separatists to Pakistani Kashmir and subsequently, though unsanctioned by Indian authorities, to Pakistan.[8]

Internal fissures within the Hurriyat Conference culminated in a formal split on 7 September 2003,[10] with at least 12 of its 26 constituents "removing" the then Chairman Maulana Mohammad Abbas Ansari "replacing" him with Masarat Alam as its interim chief. The dissenters reportedly met at the residence of hardliner and pro-Pakistan Jamaat-e-Islami (JeI) leader Syed Ali Shah Geelani and decided to depose Ansari and "suspend" the seven-member executive committee, the highest decision-making forum of the APHC. A five-member committee was formed to review the Hurriyat Constitution and suggest amendments to reverse what the dissenters perceived as "autocratic" decisions taken by the executive committee.[8]

Since then, Geelani has formed his own faction of the Hurriyat called the Tehreek-e-Hurriyat Jammu and Kashmir. On 12 October 2004, he was elected unanimously as its chairman for a period of three years. A 25-member strong Majlis-e-Shoora (advisory council) to assist and advise the chairman was also announced on the same day. A statement released by the faction said 21 members were elected to the shoora and the chairman was authorised to nominate four members. It also said all 14 districts of the State were duly represented in the shoora, the highest decision-making body of the organisation. The Geelani reportedly has 16 constituents.[8]

The Hurriyat Conference again split in 2014. The moderate Hurriyat Conference led by Mirwaiz Umar Farooq faced the split after four senior leaders raised a banner of revolt against the chairman and other members of the conglomerate.[11] Democratic Freedom Party president Shabir Ahmad Shah, National Front chairman Nayeem Ahmad Khan, Mahaz-e-Azadi chief Mohammad Azam Inqlabi and Islamic Political Party Mohommad Yousuf Naqash were up in arms against Mirwaiz after he dashed off a letter to the convener in Pakistan administered Kashmir, Mohommad Yousuf Naseem, asking him not to entertain the leaders who have left the conglomerate on their own. The leader Shabir Shah and his lieutenant Nayeem Khan along with Shia leader Agha Hassan joined Hurriyat Conference (G) led by Syed Ali Geelani.[11]

Views on right to self-determination[edit]

All JKLF factions support the right to self-determination as per UN Security Council Resolution 47. Hurriyat, led by Syed Ali Shah Geelani, Shabir Shah, Nayeem Khan & Azam Inquilabi, demand the right to self-determination as per UN Security Council Resolution 47. Members of the Executive Council of the original APHC were:

Criticism and controversies[edit]

Relations with Pakistani ISI[edit]

Sheikh Mustafa Kamal, a senior leader of the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference and son of Sheikh Abdullah criticised Hurriyat leader Syed Ali Shah Geelani for working on "dictations" given by Pakistan. He accused Geelani of being "a double agent" on "the payroll of Pakistan's ISI".[12][13][14]

Kamal said "Geelani has tried to 'ignite and incite' people by 'hollow slogans and destructive emotionalism', whenever even a Pakistani clerk comes to India and summons this ex-lawmaker(Geelani), he rushes to Delhi to take dictation about how to ensure that uncertainty prevails in the state."[12][13][14][15][16]

Pakistan also openly supported Geelani and Hurriyat, and representatives have had several meetings with Hurriyat leaders. A three-member delegation from the Pakistan High Commission led by Abdul Basit met Geelani at his Malviya Nagar residence in March 2015. Pakistan High Commissioner Abdul Basit assured Geelani of complete support conveying that the country's stand on Kashmir remains unchanged despite the regime change in New Delhi.[17][18][19] Basit also invited Geelani for a Pakistan Day function on 23 March. The Pakistan High Commission in New Delhi, ritually invites pro-separatist leadership of Jammu and Kashmir for the function every year.[16][18][19][20]

Indian media vehicles reported that Geelani and Hurriyat are paying local unemployed young men to stage protests.[21] According to them, arrested participants confessed being paid Rs 400($6–7) every Friday. Police said the money is being raised locally by Hurriyat hardliner Syed Ali Shah Geelani's followers. Most of the money comes from fruit markets and saw mills, Pakistan-based LeT terrorists also participate in stone peltings,[21] the police said.[21][22][23]

Elections boycott[edit]

Geelani and Hurriyat appealed to the people of Kashmir to boycott the 2014 Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly elections completely, arguing that: "India has been holding elections in the Valley using the power of gun and so such an exercise is not legitimate."[24] But despite repeated boycott appeals, the 2014 assembly election recorded record voter turnout of more than 65% which was the highest in 25 years of history and higher than normal voting percentages in other states of India.[25][26][27]

After record voting percentage in Kashmir, Hurriyat and its leaders have been heavily criticised by mainstream media for misleading the people of Kashmir and for not representing their true sentiments.[28][29][30][31]

India's Prime Minister Narendra Modi said of the high election voter turnout: "Separatist militants are frustrated because they are feeling that despite the use of guns and bombs and killing people, democracy is still alive in this state. I want to congratulate those voters of J&K who have voted in large numbers and made democracy victorious irrespective of the outcome."[32][33]

Member of the European Parliament Kosma Zlotowski welcomed the smooth conduct of the State Legislative Elections in the Jammu and Kashmir.[34] Zlotowski's office in its message said that: "The high voter turnout figure proves that democracy is firmly rooted in India. The EU would like to congratulate India and its democratic system for conduct of fair elections, unmarred by violence, in the state of Jammu and Kashmir [...] The European Parliament also takes cognizance of the fact that a large number of Kashmiri voters turned out despite calls for the boycott of elections by certain separatist forces."[34][35][36]

Current members[edit]

Current [when?] members All Parties Hurriyat Conference include:[citation needed]

Number Name of the Party Leader
1 Aawami Action Committee Mirwaiz Umar Farooq
2 People's League

Mukhtar Ahmed Waza

3 Anjamani Auqafi Jama Masjid Mohammad Umar Farooq
4 Anjaman-e-Tablig-ul Islam Syed Qasim Shah Bukhari
5 Ummat Islami Qazi Ghulam Mohammad
6 Peoples Political Party Hilal Ahmed War And forazad jammu and kashmir n Pakistan chapter Mian Muzaffar Shah
7 Anjuman e shari shiyan Aga Syed Hassan al-moosvi Al-safvi
8 Jammu Kashmir National Front Nayeem Ahmed Khan
9 All Jammu & Kashmir Employees' Confederation Ishtiaq Qadri
10 Jamiate Ulama-E-Islam Abdul Gani Azhari
11 Jamiat-e-Hamdania Mirwaiz Moulana Muhammad Yaseen Hamdani
12 Jammu and Kashmir People's Conference Abdul Ghani Lone till 2002 assassination
13 Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front Muhammad Yasin Malik
14 Jammu and Kashmir Democratic Freedom Party Shabir Shah & Mehmood Ahmed Saghar
15 Jammu and Kashmir People's Basic Rights (Protection) Committee Mufti Bahauddin Farouqi
16 Liberation Council Azhar Bhat
17 Kashmir Bazme Tawheed Tajamul Bhat
18 Kashmir Bar Association Zaroon bhat
19 Muslim Khawateen Markaz Zaid Bhat/ Anjum Zamarud Habib[37]
20 Muslim Conference Khokhar e aazam
21 Tehreek-e-Huriati Kashmiri Saqib Bhat
22 Jammu & Kashmir Peoples Conference Bilal Ghani Lone
23 Peoples Political Party Eng Hilal Ahmad War
24 Imam Ahmad Raza Islamic Mission Rafeeq Ahmad Mir
25 Saut-Ul-Aliya Moulana Abdul Rashid Dawoodi
26 Jammu and Kashmir People's Freedom League Muhammad Farooq Rehmani
27 Ittihadul Muslimeen Maulana Mohammad Abbas Ansari
28 Dukhtaran-e-Millat Asiya Andrabi
29 J & K Muslim League Masarat Alam
30 Difa-e-Pakistan Council Sami ul Haq
31 Jammu and Kashmir Human Rights Committee Noor-Ul-Hassan
32 Employees and Workers Confederation

Hurriyat Conference has three factions: Hurriyat led by Syed Ali Shah Geelani, Hurriyat led by Mirwaiz Umar Farooq, Hurriyat led by Shabir Shah, Azam Inquilabi & Nayeem Khan. Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front is not part of these factions.

See also[edit]


  1. "All Parties Hurriyat Conference".
  2. "Hurriyat: Its History, Role and Relevance". The Indian Express. 31 August 2015. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  3. "All Party Hurriyat Conference (APHC)". Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  4. "All Parties Hurriyat Conference". Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  5. "Sorry for the inconvenience". Retrieved 9 December 2007.[dead link]
  6. "Associated Press of Pakistan ( Pakistan's Premier NEWS Agency ) – Kashmiri organisation felicitate Safi on his election". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  7. Desk, News (7 September 2021). "Masarat Alam is new chairman of Hurriyat Conference | Free Press Kashmir". Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 "All Parties Hurriyat Conference". Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  9. "Mirwaiz gets OIC invite: Hurriyat". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  10. "Seven reasons why Hurriyat's sun is setting in Kashmir".
  11. 11.0 11.1 "Another split stares at moderate Hurriyat". dna. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  12. 12.0 12.1 "Geelani on ISI Payroll: NC Leader". Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  13. 13.0 13.1 "geelani on payroll of isi, says nc leader -". Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  14. 14.0 14.1 "Geelani on payroll of ISI, says NC leader". IBNLive. Archived from the original on 16 March 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  15. "Hurriyat Leader Syed Ali Shah Geelani's Arrest – ISI Funding for Kashmiri Militants". Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  16. 16.0 16.1 "NIA nails Hurriyat's links with the ISI". Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  17. "Pakistani high commissioner meets Hurriyat leader Geelani". Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  18. 18.0 18.1 "Pakistan assures Syed Ali Geelani of complete support". dna. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  19. 19.0 19.1 "Pakistan mischief again: Envoy meets Syed Ali Geelani". The Asian Age. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  20. "Pakistan envoy Abdul Basit meets separatist leader Geelani, invites him for Pakistan Day". IBNLive. Archived from the original on 11 March 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 "Hurriyat paid Rs 400 for J&K stone-pelting, LeT terrorist participated". Zee News. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  22. "stone pelters paid Rs 400/week by Hurriyat". The Times of India.
  23. "Only Kashmir". Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  24. "Syed Ali Shah Geelani's J&K election boycott call resonates in his hometown Sopore". IBNLive. Archived from the original on 4 December 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  25. "Jammu and Kashmir Registers Highest Voter Turnout in 25 Years, Jharkhand Breaks Records". 20 December 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  26. "Jammu and Kashmir registers highest voter turnout in 25 years, Jharkhand breaks records". Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  27. "J&K polls: 76 per cent voter turnout recorded in the final phase". IBNLive. Archived from the original on 15 March 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  28. "High Voter Turnout in Jammu & Kashmir Assembly Elections : A Debilitating Blow to Separatists and Resilient Boost for Indian Democracy". EP TODAY. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  29. "Welcome To India Africa Connect – Panorama – Braving bullets, Kashmiris embrace ballot for development". Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  30. "J&K polls: Valley opts for ballot over bullet with 71 per cent voting in first phase". The Indian Express. 25 November 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  31. "Ballot over bullet: Brisk voting in J&K and Jharkhand showcases faith in democracy". Times of India Blogs. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  32. "People of Jammu and Kashmir have rejected bullet for ballot: PM Narendra Modi". timesofindia-economictimes. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  33. Desk, News (7 September 2021). "Masarat Alam is new chairman of Hurriyat Conference | Free Press Kashmir". Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  34. 34.0 34.1 The Office of MEP Kosma Zlotowski (10 December 2014). "The European Parliament Welcomes the Elections in Jammu & Kashmir". Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  35. ANI (11 December 2014). "European Parliament welcomes elections in Jammu and Kashmir". Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  36. "EU hails huge turnout in J&K". Jammu Kashmir Latest News – Tourism – Breaking News J&K. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  37. Guichaoua, Yvan (8 November 2011). Understanding Collective Political Violence. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-230-28546-0.

External links[edit]

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