Jammu and Kashmir

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Jammu and Kashmir
Region administered by India as a union territory
Pahalgam Valley.jpg
Akhnoor Fort - Jammu - Jammu and Kashmir - DSC 0001 JPEG.jpg
Jammu and Kashmir
A map of the disputed Kashmir region showing the Indian-administered union territory of Jammu and Kashmir
Coordinates: 33°30′N 75°00′E / 33.5°N 75.0°E / 33.5; 75.0Coordinates: 33°30′N 75°00′E / 33.5°N 75.0°E / 33.5; 75.0
Administered byIndia
Union territory31 October 2019
CapitalSrinagar (May–October)
Jammu (Nov-April)[1]
 • BodyGovernment of Jammu and Kashmir
 • Lieutenant GovernorManoj Sinha
 • Chief MinisterVacant
 • LegislatureUnicameral (114 seats)[2]
 • Parliamentary constituencyRajya Sabha (4)
Lok Sabha (5)
 • High CourtJammu and Kashmir High Court
 • Total42,241 km2 (16,309 sq mi)
Highest elevation7,135 m (23,409 ft)
Lowest elevation247 m (810 ft)
 • Total12,267,013
 • Density290/km2 (750/sq mi)
 • OfficialKashmiri, Dogri, Urdu, Hindi, English.[5][6]
 • SpokenPunjabi, Pahari, Gojri, Dadri[7][8] Bhadarwahi,[9] Bateri,[10] Shina,[11] Burushaski[12] and Khowar[13]
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-JK
Vehicle registrationJK

Jammu and Kashmir[lower-alpha 2] is a region administered by India as a union territory and consists of the southern portion of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of a dispute between India and Pakistan since 1947, and between India and China since 1962.[15][16] The region of Jammu and Kashmir is separated by the Line of Control from the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan in the west and north, respectively. It lies to the north of the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab and to the west of Ladakh, which is also subject to the dispute as a part of Kashmir, and administered by India as a union territory.

Provisions for the formation of the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir were contained within the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019, which was passed by both houses of the Parliament of India in August 2019. The act re-constituted the former state of Jammu and Kashmir into two union territories, 'Jammu and Kashmir' and 'Ladakh', with effect from 31 October 2019.


  1. Desk, The Hindu Net (8 May 2017). "What is the Darbar Move in J&K all about?". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 10 November 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  2. Shaswati Das. "Jammu and Kashmir transitions from a state into 2 federal units". livemint.com. Live Mint. Retrieved 30 June 2020. Jammu and Kashmir will also have its own legislative assembly, under which, according to the Act, the number of seats will go up to 114 from 87 currently, following a delimitation exercise.
  3. "Saser Kangri - AAC Publications - Search The American Alpine Journal and Accidents". Publications.americanalpineclub.org. Archived from the original on 14 February 2019. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  4. Singh, Vijaita (29 February 2020). "Only J&K will use 2011 Census for delimitation". The Hindu. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
  5. "The Jammu and Kashmir Official Languages Act, 2020" (PDF). The Gazette of India. 27 September 2020. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  6. "Parliament passes JK Official Languages Bill, 2020". Rising Kashmir. 23 September 2020. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  7. Khan, N. (6 August 2012). The Parchment of Kashmir: History, Society, and Polity. Springer. p. 184. ISBN 9781137029584. Archived from the original on 23 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  8. Aggarwal, J. C.; Agrawal, S. P. (1995). Modern History of Jammu and Kashmir: Ancient times to Shimla Agreement. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 9788170225577. Archived from the original on 24 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  9. "Bhadrawahi". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  10. Bateri.
  11. Crane, Robert I. (1956). Area Handbook on Jammu and Kashmir State. University of Chicago for the Human Relations Area Files. p. 179. Shina is the most eastern of these languages and in some of its dialects such as the Brokpa of Dah and Hanu and the dialect of Dras, it impinges upon the area of the Sino-Tibetan language family and has been affected by Tibetan with an overlay of words and idioms.
  12. "Pakistan's "Burushaski" Language Finds New Relatives". Npr.org. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  13. Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D. (2017). Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Twentieth Edition. Dallas: SIL International.
  14. Jones, Daniel (2003) [1917], Peter Roach; James Hartmann; Jane Setter (eds.), English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-3-12-539683-8
  15. (a) Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannia, "Kashmir, region Indian subcontinent", Encyclopædia Britannica, retrieved 15 August 2019CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) (subscription required) Quote: "Kashmir, region of the northwestern Indian subcontinent ... has been the subject of dispute between India and Pakistan since the partition of the Indian subcontinent in 1947. The northern and western portions are administered by Pakistan and comprise three areas: Azad Kashmir, Gilgit, and Baltistan, the last two being part of a territory called the Northern Areas. Administered by India are the southern and southeastern portions, which constitute the state of Jammu and Kashmir but are slated to be split into two union territories. China became active in the eastern area of Kashmir in the 1950s and has controlled the northeastern part of Ladakh (the easternmost portion of the region) since 1962.";
    (b) "Kashmir", Encyclopedia Americana, Scholastic Library Publishing, 2006, p. 328, ISBN 978-0-7172-0139-6 C. E Bosworth, University of Manchester Quote: "KASHMIR, kash'mer, the northernmost region of the Indian subcontinent, administered partlv by India, partly by Pakistan, and partly by China. The region has been the subject of a bitter dispute between India and Pakistan since they became independent in 1947";
  16. Osmańczyk, Edmund Jan (2003), Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements: G to M, Taylor & Francis, pp. 1191–, ISBN 978-0-415-93922-5 Quote: "Jammu and Kashmir: Territory in northwestern India, subject to a dispute between India and Pakistan. It has borders with Pakistan and China."

External links[edit]

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