Cricket in India

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Cricket in India
Governing bodyBoard of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI)
National team(s)Men
U-19 Men
U-19 Women
First played1721[1]
Clubs38 (First class)
12 (IPL, WPL)
National competitions
Club competitions
International competitions
Audience records
Single match465,000 (Five-day Test)
India v. Pakistan at Eden Gardens, Kolkata, 16–20 February 1999[2]
Season1,592,543 (Total)
26,528 per match
2017 IPL[3][unreliable source?]

Cricket is one of the most popular sports in India. It is played almost everywhere in the country[4][unreliable source?]. The Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) is the governing body of Indian cricket and conduct all domestic tournaments and select the players for India national cricket team and India women's national cricket team.

Domestic competitions in India annually organized by BCCI include the Ranji Trophy, the Duleep Trophy, the Vijay Hazare Trophy, the Deodhar Trophy, the Irani Trophy and the NKP Salve Challenger Trophy. The Indian Premier League, a Twenty20 tournament where various city-based franchises compete in a style similar to American football, is one of the biggest sporting leagues and the biggest cricketing league in the world. In 2023 it launched a similar league for females, the Women's Premier League (WPL).

Cricket is generally viewed as favourite sport of Indians. Sports broadcasters, national-international news media frequently claim that "cricket is like religion in India", people are crazy for the sport there, but the truth is far from it, Indians don't show up at the stadiums to witness domestic (except IPL) tournament (such as Ranji, Vijay Hazare trophy, Irani Cup etc), non-India international matches and stadium remain empty, reason for this according to a senior figure in Indian broadcasting, "Indians don’t love cricket", "Indians love Indian cricket."[5]

International cricket in India does not follow a consistent pattern, unlike other cricketing teams such as England, who tour other countries during the winter and play at home during the summer. The Indian cricket team is one of the most successful cricket teams in the world, having won 2 ICC World Cups, 1 ICC World Twenty20, 2 ICC Champion's Trophies and finished runners up in the inaugural edition of the ICC World Test Championship. The 2021 ICC Men's T20 World Cup, was initially meant to be hosted by India. However, after the escalation of the COVID-19 Pandemic in India, the tournament was moved by the ICC to the United Arab Emirates. The 2023 Cricket World Cup will be hosted by India.

Indian cricketers association is the country's retired cricketer's union. It is recognized by BCCI, but the latter do not allow any active player to be part of it or any other players union. BCCI keep ICA's representative in its and IPL's apex council.

Cricket is an important part of Indian culture[6] and top players, like Sachin Tendulkar, Sourav Ganguly, Virat Kohli, MS Dhoni and Rohit Sharma often attain celebrity status and are some of the most influential figures in the country. Cricket is often portrayed patriotically in popular Indian films, including the Academy Award-nominated film, Lagaan, and 83, the 2021 sports drama film about India's Cricket World Cup victory in 1983. The Indian cricket team shares a long-standing rivalry with the Pakistani cricket team, and India-Pakistan matches are some of the most anticipated matches in the world, and one of the most watched television broadcasts in the world.


The British brought cricket to the Indian subcontinent in the early 1700s, with the first documented instance of cricket being played is in 1721. It was played and adopted by Kolis of Gujarat because they were sea pirates and outlaws who used to loot the British ships. East India Company tried to manage the Kolis using cricket and were successful.[7][8]

1800s to 1918[edit]

Ranjitsinhji was regarded as one of the best batsmen of his time.

The first ever match of first-class cricket played in India was in 1864 between Calcutta and Madras. Not many records exist from the match. The entire history of cricket in India and the sub-continent as a whole is based on the existence and development of the British Raj via the East India Company.

1918 to 1945[edit]

India became a member of the 'elite club' joining Australia, England, South Africa, New Zealand and the West Indies in June 1932. India's first match in Lord's against England attracted a massive crowd of 24,000 people as well as the King of the United Kingdom.[9]

1945 to 1960[edit]

The major and defining event in the history of Indian cricket during this period was the Partition of India following full independence from the British Raj in 1947.

An early casualty of change was the Bombay Quadrangular tournament, which had been a focal point of Indian cricket for over 50 years. The new India had no place for teams based on ethnic origin. As a result, the Ranji Trophy came into its own as the national championship. The last Bombay Pentangular, as it had become, was won by the Hindus in 1945–46.

India also recorded its first Test victory in 1952, beating England by an innings in Madras.[9]

1960 to 1970[edit]

One team totally dominated Indian cricket in the 1960s. As part of 14 consecutive victories in the Ranji Trophy from 1958–59 to 1972–73, Bombay won the title in all ten seasons of the period under review. Among its players were Farokh Engineer, Dilip Sardesai, Bapu Nadkarni, Ramakant Desai, Baloo Gupte, Ashok Mankad and Ajit Wadekar. In the 1961–1962 season, the Duleep Trophy was inaugurated as a zonal competition. It was named after Ranji's nephew, Kumar Shri Duleepsinhji (1905–59). With Bombay in its catchment, it is not surprising that the West Zone won six of the first nine titles.

1970 to 1985[edit]

Bombay continued to dominate Indian domestic cricket, with only Karnataka, Delhi, and a few other teams able to mount any kind of challenge during this period.

India enjoyed two international highlights. In 1971, they won a Test series in England for the first time ever, surprisingly defeating Ray Illingworth's Ashes winners. In 1983, again in England, India were surprise winners of the 1983 Cricket World Cup under the captaincy of Kapil Dev.

During the 1970s, the Indian cricket team began to see success overseas beating New Zealand, and holding Australia, South Africa and England to a draw. The backbone of the team was the Indian spin quartet – Bishen Bedi, E. A. S. Prasanna, B. S. Chandrasekhar and Srinivas Venkataraghavan, giving rise to what would later be called the Golden Era of Indian cricket history. This decade also saw the emergence of two of India's best ever batsmen, Sunil Gavaskar and Gundappa Vishwanath responsible for the back-to-back series wins in 1971 in the West Indies and in England, under the captaincy of Ajit Wadekar.

The Indian women's team made its test debut in 1976, becoming the third nation to do so. It made its ODI debut on 1st January 1978.

1985 to 2000[edit]


In the late 1980s, continuous live coverage of overseas matches was broadcast by British networks. This was a major factor in shaping what was now becoming the modern game of cricket. Modern technology and the establishment of specialized television networks set a global interest for the sport. ESPN and Star Sports added cricket to part of the 24 hours of continuous live coverage that they were needed to produce. Global popularity increased among the Eastern world. Soon after a domestic league (the Indian Premier League) was established.

Several team names and spellings were altered during the 1990s when traditional Indian names were introduced to replace those that were associated with the British Raj. Most notably, Bombay became Mumbai and the venue of Calcutta became Kolkata, both where the main places where the British did all their business.

During the 1980s, India developed a more attack-focused batting line-up with talented batsmen such as Mohammad Azharuddin, Dilip Vengsarkar and Ravi Shastri prominent during this decade. Despite India's victory in the Cricket World Cup in 1983, the team performed poorly in the Test arena, including 28 consecutive Test matches without a victory. However, India won the Asia Cup in 1984 and won the World Championship of Cricket in Australia in 1985. The 1987 Cricket World Cup was held in India.

From the 1993–94 season, the Duleep Trophy was converted from a knockout competition to a league format.

21st century[edit]

Sachin Tendulkar is one of the greatest cricketers of all time. He is known as the 'God of Cricket'.

Sachin Tendulkar was one of the key members during 1989–2013 for Team India in multiple formats.

Since 2000, the Indian team underwent major improvements with the appointment of John Wright, India's first ever foreign coach. This appointment met success internationally as India maintained their unbeaten home record against Australia in Test series after defeating them in 2001 and won the inaugural ICC World Twenty20 in 2007. India was also the first sub-continental team to win at the WACA in January 2008 against Australia.

India's victory against the Australians in 2001 marked the beginning of a dream era for the team under the captainship of Sourav Ganguly, winning Test matches in Zimbabwe, Sri Lanka, West Indies and England. India also shared a joint victory with Sri Lanka in the ICC Champions Trophy and went on to the finals in the 2003 Cricket World Cup only to be beaten by Australia.

In September 2007, India won the first ever Twenty20 World Cup held in South Africa, beating their arch-rivals Pakistan by 5 runs in a thrilling final.[10]

India won the Cricket World Cup in 2011 under the captainship of Mahendra Singh Dhoni,[9] the first time since 1983 (28 years) – they beat Sri Lanka in the final held in Mumbai's Wankhede Stadium.[11]

India played its 500th Test match against New Zealand led by Kane Williamson at Kanpur from 22 - 26 September 2016.[12] India won this match by 197 runs. This test was played under the captaincy of Virat Kohli.

Currently, they are first in the 2019-21 ICC World Test Championship with 490 points and a PCT (percentage of points) of 71.They will play their final test in the 2019-21 ICC World Test Championship (which is also the final test in the 2021 Anthony De Mello Trophy) They played in their first series of the 2020-22 ICC Cricket World Cup Super League against the Australia national cricket team winning only one match and being fined 1 point for a slow over rate having only 9 points and being seventh in the league.


Role of the IPL[edit]

Over the past decade, cricket has undergone a significant transformation; becoming extremely commercialized. The Indian Premier League (IPL) is a professional Twenty20 cricket league that has transformed cricket into a year-round spectacle. Launched in 2008, the IPL quickly became the most lucrative and popular domestic cricket league in the world, attracting the best players from around the globe. The league's immense popularity has made it extremely profitable, with companies competing fiercely to invest in the league and enhance their brand visibility.

Cricket has over one billion fans globally, with 90% of them coming from India. An amazing example of increased commercialization is how from 2014 to 2016, there was a 14% growth in ads across all cricket content.[13] However Indians only love to watch India cricket (IPL and matches of team India), they don't show up at the stadium when team India don't play and other foreign teams are playing, they also don't watch domestic cricket match in stadium except IPL. It debunks the myth that Indians are crazy about cricket and "the sport is like a religion for them", the lines often broadcasters, and national-international media use while claiming popularity of cricket in the country.[5] The Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), paid Star India an astounding 38.5 billion rupees to broadcast India's domestic matches, demonstrating the IPL's enormous popularity and lucrative business potential.[13] Each IPL team has an owner, who is typically a business, as well as numerous sponsors displayed on their uniforms. The league renews and adds new teams every year, giving businesses a fresh source of income. The Gujarat Titans and Lucknow Super Giants were added as two new teams for the 2022 campaign.

Due to its popularity, the IPL has become a frequent subject of allegations of match-fixing and corruption, which has generated controversy. Despite the BCCI's efforts, these problems still exist. Five players were suspended for spot-fixing in the IPL's fifth season, exposing the league's susceptibility to corruption.[14] Due to his suspected involvement in an altercation with a security guard, Shah Rukh Khan, the Bollywood celebrity and owner of the Kolkata Knight Riders, was barred from the Wankhede Stadium for five years.[14] The Royal Challengers Bangalore's Australian player Luke Pomersbach was detained for molesting children, severely damaging the league's reputation.[14]

Is IPL dstroying the soul of Indian Cricket[edit]

The IPL's impact on cricket in India, marked by its emphasis on T20 cricket, commercialization, and a shift away from traditional values, has raised concerns about the transformation of the sport. There's a fear that if these trends continue, the traditional essence of Indian cricket may be lost, giving way to a more superficial and entertainment-driven version. This flashy tournament has taken over the hearts and minds of cricket fans, leaving little room for the traditional form of the game to survive.

Cricket as Entertainment: The IPL has transformed cricket into a form of entertainment, prioritizing spectacular elements like cheerleaders, music, and light shows. This emphasis on entertainment often overshadows the fundamental aspects of the sport, diluting its essence.

The T20 Takeover: The IPL's focus on Twenty20 (T20) cricket, with its emphasis on fast-paced and entertaining play, has overshadowed longer formats like Test cricket. Young players now lean towards T20 cricket, neglecting the development of the skills required for the longer and more strategic forms of the game.

The Commercialization Menace: The IPL's commercialization has turned cricket into a profit-driven spectacle. The league's emphasis on big names, celebrity endorsements, and corporate sponsorships has shifted the game's focus from its pure essence to making money and attracting advertisers.

The Nation vs. the Franchise: The IPL has created a conflict of interest among players, as their dedication to their franchises can sometimes surpass their commitment to the national team. The allure of lucrative contracts and fame in the IPL has led some players to prioritize it over representing their country, even opting for early retirement in favor of IPL commitments.

Neglecting the Grassroots: The IPL's influence has led young talents to gravitate towards the T20 path, neglecting the fundamental skills and longer formats of the game. This shift raises concerns about the future of Indian cricket, as traditional values and techniques are slowly eroding.[15]

Role of the BCCI & ICC[edit]

The Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) is the richest and most powerful cricket board in the world, with an estimated net worth of over $300 million.[16] The success of the Indian Premier League (IPL), which has become one of the most lucrative and popular cricket leagues in the world, has brought the spotlight on the role of the ICC and BCCI in the commercialization of cricket.

The BCCI threatened to cancel a tour of South Africa in 2014 if the South African board didn't agree to a changed itinerary and a bigger income share.[16] This episode stirred debate and revealed the BCCI's influence over other cricket-playing countries. Additionally, their opposition to the purpose of the Decision Review System (DRS), which the ICC introduced in 2008, demonstrates their influence over the ICC. In response to the BCCI's opposition, the ICC made its use voluntary.[16]

Organisation of cricket in modern India[edit]

International cricket[edit]

Mithali Raj is the highest run-scorer in women's international cricket.[17][18]

International cricket in India generally does not follow a fixed pattern. For example, the English schedule under which the nation tours other countries during the winter and plays at home during the summer. Generally, there has recently been a tendency to play more one-day matches than Test matches. Cricket in India is managed by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), the richest cricket board in the cricket world.[19] The Indian national cricket team has also provided some of the greatest players to the world, the biggest example of which is Sachin Tendulkar. Indian cricket has a rich history. The Indian national team is currently ranked No. 1 in Tests, No. 2 in ODIs and at 2nd position in T20Is. India won two World Championship cups in 1983 under the captaincy of Kapil Dev and recently won in the year 2011 under the captaincy of Mahendra Singh Dhoni, which was won after a span of 28 years. They also won the World Championship of Cricket in 1985.

First class competitions[edit]

  • Ranji Trophy – It was founded as the 'Cricket Championship of India' at a meeting of the Board of Control for Cricket in India in July 1934. The first Ranji Trophy fixtures took place in the 1934–35 season. Syed Mohammed Hadi of Hyderabad was the first batsman to score a century in the tournament. The Trophy was donated by H. H. Sir Bhupendra Singh Mahinder Baha-dur, Maharajah of Patiala in memory of his late Highness Sir Ranjitsinhji Vibhaji of Nawanagar, affectionately called Ranjitsinhji. In the main, the Ranji Trophy is composed of teams representing the states that makeup India. The number of competing teams has increased over the years. Some states have more than one cricket team, e.g., Maharashtra and Gujarat. There are also teams for Railways and Services representing the armed forces. The various teams used to be grouped into zones – North, West, East, Central and South – and the initial matches were played on a league basis within the zones. The top two teams until 1991–92 and then the top three teams in the subsequent years from each zone then played in a national knock-out competition. Starting with the 2002–03 season, the zonal system was abandoned and a two-division structure was adopted with two teams being promoted from the plate league and two relegated from the elite league. If the knockout matches are not finished, they are decided on the first-inning lead.
  • Duleep Trophy – Named after Duleepsinhji, the Duleep Trophy competition, which is a first-class competition, was started by the Board of Control for Cricket in India in 1961–62 with the aim of providing a greater competitive edge in domestic cricket, because apart from the knock-out stages of the Ranji Trophy, that competition proved to be highly predictable, with Bombay winning the Ranji Trophy for fifteen consecutive years. The Duleep Trophy was also meant to help the selectors to assess the form of top cricketers playing against each other. The original format had five teams, which were drawn from the five zones (i.e. North, South, East, West and central) and played each other on a knock-out basis. From the 1993–94 season, the competition has been converted to a league format.
  • Irani Trophy – The Irani Trophy tournament was conceived during the 1959–60 season to mark the completion of 25 years of the Ranji Trophy championship and was named after the late Z. R. Irani, who was associated with the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) from its inception in 1928, till his death in 1970 and a keen patron of the game. The first match, played between the Ranji Trophy champions and the Rest of India was played in 1959–60. For the first few years, it was played at the tail end of the season. Realising the importance of the fixture, the BCCI moved it to the beginning of the season. Since 1965–66, it has traditionally heralded the start of the new domestic season. The Irani Trophy game ranks high in popularity and importance. It is one of the few domestic matches followed with keen interest by cricket lovers in the country. Leading players take part in the game, which has often been a sort of selection trial to pick the Indian team for foreign tours.

Limited overs competitions[edit]

  • Deodhar Trophy – Started in 1973–74 by Board of Control for Cricket in India, it is a one-day cricket competition in Indian domestic cricket. It was formerly contested by 5 zonal teams – North zone, South zone, East zone, West zone and Central zone. From 2015–16 to 2017–18, it was contested by the winners of the Vijay Hazare Trophy, India A and India B. Starting in 2018–19 it has featured India A, India B and India C.
  • NKP Salve Challenger Trophy – It was started as the Challenger series by the Board of Control for Cricket in India in 1994–95 and later named as NKP Salve Challenger Trophy in 1998–99. This tournament featured 3 teams: India senior, India A and India B playing each other in a round robin format. They were later renamed India Blue, India Red and India Green respectively. The tournament featured the top 36 players from across India. It was last contested in 2013–14.
  • Vijay Hazare Trophy – Named after the prolific Indian cricketer Vijay Hazare, the Trophy was started in 2002–03 as an attempt to bring the limited-overs game among a greater audience. The competition involves the state (and other) teams from the Ranji Trophy battling in a 50-over format. Since its conception, Tamil Nadu and Mumbai have won the trophy the most times (5). It is also dubbed as the Premier Cup by BCCI.
  • BCCI Corporate Trophy – BCCI have set up a 12 team inter-corporate tournament in 2009 that involves all top Indian cricketers. The tournament involves 50-over-a-side matches with the winner picking up Rs 1 crore and the runner up getting Rs 50 lakh. It was abolished after a few years.
  • Vijay Merchant Trophy - Under 16 youth State wise tournament.

Twenty20 competitions[edit]

  • Indian Premier League – In response to the rival ICL, the BCCI started the Twenty20 competition known as the Indian Premier League (IPL), which is regarded as the brainchild of Lalit Modi. This League was launched by BCCI in 2007–08 and received widespread recognition from around the country. The players were selected via the auctions and drafted into the city-based franchises. The first IPL season was held from 18 April 2008 to 1 June 2008 where underdogs Rajasthan Royals, led by Shane Warne, won the first title at the DY Patil Stadium in Navi Mumbai[20] Based on regional loyalties, the eight-team tournament brings a unique and popular team and player auction system hand-picking some of the best international players in the world and teaming them with Indian players, both domestic and international, in one arena. The total prize money for the IPL was $3 million.[20] The IPL is one of the most-attended cricket leagues in the world and ranks sixth among all sports leagues.[21] The IPL has also Americanized cricket by adding cheerleaders and creating a setting of non stop action similar to sporting events in the USA. The IPL tournament consists of 10 different city based franchises.[22]
  • Syed Mushtaq Ali Trophy – After India became another member of the ICC Twenty20 and played its first international T20 against South Africa, the BCCI launched its own state structure in 2006–07 season, with 27 Ranji teams divided in 5 Zones. The final was played between Punjab and Tamil Nadu, which the latter won by 2 wickets with 2 balls remaining, thereby becoming the only ever winner of this series. In this series, Rohit Sharma also became the only ever Indian to register a T20 century for Mumbai against Gujarat. The competition was later replaced by the franchise-based IPL. Played for the first time in the 2008–09 season, this is the first of its kind zonal T20 championship and the third overall in the Indian cricket season, which would see Ranji teams divided along zonal lines into two groups with the tournament culminating in the All India T20 final between the winners of the two groups for the Syed Mushtaq Ali Trophy. It was launched after the success of the IPL and the need of the BCCI to search for more talent in the growing regions of cricket.

In Twenty20, stronger crowd participation was seen than in other forms of the game. It has been greatly acknowledged by people and has made huge profits.

Youth competitions[edit]

  • Vinoo Mankad Trophy – A trophy tournament for under-19, in memories of famous cricketer Vinoo Mankad.
  • Yagnik Trophy – A tournament for inter-college, under the university level student, named after Dr. Yagnik, Gandhian and famous figure in Saurashtra.
  • Cooch Behar Trophy – An inter-state U-19 4-day matches tournament.

Women's domestic competitions[edit]

  • Women's Senior One Day Trophy – Started in season 2006–07, it is the women's List-A cricket tournament. Railways women has been the most dominant team, winning 10 out of the 11 tournaments. It was played in round-robin format at zonal level and the top performing team then playing in the super league. The format was changed in season 2013–14, since then it is played in 2 tiers, with states being divided in 5 groups, 2 in elite group and 3 in plate group. Finalists in the plate group, at the end of season are promoted to the elite group and 2 bottom most performing teams in the elite group are relegated to the plate group.
  • Women's Senior T20 Trophy – It is a women's Twenty20 competition. It is played between full members of BCCI. The inaugural tournament was held in the 2008–09 season. Since then it has taken place every year with 2015–16 being the 8th edition.[23]

List of domestic cricket leagues[edit]

Cricket is the staple game in India for several people of all ages. Here, young boys are seen playing a friendly game.

Defunct leagues[edit]


India has a plethora of international standards Cricket stadiums. The world's largest stadium, Narendra Modi Stadium, is located in India. Eden Gardens of Kolkata, the 3rd largest cricket stadium in the world, is situated in West Bengal. The domestic cricket governing bodies such as the Mumbai Cricket Association and the Maharashtra Cricket Association control cricket related activities and sanctioned tournaments in their respective regions. Each of a domestic cricket board that administrator cricket in that state. Also, regions, cities and Union Territories (UT) such as Vidharbha, Saurashtra and (former Princely state) Vadodara, Hyderabad and UT Pondicherry, Chandigarh respectively have cricket boards. The domestic boards are affiliated to BCCI, while district cricket boards in the country are affiliated to state boards. The country has lots of private cricket academies and clubs. The world's 3rd largest cricket arena being built in Jaipur.[citation needed] MRF Pace Foundation provide facilities to fast ballers.

In popular culture[edit]

Cricket is portrayed in Indian popular culture as an extremely important part of India's national identity.[6] It is frequently associated with a strong sense of patriotism and nationalism.[6]


Cricket has been portrayed many times in various Indian films. One such popular film is 83, a film produced by Reliance Entertainment and directed by Kabir Khan. It stars actor Ranveer Singh as India national team captain Kapil Dev, known as one of India's greatest bowlers in cricketing history. The film is of the historical genre of Indian films and covers the Indian national team's underdog victory in the 1983 Cricket World Cup. 83 was received well by audiences and critics alike, scoring 80% on Rotten Tomatoes[25] and 7.5 on IMDb.[26] [unreliable source?] Many reviews appreciated the film's emphasis on national pride and dramatic storytelling of India's famous victory in 1983, although some criticized the film for unnecessarily over-dramatizing parts of the story.[26][27]


Indian national cricket players are viewed as some of the highest-profile celebrities in India, especially Sachin Tendulkar, who some attribute god-like status to.[28] Towards the end of his sporting career, Tendulkar began to pursue a political career, being sworn in as an MP to Rajya Sabha, India's upper house of Parliament in 2012,[29] one year before retiring officially in 2013. While Tendulkar has not officially associated himself with any political party, various literature have claimed that he started to become a Hindu-centric role model after the turn of the 21st century during his cricketing career,[28][30] promoting similar messages as the BJP, India's political party that is associated strongly with Hindu nationalism.

See also[edit]


  1. Downing, Clement (1737). William Foster (ed.). A History of the Indian Wars. London.
  2. "Largest attendance at a five-day Test match". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
  3. "Top 10 Sports Leagues With Highest Average Attendance". 11 February 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
  4. "Ipsos – Nobody's unpredictable". Archived from the original on 14 April 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Wigmore, Tim (5 October 2023). "Cricket World Cup embarrassment as England v New Zealand played in empty 134,000-seat stadium". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 8 October 2023.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Nair, Nisha (1 June 2011). "Cricket obsession in India: through the lens of identity theory". Sport in Society. 14 (5): 569–580. doi:10.1080/17430437.2011.574351. ISSN 1743-0437.
  7. Downing, Clement (1978). A History of the Indian Wars. p. 189. OCLC 5905776.
  8. Drew, John (6 December 2021). "The Christmas the Kolis took to cricket". The Daily Star. Retrieved 5 December 2021.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 "BBC World Service | Story of Cricket". BBC. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
  10. "Final: India v Pakistan at Johannesburg, Sep 24, 2007 | Cricket Scorecard". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
  11. "Team India at T20 Cricket World Cup". Archived from the original on 7 March 2018. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  12. "Full Scorecard of India vs New Zealand 1st Test 2016/17 - Score Report |". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 10 August 2021.
  13. 13.0 13.1 "Is the 'Game' in Cricket Still the Centre of the Sport?". Economic and Political Weekly. 12 July 2019.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 "Commercialization of Cricket". Focus Global Reporter. 5 November 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2023.
  15. "Discover Is IPL Killing Cricket in India? Has the IPL destroyed the soul of Indian cricket?". 11 September 2023. Retrieved 13 October 2023.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 "The Politics of Cricket: BCCI's Chokehold Over the Sport and the Fate of Many Nations". International Relations Review. Retrieved 28 April 2023.
  17. "Record-setting Raj top of the women's charts". ESPN Cricinfo. Archived from the original on 13 July 2017. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  18. "Mithali Raj becomes leading run-scorer in women's ODI cricket; surpasses England's Charlotte Edwards". Indian Express. 12 July 2017. Archived from the original on 13 July 2017. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  19. "Complimentary passes restricted for Delhi Test". ESPNcricinfo. 21 November 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
  20. 20.0 20.1 "T20 History: History of T20 Cricket". Archived from the original on 7 April 2010. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
  21. "Top 10 most watched sports leagues in the world". 11 January 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  22. Shankar Raghuraman (19 May 2022). "IPL Playoffs 2022: KKR knocked out, who will join GT and LSG in the final four? - All playoffs possibilities in 6 points". The Times of India. Retrieved 23 May 2022.
  23. "The Home of CricketArchive".
  24. Maharashtra cricket association {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  25. "83 - Rotten Tomatoes". Retrieved 13 May 2023.
  26. 26.0 26.1 '83 (2021) - IMDb, retrieved 13 May 2023
  27. Verma, Amit; Sharma, Abhishika; Srivastava, Amitabh (2 January 2023). "Making Indian cricket history: review of the film 83 (2021)". Media Asia. 50 (1): 141–144. doi:10.1080/01296612.2022.2099637. ISSN 0129-6612.
  28. 28.0 28.1 Nalapat, Abilash; Parker, Andrew (December 2005). "Sport, Celebrity and Popular Culture: Sachin Tendulkar, Cricket and Indian Nationalisms". International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 40 (4): 433–446. doi:10.1177/1012690205065750. ISSN 1012-6902.
  29. "Sachin Tendulkar sworn in as MP". Arab News. Retrieved 13 May 2023.
  30. Kavoori, Anandam. "Cricket, Media and the Nation: An Autoethnographic Exploration of Three Mediated Moments in Indian Cricket" (PDF). Global Media Journal - Arabian Edition. 3 (3): 1–14 – via Amity University Dubai.

Further reading[edit]

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