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Coordinates: 10°S 52°W / 10°S 52°W / -10; -52

Federative Republic of Brazil

República Federativa do Brasil  (Portuguese)
Flag of Brazil
Coat of arms of Brazil
Coat of arms
Motto: Ordem e Progresso  (Portuguese)
"Order and Progress"
Anthem: Hino Nacional Brasileiro (Portuguese)
"Brazilian National Anthem"

Flag anthemHino à Bandeira Nacional (Portuguese)[1]
"National Flag Anthem"
National seal
Location of Brazil
15°47′S 47°52′W / 15.783°S 47.867°W / -15.783; -47.867
Largest citySão Paulo
23°33′S 46°38′W / 23.550°S 46.633°W / -23.550; -46.633
Official language
and national language
Ethnic groups
88.8% Christianity
—64.6% Roman Catholic
—22.2% Protestant
—2.0% Other Christian
8.0% No religion
2.0% Spiritism
1.2% Other religions
GovernmentFederal presidential constitutional republic
• President
Jair Bolsonaro
Hamilton Mourão
Arthur Lira
Rodrigo Pacheco
Luiz Fux
LegislatureNational Congress
Federal Senate
Chamber of Deputies
• Declared
7 September 1822
29 August 1825
• Republic
15 November 1889
5 October 1988
• Total
8,515,767 km2 (3,287,956 sq mi) (5th)
• Water (%)
• 2019 estimate
210,147,125[7] (6th)
• Density
25/km2 (64.7/sq mi) (200th)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $3.328 trillion[8] (8th)
• Per capita
Increase $15,642[8] (84th)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.491 trillion[8] (13th)
• Per capita
Increase $7,010[8] (87th)
Gini (2019)Positive decrease 53.4[9]
high · 10th
HDI (2019)Increase 0.765[10]
high · 84th
CurrencyReal (R$) (BRL)
Time zoneUTC−2 to −5 (BRT)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (CE)
Mains electricity220 V, 60 Hz and 127 V, 60 Hz
Driving sideright
Calling code+55
ISO 3166 codeBR

Brazil (Portuguese: Brasil; Brazilian Portuguese: [bɾaˈziw]),[nt 4] officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: About this soundRepública Federativa do Brasil),[11] is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles)[12] and with over 211 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the sixth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populous city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states and the Federal District. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas;[13][14] it is also one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world;[15] as well as the most populous Roman Catholic-majority country.

Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers (4,655 mi).[16] It borders all other countries in South America except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area.[17] Its Amazon basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, and extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats.[16] This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, and is the subject of significant global interest, as environmental degradation through processes like deforestation has direct impacts on global issues like climate change and biodiversity loss.

Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808 when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic.[18] Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[19]

Brazil is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank[20] and a newly industrialized country,[21] with the largest share of global wealth in South America. It is considered an advanced emerging economy,[22] having the twelfth largest GDP in the world by nominal, and eighth by PPP measures.[23][24] It is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years.[25] Brazil is a regional and middle power,[26][27][28][26][28] and is also classified as an emerging power.[29][30][31][32] However, the country maintains high amounts of corruption, crime and social inequality. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.


The word "Brazil" likely comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.[33] In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil commonly given the etymology "red like an ember," formed from brasa ("ember") and the suffix -il (from -iculum or -ilium).[34] As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was highly valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil.[35] Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples (mostly Tupi) along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders (mostly Portuguese, but also French) in return for assorted European consumer goods.[36]

The official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross" (Terra da Santa Cruz),[37] but European sailors and merchants commonly called it simply the "Land of Brazil" (Terra do Brasil) because of the brazilwood trade.[38] The popular appellation eclipsed and eventually supplanted the official Portuguese name. Some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots."[39]

In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama". This was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees."[40]



The official language of Brazil is Portuguese. Brazil is the only country in South America that speaks Portuguese.

Some people in Brazil speak German dialects. That came from German immigrants. 2% of Brazilians speak German as their first language. Yiddish is spoken by the elders of the Jewish community.

Other people in Brazil speak their ancestors' languages like Italian, Japanese, Polish, Ukrainian, French, Russian, Lithuanian, Chinese, Dutch and Korean. Spanish or "Portunhol", a mix of Portuguese and Castilian (Spanish) is spoken at some of the borders. Indigenous languages as Guarani and Aymará are the first languages of a small number of Brazilians.


Brazil has the world's largest rainforest, the Amazon Rainforest. It makes up 40% of the country's land area. Brazil also has other types of land, including a type of savanna called cerrado, and a dry plant region named caatinga.

The most important cities are Brasília (the capital), Belém, Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Florianópolis, Fortaleza, Goiânia, Manaus, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, São Paulo (the biggest city) and Vitória. Other cities are at List of largest cities in Brazil.

Brazil is divided into 26 states plus the Federal District in five regions (north, south, northeast, southeast and centre-west):

  • North: Acre, Amazonas, Rondônia, Roraima, Pará, Amapá, Tocantins
  • Northeast: Maranhão, Pernambuco, Ceará, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Alagoas, Sergipe, Bahia
  • Centre-West: Goiás, Mato grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Distrito Federal/ Federal District
  • Southeast: São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais
  • South: Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul

The country is the fifth largest in the world by area. It is known for its many rainforests and jungles. It is next to every country in South America except Chile and Ecuador. The name Brazil comes from a tree named brazilwood.


Brazil is the largest country in South America and fifth largest in the world.[41] Its people are called Brazilians or Brasileiros (In Portuguese). The people include citizens of Portuguese or other European descent who mainly live in the South and Southeast, Africans, Native Americans, Arabs, Gypsies and people of Mixed ancestry. Brazil also has the largest Japanese community outside Japan.[42] Other East Asians follow the Japanese group.The Amazon River flows through Brazil, it is the 2nd longest river in the world (after the Nile).The current President of Brazil is Jair Messias Bolsonaro. Two major sporting events were held in Brazil recently: the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro.

Related pages[edit]


  1. Exército Brasileiro. "Hino à Bandeira Nacional" (in português). Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
  2. "Demographics". Brazilian Government. Archived from the original on 17 November 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
  3. "Caracteristicas da População e dos Domicílios do Censo Demográfico 2010 – Cor ou raça" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 February 2012. Retrieved 7 April 2012.
  4. "South America :: BRAZIL". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  5. IBGE – Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics). 2010 Census. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
  6. "2010 Population Census – General characteristics of population, religion and persons with disabilities (Portuguese)". (in português). 16 November 2012. Archived from the original on 16 November 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  7. Silva, Antonio Carlos Coutinho Gouvea da. "Projeções da População | Estatísticas | IBGE :: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística". (in português do Brasil). Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2021". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 8 April 2021.
  9. "GINI index (World Bank estimate) – Brazil". World Bank. Retrieved 8 April 2021.
  10. "2019 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2019. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  11. José María Bello (1966). A History of Modern Brazil: 1889–1964. Stanford University Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-8047-0238-6.
  12. "Área Territorial Brasileira" [Brazilian Territorial Area] (in português). Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Archived from the original on 15 January 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2018. Para a superfície do Brasil foi obtido o valor de 8.515.759,090 km2, publicado no DOU nº 124 de 30/06/2017, conforme Resolução Nº 02, de 29 de junho de 2017.
  13. Philander, S. George (2012). Encyclopedia of Global Warming and Climate Change, Second Edition. Vol. Vol. 1 (Second ed.). Los Angeles: Princeton University. p. 148. ISBN 978-1-4129-9261-9. OCLC 970592418. {{cite book}}: |volume= has extra text (help)
  14. Vallance, Monique M. (2012). "Preface and Observations on Contemporary Brazil". In Crocitti, John J. (ed.). Brazil Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic. Contributing editor Monique M. Vallance. ABC-CLIO. p. xxiii. ISBN 978-0-313-34672-9. OCLC 787850982.
  15. "Os migrantes de hoje". BBC Brasil. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  16. 16.0 16.1 "Geography of Brazil". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 1 May 2018. Geography > Coastline. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  17. "Brazil – Land". Permanent Missions. United Nations. Geography. Archived from the original on 23 October 2014.
  18. "Brazilian Federal Constitution" (in português). Presidency of the Republic. 1988. Retrieved 3 June 2008. "Brazilian Federal Constitution". 2007. Archived from the original on 28 September 2018. Retrieved 3 June 2008. Unofficial translate
  19. "UNESCO World Heritage Centre — World Heritage List". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
  20. "Country and Lending Groups". World Bank. Archived from the original on 18 March 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2011. Uppermiddle Income defined as a per capita income between $3,976 – $12,275
  21. "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  22. "FTSE Country Classification" (PDF). FTSE Group. September 2018. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
  23. "International Monetary Fund".
  24. "CIA – The World Factbook – Country Comparisons – GDP (purchasing power parity)". Retrieved 25 January 2011.
  25. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Neilson102
  26. 26.0 26.1 Sean W. Burges (2016). Latin America and the Shifting Sands of Globalization. Routledge. pp. 114–15. ISBN 978-1-317-69658-2.
  27. M. Schaefer; J. Poffenbarger (2014). The Formation of the BRICS and its Implication for the United States: Emerging Together. Springer. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-137-38794-3.
  28. 28.0 28.1 Gardini, Gian Luca (2016). "Brazil: What Rise of What Power?". Bulletin of Latin American Research. 35: 5–19. doi:10.1111/blar.12417.
  29. FRIDE: The international arena and emerging powers: stabilising or destabilising forces? Archived 15 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Susanne Gratius, April 2008
  30. Peter Collecott (29 October 2011). "Brazil's Quest for Superpower Status". The Diplomatic Courier. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
  31. Clendenning, Alan (17 April 2008). "Booming Brazil could be world power soon". USA Today. The Associated Press. p. 2. Retrieved 12 December 2008.
  32. Jorge Dominguez; Byung Kook Kim (2013). Between Compliance and Conflict: East Asia Latin America and the New Pax Americana. Center for International Affairs, Harvard University. pp. 98–99. ISBN 978-1-136-76983-2.
  33. Fausto, Boris (1999). A Concise History of Brazil. Cambridge University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-521-56526-4.
  34. Jon S. Vincent. (2003). Culture and Customs of Brazil. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-313-30495-8.
  35. Richard P. Tucker (2007). Insatiable Appetite: The Ecological Degradation of the Tropical World. University of Michigan. p. 186. ISBN 978-0-7425-5365-1.
  36. Wayne E. Lee (2011). Empires and Indigenes: Intercultural Alliance, Imperial Expansion, and Warfare in the Early Modern World. NYU Press. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-8147-6527-2.
  37. Daly, Charles P. (1880). "Maps and Map-making Before Mercator". The Popular Science Monthly. Bonnier Corporation. 473–495, see page 493. ISSN 0161-7370.
  38. Jean de Léry (1990). History of a Voyage to the Land of Brazil, Otherwise Called America. University of California Press. p. 242. ISBN 978-0-520-91380-6.
  39. Jayme A. Sokolow. (2003). The Great Encounter: Native Peoples and European Settlers in the Americas, 1492–1800. M.E. Sharpe. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-7656-0982-3.
  40. Maria Herrera-Sobek (2012). Celebrating Latino Folklore. ABC-CLIO. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-313-34340-7.
  41. "The 50 largest (area) countries in the world". GeoHive. Archived from the original on 19 November 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  42. Veselinovic, Milena (24 July 2013). "Mixing sushi and samba - meet the Japanese Brazilians". CNN. Retrieved 10 December 2016.

External links[edit]

Cite error: <ref> tags exist for a group named "nt", but no corresponding <references group="nt"/> tag was found

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